“The oxidation state of Earth’s upper mantle both influenc

“The oxidation state of Earth’s upper mantle both influences and records mantle evolution, but systematic fine-scale variations in upper mantle

oxidation state have not previously been recognized in mantle-derived lavas from mid-ocean ridges. Through a global survey of mid-ocean ridge basalt glasses, we show that mantle oxidation click here state varies systematically as a function of mantle source composition. Negative correlations between Fe3+/Sigma Fe ratios and indices of mantle enrichment-such as Sr-87/Sr-86, Pb-208/Pb-204, Ba/La, and Nb/Zr ratios-reveal that enriched mantle is more reduced than depleted mantle. Because carbon may act to simultaneously reduce iron and generate melts that share geochemical traits with our reduced samples, we propose that carbon creates magmas at ridges that are reduced and enriched.”
“Water is perhaps the most important molecule in the solar system, and determining its origin and distribution in planetary interiors has important A-1210477 implications for understanding the evolution of planetary bodies. Here we report in situ measurements of the isotopic composition of hydrogen dissolved in primitive volcanic glass and olivine-hosted melt inclusions recovered from the Moon by the Apollo 15 and 17 missions. After consideration of cosmic-ray spallation and degassing processes, our results

demonstrate that lunar magmatic water has an isotopic composition that is indistinguishable from that of the bulk water in carbonaceous chondrites and similar to that of terrestrial water, implying a common origin for the Non-specific serine/threonine protein kinase water contained in the interiors of Earth and the Moon.”
“Formation of cirrus clouds depends on the availability

of ice nuclei to begin condensation of atmospheric water vapor. Although it is known that only a small fraction of atmospheric aerosols are efficient ice nuclei, the critical ingredients that make those aerosols so effective have not been established. We have determined in situ the composition of the residual particles within cirrus crystals after the ice was sublimated. Our results demonstrate that mineral dust and metallic particles are the dominant source of residual particles, whereas sulfate and organic particles are underrepresented, and elemental carbon and biological materials are essentially absent. Further, composition analysis combined with relative humidity measurements suggests that heterogeneous freezing was the dominant formation mechanism of these clouds.”
“Epistatic interactions between mutant sites in the same protein can exert a strong influence on pathways of molecular evolution. We performed protein engineering experiments that revealed pervasive epistasis among segregating amino acid variants that contribute to adaptive functional variation in deer mouse hemoglobin (Hb). Amino acid mutations increased or decreased Hb-O-2 affinity depending on the allelic state of other sites.

Microinjection of monosodium glutamate into the IVN also inhibite

Microinjection of monosodium glutamate into the IVN also inhibited the JOR ipsilaterally. These results suggest that the VN is involved in modulation of the JOR and plays an important role in controlling the jaw movements. (C) 2009 Elsevier

Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) gene UL12 encodes a conserved alkaline DNase with orthologues in all herpesviruses. The HSV-1 UL12 gene gives rise to two separately promoted 3′ coterminal mRNAs which encode distinct but related proteins: full-length UL12 and UL12.5, an amino-terminally truncated form that initiates at UL12 codon 127. Full-length UL12 localizes to the nucleus where it promotes the generation of mature viral genomes from larger precursors. CA-4948 datasheet In contrast, UL12.5 is predominantly AZD1390 manufacturer mitochondrial and acts to trigger degradation of the mitochondrial genome early during infection. We examined the

basis for these very different subcellular localization patterns. We confirmed an earlier report that the amino-terminal region of full-length UL12 is required for nuclear localization and provide evidence that multiple nuclear localization determinants are present in this region. In addition, we demonstrate that mitochondrial localization of UL12.5 relies largely on sequences located between UL12 residues 185 and 245 (UL12.5 residues 59 to 119). This region contains a sequence that resembles a typical mitochondrial matrix localization signal, and mutations that reduce the positive charge of this element severely impaired mitochondrial localization. Consistent with matrix localization, UL12.5 displayed a detergent extraction profile indistinguishable from that of the matrix protein cyclophilin D. Mitochondrial DNA depletion required the exonuclease Protein kinase N1 activity of UL12.5, consistent

with the idea that UL12.5 located within the matrix acts directly to destroy the mitochondrial genome. These results clarify how two highly related viral proteins are targeted to different subcellular locations with distinct functional consequences.”
“Intestinal electrical stimulation (IES) has been shown to produce inhibitory effects on gastric contractions, gastric emptying, food intake and body weight in rats and dogs, suggesting a therapeutic potential for obesity. The aims of this study were (1) to test the hypothesis that the neurons in the VMH are involved in the central mechanisms of IES treatment for obesity; (2) to compare the effects of IES at the duodenum and IES at the ileum on neuronal activities of the VMH; (3) to better understand if the neuronal activity modulated by IES was mediated via the vagal pathway. Extracellular potentials of neurons in the VMH were recorded in 18 anesthetized rats.

