Figure 2 Fluorescence photomicrographs from P30 and P15 mouse liv

Figure 2 Fluorescence photomicrographs from P30 and P15 mouse liver, Selleck BIRB 796 showing difference in patterns of labeling between large (0.2 μm) and small (0.02) microspheres. A: Alexa

488 labelled F4/80 cells from P30 mouse. B: Same section as in ‘A’ but viewed using rhodamine optics to reveal large (0.2 μm) fluorescently labelled microspheres. C: Merged image of ‘A’ and ‘B’, showing co-localization of F4/80 and large microspheres. D: Higher magnification photomicrograph showing Alexa 488 labelled F4/80 cells from P15 mouse liver. CUDC-907 purchase E: Same section as in ‘D’, viewed using rhodamine optics to reveal large (0.2 μm) fluorescently labelled microspheres. F: Merged image of ‘D’ and ‘E’, and also with ultraviolet imaging of DAPI labelled cell nuclei, showing cells co-labelled with F4/80 and microspheres. Note that most microspheres appear associated with F4/80 positive cells. G: Alexa 488 labelled F4/80 positive cells from P30 mouse. H: Same section as in ‘G’, viewed using rhodamine optics to reveal small (0.02 μm) fluorescently labelled microspheres. I: Merged image of ‘G’ and ‘H’, showing a few cells co-labelled with F4/80 and microspheres. Note that most microspheres appear not to be associated

with F4/80 positive cells. White arrows indicate double labelled cells; x indicates capillary with red microspheres but absence of F4/80 immunoreactivity. J: Higher magnification photomicrograph showing Alexa 488 labelled CD-34 cells from P15 mouse liver. K: Same section as in ‘J’, viewed using rhodamine optics to reveal small (0.02

μm) fluorescently labelled microspheres. L: Merged image of ‘J’ and ‘K’, and also with ultraviolet SGC-CBP30 nmr imaging of DAPI labelled cell nuclei, showing cells co-labelled with CD-34 and microspheres. Note that most microspheres appear associated with CD-34 positive cells; examples are indicated by white arrows. Calibration bar in ‘C’ = 100 μm for images A, B, C, G, H, and I. Calibration bar in ‘F’ = 50 μm for images D, E, F, J, K, and L. In contrast, when the relatively smaller (0.02 μm) microspheres were injected intravascularly, they were found virtually continuously in the lining of the sinusoidal capillaries of the liver (Figure 2G,H,I). Some of these smaller microspheres were found within F4/80 labelled cells, but as shown in higher magnification of tissues from P15 mice, Pregnenolone most of the smaller microspheres were found co-localized with the CD-34 antibody, specific for endothelial cells (Figure 2J,K,L). Temporal patterns of microsphere labeling Mice aged P20 were injected intravascularly with the larger (0.2 μm) microspheres and then allowed survival times ranging from 15 minutes to 6 weeks. Very few microspheres were detected in liver at the survival time of 15 minutes. Within 30 minutes, microspheres could be detected within F4/80 positive cells, but some microspheres also were found along the sinusoidal capillary walls without being clearly associated with F4/80 cells (Figure 3A).

1% SDS and final pH 8 200 μl elution buffer was added to each tu

1% SDS and final pH 8. 200 μl elution buffer was added to each tube containing a piece of gel. The gel was then crushed in smaller pieces using a pipet tip. Tubes were

incubated overnight at 37°C with shaking. Following centrifugation in a microcentrifuge at room temperature for 10 minutes at 10,000 rpm, supernatant was removed and transferred to a clean 2.0 ml tube. Ethanol (500 μl) was added to precipitate the DNA and tubes were AZD8186 order placed at −20°C overnight. DNA was pelleted at 13,000 rpm for 10 minutes. Supernatant was removed and DNA solubilized in 100 μl of 10 mM Tris pH 8 and 15 μl of 5 M sodium chloride was added. DNA was then precipitated a second time with 2 volumes of ethanol and kept overnight at −20°C. Precipitated DNA was recovered by centrifugation in a microcentrifuge at 13,000 rpm for 15 minutes, supernatant was removed and RSL3 mw DNA was Barasertib ic50 dried. Final resuspension of DNA was done with 10 μl of 10 mM Tris pH 8. The DNA fragments were cloned into the BamHI site in pUC18. Prior to ligation, BamHI-digested pUC18 was dephosphorylated using shrimp alkaline phosphatase

