Low salicylic acid levels led to increased growth, as well as to smaller abscisic acid levels and reduced damage to PSII (as indicated by F(v)/F(m) ratios) during the reproductive stages in rosette leaves of NahG transgenic lines and sid2 mutants, compared with wild-type plants. Furthermore, salicylic acid deficiency highly influenced seed yield and composition. Seed production increased by 4.4-fold and 3.5-fold in NahG transgenic lines and sid2 mutants, respectively,
compared to the wild type. Salicylic acid deficiency also improved seed composition in terms check details of antioxidant vitamin concentrations, seeds of salicylic acid-deficient plants showing higher levels of alpha- and gamma-tocopherol (vitamin E) and beta-carotene (pro-vitamin A) than seeds of wild-type plants. Seeds of salicylic acid-deficient plants also showed higher nitrogen concentrations than
seeds of wild-type plants. It is concluded that (i) the sid2 gene, which encodes for isochorismate synthase, plays a central role in salicylic acid biosynthesis during plant development in A. thaliana, (ii) salicylic acid plays a role in the regulation of growth, senescence, and seed production, (iii) there is a cross-talk between salicylic acid and other phytohormones during plant development, and (iv) the concentrations of antioxidant AZD3965 vitamins in seeds may be influenced by the endogenous levels of salicylic acid in plants.”
“Objective To understand factors influencing the process of adjustment to a diagnosis of glioma. Methods Twenty-six patients and 23 relatives took part in 80 in-depth qualitative interviews conducted at five key stages: before formal diagnosis, at start of treatment, on completion of treatment, 6months post treatment, and
post bereavement. Results High levels of distress were reported, particularly preceding and following diagnosis. Many participants described mTOR inhibitor lack of specific information in the early part of their illness and a lack of clarity about what was wrong and what was going to happen next. They often desired more procedural information, as well as information about their condition and treatments available, although there was variation in the timing of when people were ready to hear this. Receiving reassurance and support was essential to patients and their relatives to help them come to terms with their illness. This need was particularly acute during the early phase of the illness when distress and uncertainty were at a peak and lessened over time as people adjusted to their illness. Conclusions Offering suitable information about what to expect early and frequently in a supportive way is much appreciated by patients. There is an important balance between ensuring that patients and their families are fully informed and fostering adaptive coping that allows for hope. Copyright (c) 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.