Patients and methods: A total of 60 newborn pups from 5 time-mate

Patients and methods: A total of 60 newborn pups from 5 time-mated Sprague-Dawley pregnant rats were divided equally into

5 groups as follows: NEC (subjected to NEC), NEC + Melatonin, NEC + Prostaglandin, NEC + Prostaglandin + Melatonin and control. These animals were fed with hyperosmolar formula 3 times daily and subjected to 100% CO2 inhalation for 10 min, +4 degrees C cold exposure for 5 min, and 97% O-2 for 5 min twice daily to induce NEC. This procedure was applied to the pups for 3 days.

Results: Napabucasin The macroscopic scoring, intestinal injury scoring and apoptosis index scoring were all found to be significantly lower in NEC + Prostaglandin + Melatonin group compared with NEC group. Anti-oxidant enzyme activities were significantly higher, whereas lipid peroxidation was significantly lower in NEC + Prostaglandin + Melatonin group compared with NEC group.


This combination therapy showed cytoprotective and healing effects on mucosa in the intestinal tissue of rat pups in necrotizing enterocolitis model. Therefore, this therapy might also show benefit in preterm infants with NEC. After confirmation of this data by other this website clinical and experimental studies, it may be a novel therapeutic option for the prevention of NEC in preterm infants. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Background: HIV-1 Clade C (Subtype C; HIV-1C) is responsible for greater than 50% of infections

worldwide. Unlike clade B HIV-1 (Subtype B; HIV-1B), which Methocarbamol is known to cause HIV associated dementia (HAD) in approximately 15% to 30% of the infected individuals, HIV-1C has been linked with lower prevalence of HAD (0 to 6%) in India and Ethiopia. However, recent studies report a higher prevalence of HAD in South Africa, Zambia and Botswana, where HIV-1C infections predominate. Therefore, we examined whether Southern African HIV-1C is genetically distinct and investigated its neurovirulence. HIV-1 Tat protein is a viral determinant of neurocognitive dysfunction. Therefore, we focused our study on the variations seen in tat gene and its contribution to HIV associated neuropathogenesis.

Results: A phylogenetic analysis of tat sequences of Southern African (South Africa and Zambia) HIV isolates with those from the geographically distant Southeast Asian (India and Bangladesh) isolates revealed that Southern African tat sequences are distinct from Southeast Asian isolates. The proportion of HIV – 1C variants with an intact dicysteine motif in Tat protein (C30C31) was significantly higher in the Southern African countries compared to Southeast Asia and broadly paralleled the high incidence of HAD in these countries.

5 T for group II EPSPs

5 T for group II EPSPs PX-478 research buy and above 10 T for group III EPSPs; group I EPSPs were maximal with a stimulus strength around 2 T, group II EPSPs were maximal with 5-8 T; latencies to the group I incoming volley were below 1 ms for monosynaptic group I EPSPs, around 3 ms for polysynaptic group II EPSPs and above 4 ms for polysynaptic group III EPSPs. In contrast to reflex actions in the cat, monosynaptic gastrocnemius-soleus reflexes were facilitated by conditioning stimulation of the peroneal, sural and tibial nerves, i.e. by a variety of different, probably flexor reflex afferents. This

facilitation persisted after high lumbar spinalisation indicating an independency to supraspinal influences. Nociceptive muscle afferents facilitated the peroneal monosynaptic reflex while nociceptive cutaneous afferents from selleck kinase inhibitor the foot sole inhibited the ipsilateral but facilitated the contralateral peroneal reflex. (c) 2013 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society.”
“The biological underpinnings of schizophrenic polydipsia are poorly understood.