(Fermentas Inc.) and the reaction stopped by heat-inactivation. Ligation was performed overnight at room temperature with T4 DNA ligase (Fermentas Inc.). Transformation of calcium chloride competent E. coli DH5α cells was done following standard procedure [54]. Over 40 transformant colonies were streak-purified from each experiment. A selection of them were then used for plasmid preparation and tested for the crotamiton presence of an insert using restriction digest with EcoRI and PstI. Fragments cloned in pUC18 were sequenced using primers M13F provided by the sequencing facility (University of Waterloo) or LB61 (Table 3). Sequences were first analyzed by searching for Sau3AI (Bsp143I) restriction sites to determine the limits of each fragment. Each fragment sequence was then searched against S. meliloti Rm1021 genomic sequence using the BLAST tool from Toulouse annotation website [55]. Genes in closest proximity to identified sequences and potentially regulated by ChvI were searched against STRING 8.1 databases (June 28, 2009)

for functional relations [23]. The search was directed from the Toulouse annotation website. Reporter gene fusion strains Transcriptional fusion strains were obtained by transduction from the reporter gene fusion library strains made by Cowie et al. [20]. SmFL strains were used to prepare transduction lysates to transfer the gene fusions from the original S. meliloti RmP110 background into the Rm1021 background. Selection of transductants was done on LB with gentamicin (60 μg ml-1). The same lysates were also used to transduce gene fusions into SmUW38 (pKD001) with selection on LB gentamicin (60 μg ml-1) and neomycin (200 μg ml-1). Four transductants per transduction experiment were picked and streaked on LB gentamicin and neomycin.

Recently, Shen W et al identified five genes (pnpACC1C2R) in ano

Recently, Shen W et al. identified five genes (pnpACC1C2R) in another gram-negative PNP-degrading bacterium, Selleckchem MK-4827 Pseudomonas putida DLL-E4, but the CUDC-907 nmr rest of the genes (pnpBDE) in this gene cluster were not

identified [12]. To date, all the studies have focused on identifying the upper stream genes in the HQ pathway, while the knowledge of the lower stream pathway genes, especially that of the 4-HS dehydrogenase [13], remains limited. In this study, a gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas sp. 1-7, with the ability to degrade both MP and PNP, was isolated from MP-polluted activated sludge. Microbial degradation studies showed that the intermediate products were HQ and 4-NC, which indicated that both the HQ pathway and BT pathway were utilized in Pseudomonas sp. 1-7. Additionally, a 10.6 Kb gene cluster (pdcEDGFCBA) was identified from a genomic library. Genes: pdcDE, pdcF and pdcG were GDC-0068 supplier chosen to be expressed in Escherichia coli for characterization. Methods Strains, plasmids, and chemicals The plasmids and bacterial strains used in this study are listed in Table 1. Pseudomonas sp. 1-7 was grown at 30°C in Luria Bertani (LB) medium and Burk mineral medium [14] with 1 mM MP or 0.5 mM PNP as the sole carbon and nitrogen source, respectively. E. coli strains were grown in LB medium at 37°C and were transformed as described [15]. The primer sequences used for PCR are listed in Additional file 1: Table S1. All Nintedanib (BIBF 1120) reagents

used in this study were purchased from Sigma Chemical (St. Louis, MO, 113 USA) and Amresco Chemical (Solon, OH 44139 USA). Table 1 Bacterial strains and plasmids used in this study Strains and plasmids Relevant genotype or characteristic(s) Reference or source Pseudomonas sp     Strain 1-7 methyl parathion and p-nitrophenol utilizer, wild type This study E.coli     Trans10 F-Φ80(lacZ) M15 lacX74hsdR(rK -mK +) recA1398endA1tonA TransGen BL21(DE3) F- ompT hsdS (rB- mB-) gal dcm lacY1(DE3) Novagen Plasmids     pET30a Kmr, Expression vector Novagen pET22b Ampr, Expression vector Novagen pET2230 Ampr, Expression vector This

study pEASY-T3 Ampr, Cloning vector TransGen pET30- pdcF BamHI-HindIII fragment containing pdcF inserted into pET30a This study pET30- pdcG BamHI-XhoI fragment containing pdcG inserted into pET30a This study pET30- pdcD BamHI-XhoI fragment containing pdcD inserted into pET30a This study pET2230- pdcE BamHI-XhoI fragment containing pdcE inserted into pET2230 This study Isolation of Pseudomonas degrading MP and PNP Activated sludge (0.5 g) collected from a pesticide factory (Tianjin, China) was cultured overnight at 30°C in 100 ml liquid Burk medium, before being diluted and spread on solid Burk medium containing 0.1% (v/v) MP pesticide and incubated at 30°C. The positive strain able to degrade MP produced a visible hydrolysis halo around the colonies on the plate. Positive colonies were inoculated in liquid Burk medium containing 0.1% (v/v) MP pesticide and cultured overnight at 30°C.

