Our findings suggest that presynaptic M-2 receptors might be an important
modulator of the stress circuit and hence a novel target for drug development. (c) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Nitric oxide (NO) is a key regulator of cardiovascular functions including the control of vascular tone, anti-inflammatory properties of the endothelium, cardiac contractility, and thrombocyte activation and aggregation. Numerous experimental data support the view selleck chemicals that NO not only acts via cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-dependent mechanisms but also modulates protein function by nitrosation, nitrosylation, glutathiolation, and nitration, respectively. To understand how NO regulates all of these diverse biological processes on the molecular level a comprehensive assessment of NO-mediated cGMP-dependent and independent targets is required. RG-7388 research buy Novel proteomic approaches
allow the simultaneous identification of large quantities of proteins modified in an NO-dependent manner and thereby will considerably deepen our understanding of the role NO plays in cardiovascular physiology and pathophysiology.”
“The global increase in the number of applications involving therapeutic plasmid DNA (pDNA) is creating a need for large amounts of highly stable and purified molecules. One of the main obstacles during the developmental stages of a new therapeutic DNA molecule involves tackling a wide array of structural instability events occurring in/with pDNA and therefore assuring its structural integrity. This review focuses on major instability determinants in pDNA. Their elimination
could be considered an important step towards the design of safer and more efficient plasmid molecules. Particular emphasis is given to mutations triggered by the presence of repeated sequences, instability events occurring during plasmid intracellular routing, instability mediated by insertion sequences and host genome integration.”
“Extant members of the cat family (Felidae) have been considered behaviourally and morphologically conservative, i.e., despite great differences in size, there is relatively little variation in either the shape of the felid skull and dentition across species, or in the way in which these structures are used to kill and Cepharanthine dismember prey. Consequently felids have been considered an appropriate focus for a number of investigations into the influence of allometry on craniomandibular mechanics and morphology. However, although previous treatments have considered the role of shape, they have not investigated the influence of differences in the distribution of relatively stiff cortical and more compliant cancellous bone on performance. Here, using models that incorporate material properties for both cortical and cancellous bone, we apply three-dimensional (3D) finite element analysis (FEA) to models representing the skulls of seven extant felid species.