This study is aimed at fulfilling the requisites of an experimental model of this syndrome through the quinpirole (QNP) induction of non-regulatory drinking in rats.


a first experiment, clozapine (10 and 40 mg/kg p.o.) was substituted for haloperidol during the last 5 days of 10 days QNP (0.5 mg/kg i.p.) administration and water intake measured at 5 h. In a second experiment, animals treated with QNP alone or in combination with clozapine were assessed for water intake Cyclin-dependent kinase 3 and prepulse inhibition (PPI). Expression of genes coding for the dopaminergic D2 receptor, as well as for the early genes BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor) and c-Fos in prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and striatum was also evaluated.

Clozapine prevented QNP-induced drinking at 10 and 40 mg/kg, but only at 40 mg/kg when it was substituted for haloperidol. In the second experiment, QNP-treated rats showed both non-regulatory drinking and PPI disruption. Both these effects were prevented by clozapine

40 mg/kg. QNP-reduced BDNF expression in the hippocampus and increased c-Fos in the prefrontal cortex. This effect was prevented by clozapine. Given by itself, clozapine reduced the expression of both D2 receptors and BDNF in the prefrontal cortex and striatum.

The present study lends further support to the hypothesis that non-regulatory drinking induced by QNP in rats is a robust and reliable pharmacological effect that might model psychotic polydipsia also in its sensitivity to clozapine.”
“Infectious salmon anemia (ISA) is a World Organization for Animal Health (OIE)-listed disease of farmed Atlantic salmon, characterized by slowly developing anemia and circulatory disturbances. The disease is caused by ISA virus (ISAV) in the Orthomyxoviridae family; hence, it is related to influenza.

Psychosis was measured using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale a

Psychosis was measured using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale and perceptual alterations were measured using the Clinician Administered Dissociative Symptoms Scale before and after iomazenil administration. These data were compared with the effects of

iomazenil in healthy subjects (n = 20). Iomazenil produced increases in psychotic symptoms and perceptual alterations in schizophrenia see more patients, but not in healthy controls. The greater vulnerability of schizophrenia patients to the effects of iomazenil relative to controls provides further support for the GABA-deficit hypothesis of schizophrenia. Neuropsychopharmacology (2011) 36, 677-683; doi:10.1038/npp.2010.198; published online 10 November 2010″
“Alterations in white matter integrity of several cortical and subcortical circuits have been reported in relation to unipolar major depressive disorder. It is not selleck screening library clear whether these white matter changes precede the onset of illness. In all, 13 adolescent volunteers with no personal or

family history of a psychiatric disorder (controls) and 18 adolescent volunteers with no personal history of a psychiatric illness including depression, but who were at high risk for developing unipolar depression by virtue of parental depression (high-risk youth), underwent diffusion tensor imaging studies. An automated tract-based spatial statistics method, a whole-brain voxel-by-voxel analysis, was used to analyze the scans. Population average diffusion parameter values were also calculated for each tract. Adolescents at high risk for unipolar depression had lower fractional anisotropy (FA) values in the left cingulum, splenium of the corpus callosum, superior longitudinal fasciculi, uncinate, and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculi than did controls. Altered white matter integrity in healthy adolescents at familial risk for unipolar depression suggests that it might serve as a vulnerability marker for the illness. Neuropsychopharmacology (2011) 36, 684-691; doi:10.1038/npp.2010.199; published online 17 November 2010″
“Drug-metabolizing cytochrome P450 (CYPs) enzymes are expressed in the liver,

as well as in extrahepatic tissues such as the brain. Here we show for the first time that drug metabolism by Benzatropine a CYP within the brain, illustrated using CYP2B and the anesthetic propofol (2, 6-diisopropylphenol, Diprivan), can meaningfully alter the pharmacological response to a CNS acting drug. CYP2B is expressed in the brains of animals and humans, and this CYP isoform is able to metabolize centrally acting substrates such as propofol, ecstasy, and serotonin. Rats were given intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) injections of vehicle, C8-xanthate, or 8-methoxypsoralen (CYP2B mechanism-based inhibitors) and then tested for sleep time following propofol (80 mg/kg intraperitoneally). Both inhibitors significantly increased sleep-time (1.8- to 2-fold) and brain propofol levels, while having no effect on plasma propofol levels.

Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of IBRO “
“The understa

Published by Elsevier Ltd. on behalf of IBRO.”
“The understanding that other people’s emotional states depend on the fulfilment of their intention is fundamentally important for responding adequately to others. Psychopathic patients show severe deficits in responding adequately to other people’s emotion The present study explored whether these

impairments are associated with deficits in the ability to infer others’ emotional Oligomycin A mw states. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), identical cartoon stories, depicting a subject whose intention was fulfilled or not fulfilled, were presented to 14 psychopathic patients and 14 non-psychopathic patients The participants should indicate the protagonist’s emotional state. Additionally, a non-mentalizing control condition was presented. The two groups showed no behavioural differences But

in non-psychopathic patients GDC-0449 concentration emotion attribution was associated with increased activity of the mirror neuron system, the bilateral supramarginal gyrus and the superior frontal gyrus In contrast psychopathic patients showed increased activation of regions associated with outcome monitoring and attention, such as the orbitofrontal cortex, the medial frontal cortex and temporo-parietal areas. The results emphasize that although psychopathic patients show no deficits in reasoning about other people’s emotion if an explicit evaluation is demanded, they use divergent neural processing strategies that are related to more rational, outcome-oriented processes (C) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights Liothyronine Sodium reserved”
“Members of the genus Marinomonas in the Gammaproteobacteria are broadly distributed in marine environments where they could be infected by bacteriophages. Here we report the genome sequence of bacteriophage P12026 that can lytically infect bacterial strain IMCC12026, a member of the genus Marinomonas. To our knowledge, this is

the first genome sequence of a lytic bacteriophage infecting the genus Marinomonas.”
“General anesthesia is occasionally associated with postoperative complications such as sleep disorder, drowsiness, or mood alterations. Hippocampal acetylcholine (ACh), the extracellular level of which increases during the dark (active) phase and decreases during the light (rest) phase in rats, is thought to be associated with locomotor activity and be crucial for learning and memory. Propofol, an intravenous anesthetic, is known to shift the circadian rhythms of physiological parameters including locomotor activity and body temperature in both rodents and humans, while the effects of volatile anesthetics on the circadian rhythm largely remain unclear. The present study examined the effects of isoflurane anesthesia on the diurnal changes in hippocampal ACh release and locomotor activity in rats.

16; 95% CI: 1 01-1 34) In the subgroup analyses based on ethnici

16; 95% CI: 1.01-1.34). In the subgroup analyses based on ethnicities, no significant elevated risk was associated

with MDM2 SNP309 genotypes Bortezomib found in Asian and Europeans. No significant increased risk was associated with MDM2 SNP309 genotypes found in ever smokers. MDM2 SNP309 GG genotype had an approximate 36% enhanced risk of lung cancer development with statistical significance in never smokers (OR = 1.36; 95% CI: 1.10-1.68). Although some bias cannot be excluded, this meta-analysis supports the view that MDM2 SNP309 gene is a low-penetrance susceptible gene in the development of lung cancer, and the relationship of MDM2 SNP309 and lung cancer is stronger for never smokers.”
“Neuronal nitric oxide synthases (nNOS) is distributed throughout the central nervous system (CNS) and has been proposed to modulate neuronal activity in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS). Here,

we investigated whether the activation of nNOS is involved in insulin-induced cardiovascular responses in the NTS. Insulin (100 IU/ml) was unilaterally microinjected into the NTS, and the cardiovascular effects were evaluated PXD101 before and after microinjection of the nNOS inhibitors 7-nitroindazole (7-NI) (5 pmol) and N(5)-(1-imino-3-butenyl)-l-omithine (vinyl-L-NIO) (600 pmol). Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses were performed to determine nNOS phosphorylation levels after insulin or phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002 microinjection into the NTS. Unilateral

microinjection of insulin into the NTS produced prominent depressor and bradycardic effects in WKY rats. Pretreatment with the nNOS inhibitors 7-NI and Vinyl-L-NIO attenuated the cardiovascular response evoked by insulin in Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. Moreover, Western blot analysis showed a significant increase in nNOS (16.5 +/- 0.4-fold; P<0.05; n=4) phosphorylation Thymidine kinase after insulin injection, whereas the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 abolished the insulin-induced effects. In situ nNOS phosphorylation was found to be increased in the NTS after insulin injection. Furthermore, co-immunoprecipitation assay showed Akt and nNOS can bind to each other as detected by phospho-Akts(S473) and phospho-nNOS(S1416) antibodies. In vitro kinase assay showed insulin activated Akt can directly phosphorylate nNOS(S1416). These results demonstrated that nNOS may couple with the activation of the insulin receptor, via the liberation of NO, in order to participate in central cardiovascular regulation of WKY rats. (C) 2009 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“A general analysis method is proposed that utilizes meta-analysis to incorporate similar studies in addition to our current investigation in order to obtain informative prior effect parameters in a logistic regression model.