Carcinogenesis 2005, 26:1182–1195 PubMedCrossRef

Carcinogenesis 2005, 26:1182–1195.PubMedCrossRef Selleck Go6983 9. Nakanishi

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When equilibrium was reached, the UV light was turned on, and the

After 30 min, the CO2 flow rate was reduced to 10 mL/min. When equilibrium was reached, the UV light was turned on, and the reaction products were analyzed by means of PX-478 the GC. Blank tests were also conducted to ensure that the product was due to the photocatalytic reaction. The blank tests consisted of a UV illumination without the photocatalyst and a reaction in the dark with the catalyst. Results and discussion Physicochemical properties of the synthesized materials Table 1 shows the physical and textural properties of the KIT-6 and Ti-KIT-6 materials, which

were obtained by means of N2 sorption. A noticeable decrease can be seen in the surface area and pore volume of KIT-6, after Ti incorporation with different Si/Ti ratios. However, the surface area and pore volume of the Ti-KIT-6 (dried) materials were slightly higher than those of the Ti-KIT-6 (calcined) ones, which might be due to the easy incorporation of Ti in the dried weak structure of KIT-6. However, Ti can be trapped in the bulk of the dried KIT-6 material, but not in that of the rigid structure of the calcined KIT-6 one. The average pore diameter

did not change significantly and remained uniform, which might be due to the 3-D pore structure of KIT-6, which is able to accommodate the uniform isolated Ti dispersion. Table 1 Comparison of the physical properties, bandgap energy of the synthesized materials, and methane production Samples N2sorption UV-vis CH4production comparison S BET PV APD WL BE P Reference [Ti-K-6 (dried) (Si/Ti = 200)] calcined 865 1.11 6.55 – - – - [Ti-K-6 (dried) (Si/Ti = 100)] calcined 767 0.80 6.48 – - – - [Ti-K-6 (dried) (Si/Ti = 50)] calcined 730

0.67 6.45 – - – - KIT-6 (K-6) calcined 772 1.04 6.49 – - – - [Ti-K-6 (calcined) (Si/Ti = 200)] calcined 726 0.95 6.45 320 3.87 – - [Ti-K-6 (calcined) (Si/Ti = 100)] calcined 700 0.85 6.40 330 3.75 4.1 This work [Ti-K-6 (calcined) (Si/Ti = 50)] calcined 684 0.73 6.41 372 3.33 – - Anatase TiO2 powder – - – - – 0.4 [18] Aeroxide/degussa P25 TiO2 – - – - – 0.6 This work Titanium silicate (TS-1) zeolite – - – - – 2.7 [16] Ti-MCM-41 – - – - – 2.9 [16] S BET, BET specific surface area in m2/g; PV, cumulative pore volume in cm3/g; APD, average pore diameter in nm; WL, absorption edge wave length, λ, in nm; BE, bandgap energy in eV; P, production rate in μmol · gcat.−1 · h−1). The UV-vis Selleck 5-Fluoracil spectra of the calcinated Ti-KIT-6 (calcined, Si/Ti = 200, 100, and 50) are shown in Figure 1. It has been observed that with the increased Ti content, the absorption spectra are shifted to higher wavelengths since the absorption edge wavelength changes from 320 to 372 nm (Table 1), that is, moving towards the trend of pure TiO2. Therefore, it can be observed that this increased Ti might also have more chance of making the agglomerates of TiO2 with the moisture present during the synthesis. The bandgap energies of the Ti-KIT-6 materials, corresponding to a bandgap of 3.33 to 3.

