Secondly, ligating the left portal vein branch proximal to the anastomosed aortoportal shunt results in a portal pressure increased from 6.22 mmHg to 8.55 mmHg (p < 0.05) however, the flow per gram liver in these portally perfused (not shunted) segments remained unchanged (1.57 to 1.53 mL/gram/minute, not significant) whereas the flow in the shunted segments increased significantly
from an average of 0.61 to 2.89 mL/gram/minute after shunt opening giving a 4.75 fold increase in flow which is similar to the flow increase seen after a 75% PHx . Thus, it may be that it is not the quantity of blood perfusing the liver sinusoids in the remnant which is detrimental to liver regeneration, but rather this website the quality of the blood (with hepatotrophic click here factors) as previously suggested by Michalopoulos . Supportive of this theory is the findings of Ladurner et al. where extended hepatic resection with or without decompressive portocaval shunting (and thus significant differences in flow in the liver remnant) did not reveal differences in liver regeneration . Conceivably equally important,
are the increased metabolic tasks per gram remaining liver imposed on the liver remnant which may lead to its growth. We maintain, on the basis of this experiment, that the flow theory of increased shear stress as a primary stimulus to liver regeneration is questionable because it is the non-shunted, portally perfused side which hypertrophies despite the fact that flow per gram liver
on this side remains unchanged. In contrast to this, the shunted segments exhibited contracted Nutlin-3 order lobuli, no increase in volume and a general downregulation in transcriptional activity. We suggest that the portally perfused side of the liver hypertrophied due to a combination of increased metabolic demand (due to the functional deficiency of the shunted side) and the presence of hepatotrophic growth factors in the portal perfusate. Finally, is it justifiable to study the process of liver regeneration without performing a resection? In our opinion, yes, because the moment one performs a liver resection, the relative increase in growth factors supplied, and the increase in metabolic demand on the liver remnant confounds the study of an find more isolated increase in flow per gram remaining liver parenchyma. It is therefore necessary to create an “”unphysiological “”state to study an isolated phenomenon in vivo. Conclusions On the basis of the present study we conclude that an isolated acute and chronic increase in sinusoidal flow does not have the same genetic, microscopic or macroscopic impact on the liver as that seen in the liver remnant after partial hepatectomy, indicating that increased sinusoidal flow may not be a sufficient stimulus in itself for the initiation of liver regeneration.