After resveratrol treatment, Cyp1b1 expression was assessed by re

After resveratrol treatment, Cyp1b1 expression was assessed by real-time PCR and immunoblotting. Stable-transfected cell lines with Cyp1b1 expression knocked down (Mz-Cyp1b1) were used to assess sensitivity to chemotherapeutic agents by MTS assays and Annexin staining and in a xenograft model using Mz-ChA-1 and Mz-Cyp1b1 cells, respectively. Ro 61-8048 molecular weight For each chemotherapeutic agent, co-treatment with resveratrol in vitro decreased cell proliferation and increased apoptosis to a greater extent than with the chemotherapeutic agent alone. In vivo, 5-FU + resveratrol decreased tumor size and increased TUNEL staining to a greater extent than 5-FU alone. In parallel, resveratrol decreased Cyp1b1

expression in Mz-ChA-1 cells and in cholangiocarcinoma tumors. Mz-Cyp1b1 cells were more sensitive to chemotherapeutic agents in vitro than mock-transfected cells, and Mz-Cyp1b1-induced tumors were more susceptible to 5-FU treatment. SP600125 price We suggest that resveratrol treatment may be a useful adjunct therapy to improve chemosensitivity in cholangiocarcinoma. Laboratory Investigation (2010) 90, 1325-1338; doi:10.1038/labinvest.2010.99; published online 10 May 2010″
“The self-face is thought to be an especially salient stimulus. Behavioral evidence suggests

that self-face processing advantage is associated with enhanced processing of temporally adjacent subliminal stimuli. However, the neural basis of this self-related processing modulation has not been investigated.

We studied self-face induced signal

amplification through masked priming and repetition suppression (fMRI adaptation). Subjects performed a gender-categorization task on self- and non-self target faces preceded by subliminal (17 ms) prime faces. The relationship between prime and target was varied between task-incongruent (when prime and target belonged to a different gender) and task-congruent (when prime and target belonged to the same gender) pairs.

We found that, in the presence of the visible self-face (but not of other non-self faces), a bilateral fronto-parietal network exhibited repetition suppression to subliminal prime faces belonging to the same gender (task-congruent) as the target, consistent with the notion that, in the presence of the self-face, subliminal stimuli access high-level processing PRKD3 systems. These results are in agreement with the notion of self-specific top-down amplification of subliminal task-relevant information, and suggest that the self-face, through its high salience, is particularly efficacious in focusing attention. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) occurs mainly in the liver associated with chronic hepatitis and hepatic cirrhosis as a result of prolonged viral infection. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) induces the fibrosis in hepatic cirrhosis, although it is also an inhibitor of hepatocyte proliferation.

5 +/- 6 0 kg) through the right ventricular apex, and device func

5 +/- 6.0 kg) through the right ventricular apex, and device function was studied by using invasive and noninvasive measures.

Results: Procedural success was 100% at the first attempt. Procedural time was 75 +/- 15 minutes. All devices were delivered at the target site with good acute valve function. No valved stents dislodged.

No animal had significant regurgitation or paravalvular leaking on intracardiac echocardiographic analysis. All animals had a competent tricuspid valve and Alvocidib in vivo no signs of right ventricular dysfunction. The planimetric valve orifice was 2.85 +/- 0.32 cm(2). No damage to the pulmonary artery or structural defect of the valved stents was found at necropsy.

Conclusions: This study confirms the feasibility of direct access valve replacement through the transapical procedure for replacement of the pulmonary valve, as well as validity of the new valved stent design concept. The transapical procedure is targeting a broader patient pool, including the very young and the adult patient. The device design might not be restricted to failing conduits only and could Idasanutlin cost allow for implantation in a larger patient population, including those with native right ventricular outflow tract configurations.”
“Objective: We report our experience

with repair of tetralogy of Fallot associated with complete atrioventricular septal defect, addressing in particular the need for a pulmonary valve in the right ventricular outflow tract.