Biochim Biophys Acta 2006, 1758:1292–1302 PubMedCrossRef 27 Hsu

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a dual mechanism of action and demonstrates strong in vivo efficacy against Helicobacter pylori . Antimicrob Agents selleck compound Cilengitide cost Chemother 2012, 56:378–390.PubMedCrossRef 29. Wu M, Maier E, Benz R, Hancock RE: Mechanism of interaction of different classes of cationic antimicrobial peptides with planar bilayers and with the cytoplasmic selleck chemical membrane of Escherichia coli . Biochemistry 1999, 38:7235–7242.PubMedCrossRef 30. Patrzykat A, Friedrich CL, Zhang L, Mendoza V, Hancock REW: Sublethal Concentrations of pleurocidin-derived antimicrobial peptides inhibit macromolecular synthesis in Escherichia coli . Antimicrob Agents

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The concentration of H2O2 influences the nucleation and motility

The concentration of H2O2 influences the nucleation and motility of Ag particles, which leads to the formation of different porous structures within the nanowires. When H2O2 concentration is too high, the click here excessive Ag+ would be produced, and they renucleate to form numerous Ag particles selleck which catalyze H2O2 reduction and induce excessive silicon dissolution. That is to say, the polishing would be induced under high H2O2 concentration of the HF/AgNO3/H2O2 system. Figure 7 Schematic illustration of the formation process of PSiNWs through

MACE method in HF/H 2 O 2 /AgNO 3 system. (A) Ag nanoparticles deposit on silicon surface at the beginning. (B) SiNWs grow with the migration of Ag particle, and some Ag+ ions renucleate throughout the nanowires. (C) Numerous perpendicular pore channel form with the migration

of renucleated Ag particle. (D) Porous structure can be obtained with the removal of Ag0. Conclusion This work has demonstrated selleck inhibitor a simple MACE method for successfully fabricating lightly doped porous silicon nanowires at room temperature. The effects of H2O2 concentration on nanostructure of moderately and lightly doped SiNWs were investigated. The results indicate that the concentration of H2O2 influences the nucleation and motility of Ag particles, which leads different porous structure within the nanowires. In the HF/AgNO3/H2O2 etching Cytidine deaminase system, the H2O2 species replaces Ag+ as the oxidant and the Ag nanoparticles work as catalyst during the etching. A mechanism based on the lateral etching which is catalyzed by Ag particles with the motivation of H2O2 reduction is proposed to explain the formation of PSiNWs. The simple etching system not only synthesizes large-scale moderately doped single crystalline PSiNWs, but can also fabricate lightly doped ones, which can open up exciting opportunities

in a wide range of applications. For example, the vertically aligned nanowires with a high surface area can be exploited as a high-capacity electrode for supercapacitors. The deep quantum confinement effect and biodegradability feature of the porous silicon nanowires may enable interesting applications in optoelectronics and drug delivery. Acknowledgement Financial supports of this work from the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (20135314110001) and the Program for Innovative Research Team in University of Ministry of Education of China (IRT1250) were gratefully acknowledged. References 1. Schmidt V, Riel H, Senz S, Karg S, Riess W, Gösele U: Realization of a silicon nanowire vertical surround-gate field-effect transistor. Small 2006, 2:85–88.CrossRef 2. Hochbaum AI, Chen R, Delgado RD, Liang W, Garnett EC, Najarian M, Majumdar A, Yang P: Enhanced thermoelectric performance of rough silicon nanowires. Nature 2008, 451:163–167.CrossRef 3.

Figure S2 MTT assay result of GH3 cells interfaced with nanowire

Figure S2. MTT assay result of GH3 cells interfaced with nanowire-grown substrates in various densities (PS: plane substrate, LDSN, MDSN and HDSN: nanowire-grown substrate shown in Figure 1a, 1b and 1c). Figure S3. SEM images of primary hippocampal neurons cultured on nanowire-grown substrates in order of Figure 1a, 1b and 1c. A white circle in d indicates

penetrated nanowire from bottom to top membrane of neuron. Figure Selleck Ku-0059436 S4. (a) A schematic drawing for observation of cell/nanowire interface. Dotted line represents a sectioning direction of FIB. Square part is the area we observed by SEM (b) SEM images of primary hippocampal neurons-nanowire interface (N: nanowire, P: platinum layer for the protection of upper part of cell, C: cell soma). Arrow indicates cell membrane, which is covered by gold layer for a first SEM observation. Figure S5. Cyclic voltammogram of individual nanoelectrode in 0.1 M K3Fe(CN)6. Ag/AgCl electrode was served as the reference electrode and a platinum wire was served as the auxiliary electrode. The scan rate was 10 mV/s. Figure S6. Equivalent circuit of our measurement system (Cm: cell membrane capacitance, Em: cell membrane potential, Rm: cell membrane resistance, Rleak: junction leakage resistance, Re: electrode resistance, Ce: electrode capacitance). (DOCX 4 MB) References 1. Hamill OP, Marty A, Neher E: Improved patch-clamp techniques for

