Agarose was Ferrostatin-1 prepared through melting in a boiling
water bath and allowing it to return to room temperature. The cells were mixed with the melted agarose in a 1:10 ratio. Approximately 75 μL of the mixture of agarose and check details cells were placed on comet slides, and the agarose was solidified at 4°C for 10 min. After 10 min, the slides were placed in a lysis solution at 4°C for 30 min to lyse the embedded cells in the agarose. The excess lysis solution was removed from the slides and placed in an alkaline solution to denature the DNA for 40 min at room temperature. Later, the slides were subjected to TBE (Tris borate EDTA buffer) electrophoresis for 10 min with 1 volt/cm current between the two electrodes. Then the slides were fixed with 70% ethanol for 5 min, followed by SYBR green staining. The stained slides were examined using an epifluorescent microscope (Olympus BX51 TRF, USA). The data were analyzed with DNA damage analysis software (Loats Associates Inc., USA). The control comet slides were prepared along with the test comet slides under yellow light Western blotting analysis Western blot analysis was conducted to determine specific cellular responses targeting apoptosis-related proteins including Bax, cyt C and Bcl-2. HL-60 cells were treated with different doses of ATO for 24 hr at 37°C. After incubation, cells were washed
twice with cold phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and lysed in RIPA buffer containing (1% Nonidet P-40, 0.5% sodium deoxycholate,
0.1% SDS, 100 μg/ml phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, 100 μg/ml aprotinin, 1 μg/ml leupeptin, and 1 mm sodium orthovanadate) Sclareol on ice 20 min. selleck chemicals llc It was centrifuged at 14000 rpm for 12 min and supernatant collected in fresh micro centrifuge tubes. The total protein of cells extracts contained in the supernatant was measured by the Bradford method at 595 nm using a microtiter plate reader . An equal amount (40 μg) of protein from control or treated cells was loaded per lane on a 10% SDS-PAGE gel, transferred into nitrocellulose membrane and analyzed by Western blotting for each specific protein of interest using its specific antibody as described previously . The band intensities were quantified using Image J (National Institutes of Health). Confocal microscopy for Bax and Cytochrome c translocation HL-60 cells (1×106 cells) were grown in presence or absence of ATO and further incubated with mitotracker Red CMXRos (250 nM) for 30 min in dark at 37°C to stain mitochondria. After staining, cells were washed twice with PBS and adhered on poly- L- lysine coated chambered slide. Cells were fixed by adding 3% paraformaldehyde solution and permeabilized with 0.2% Nonidet P-40 in PBS containing glycine (0.5%). Cells were blocked in PBS containing 3% BSA for 30 min, then incubated with cytochrome C antibody (1:100 dilution) at 4°C overnight. Cells were washed with PBS and incubated with Alex fluor 568 tagged secondary Ab (1:1000) for 1 h at 4°C in dark.