Methods: Between 1992 and 2006, 33 children with tetralogy of Fallot and complete atrioventricular septal defect were admitted; 26 had Down’s syndrome (79%). Thirty-two children had complete repair (18 primary, 14 staged); of the 15 who received initial palliation, 1 died before complete repair. MYO10 Right ventricular outflow tract obstruction

was relieved by transannular patch in 14 cases (42%), infundibular patch with preservation of the pulmonary valve in 7 (21%), and right ventricle-to-pulmonary artery conduit in 11 (33%).

Results: There were no hospital deaths. Actuarial survival was 96% +/- 3.9% at 5 years and 85.9 +/- 1.1% at 10 years. Multivariate analysis showed that type of relief of right ventricular outflow tract obstruction did not influence survival (P = .16), nor did the choice to use a valved conduit (P = .82). Primary correction (P = .05) and lower weight at repair (P = .05) were associated with higher probability of survival. Mean followup was 69.3 +/- 5.9 months (range 0.2-282 months). There were 2 late deaths. Overall freedom from reoperation was 69% at 5 years and 38% at 10 years. Right ventricular outflow tract reconstruction without use of a valved conduit allowed a significantly higher freedom from reinterventions (P < .05).

Conclusions: Tetralogy of Fallot associated with complete atrioventricular septal defect can be corrected at low risk with favorable intermediate survival.

CONCLUSION: Primary stenting

of symptomatic middle cerebr

CONCLUSION: Primary stenting

of symptomatic middle cerebral artery stenosis can be performed with high success and low complication rates. Randomized clinical studies are warranted to compare the safety and efficacy of various endovascular revascularization techniques with maximal medical therapy in patients with symptomatic intracranial atherosclerosis.”
“A real-time, multiplexed polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay based on dried PCR reagents was developed. Only variola virus could be specifically detected by a FAM (6-carboxyfluorescein)-labeled probe while camelpox, cowpox, monkeypox and vaccinia viruses could be detected by a TET (6-carboxytetramethylrhodamine)-labeled Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor probe in a single PCR reaction. Approximately 25 copies of cloned variola virus DNA and 50 copies of genomic orthopoxviruses DNA could be detected with high reproducibility. The assay exhibited a dynamic range of seven orders of magnitude with a correlation coefficient value greater than 0.97. The

sensitivity and specificity of the assay, as determined from 100 samples that contained nucleic acids from a multitude of bacterial and viral species were 96% and 98%, respectively. The limit of detection, sensitivity and specificity of the assay were comparable to Bromosporine order standard real-time PCR assays with wet reagents. Employing a multiplexed format in this assay allows simultaneous discrimination of the variola virus from other closely related orthopoxviruses. Furthermore, the implementation of dried reagents in real-time PCR assays is an important Rucaparib ic50 step towards simplifying such assays and allowing their use in areas where cold storage is not easily accessible. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the feasibility and safety

of mild hypothermia treatment in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) who are experiencing intracranial hypertension and/or cerebral vasospasm (CVS).

METHODS: Of 441 consecutive patients with SAH, 100 developed elevated intracranial pressure and/or symptomatic CVS refractory to conventional treatment. Hypothermia (33-34 degrees C) was induced and maintained until intracranial pressure normalized, CVS resolved, or severe side effects occurred.

RESULTS: Thirteen patients were treated with hypothermia alone, and 87 were treated with hypothermia in combination with barbiturate coma. Sixty-six patients experienced poor-grade SAH (Hunt and Hess Grades IV and V) and 92 had Fisher Grade 3 and 4 bleedings. The mean duration of hypothermia was 169 +/- 104 hours, with a maximum of 16.4 days. The outcome after 1 year was evaluated in 90 of 100 patients. Thirty-two patients (35.6%) survived with good functional outcome (Glasgow Outcome Scale [GOS] score, 4 and 5), 14 (15.5%) were severely disabled (GOS score, 3), 1 (1.1%) was in a vegetative state (GOS score, 2), and 43 (47.8%) died (GOS score, 1).