high-resolution current Fedratinib cell line recording from cells and cell-free membrane patches. Pflug Arch Eur J Phy 1981, 391:85–100.CrossRef MAPK Inhibitor Library concentration 2. Markram H, Lübke J, Frotscher M, Sakmann B: Regulation of synaptic efficacy by coincidence of postsynaptic APs and EPSPs. Science 1997, 275:213–215.CrossRef 3. Marom S, Shahaf G: Development, learning and memory in large random networks of cortical neurons: lessons beyond anatomy. Q Rev Biophys 2002,35(1):63–87. 4. Stuart G, Spruston N, Sakmann B, Häusser M: Action potential initiation and backpropagation in neurons of the mammalian CNS. Trends Neurosci 1997,20(3):125–131.CrossRef 5. Bean BP: The action potential in mammalian central neurons. Nat Rev Neurosci 2007, 8:451–465.CrossRef 6. Fromherz P: Electrical interfacing

of nerve cells and semiconductor chips. Chem Phys Chem 2002,3(3):276–284.CrossRef 7. Eschermann JF, Stockmann R, Hueske M, Vu XT, Ingebrandt S, Offenhäusser A: C1GALT1 Action potentials of HL-1 cells recorded with silicon nanowire transistors. Appl Phys Lett 2009, 95:083703.CrossRef 8. Gabay T, Jakobs E, Ben-Jacob E, Hanein Y: Engineered self-organization of neural networks using carbon nanotube clusters. Physica A 2005, 350:611–621.CrossRef 9. Zheng B, Hsieh S, Wu CC, Wu CH, Lin PY, Hsieh CW, Li IT, Huang YS, Wang HM, Hsieh S: Hepatocarcinoma single cell migration on micropatterned PDMS substrates. Nano Biomed Eng 2011, 3:99–106. 10. Bi GQ, Poo MM: Synaptic modifications in cultured hippocampal neurons: dependence on spike timing, synaptic strength, and postsynaptic cell type. J Neurosci 1998, 18:10464–10472. 11.

The majority of group II isolates had MICs above the S-breakpoint

The majority of group II isolates had MICs above the S-breakpoints for ampicillin, amoxicillin and cefuroxime. Significant proportions were resistant to Sapitinib molecular weight cefotaxime (7/111, 6%) and non-susceptible to meropenem (22/111, 20%), with representatives from all four major rPBP3 strains. Notably, 12% (13/111) of group II isolates were categorized as susceptible to all agents, whereas 24% SC79 cell line (19/80) of

sPBP3 isolates were non-susceptible to ≥1 beta-lactam, most commonly intermediately susceptible to cefuroxime (n = 10). No association with ST or phylogroup was observed. The prevalences of clinical PBP3-mediated resistance to ampicillin and cefotaxime and non-susceptibility to meropenem in the original population (n = 795) were 9%, 1.3% and 2.9%, respectively. Discussion Resistance epidemiology We found a 15% prevalence of rPBP3 in a nationwide collection of 795 eye, ear and respiratory isolates of H. influenzae in Norway. The prevalence of clinical resistance to ampicillin due to rPBP3 was 9%, compared to 2.5% in a similar study three years earlier [11]. Despite methodological differences between the two studies, we conclude with a significant increase from 2004 to 2007. National phenotypic surveillance data indicate a further increase to 17% rPBP3 in respiratory isolates

in 2011 [40] and a prevalence at 15% rPBP3 in invasive isolates in 2012 (n = 73, 77% nontypeable) [41], consistent with observations in other European countries and in Canada [2, 4, 12, 14]. As expected, group II low-level resistant isolates predominated. Notably, group III high-rPBP3 was identified for the first selleckchem time in Northern Europe. The genotypic distinction between low-level and high-level beta-lactam resistance is clinically relevant: As resistance to cefotaxime is mainly seen in high-rPBP3 [6], cefotaxime is suitable for empiric treatment

of severe disease only in regions where high-rPBP3 is rare. However, 6% of group II isolates in the present study were resistant to cefotaxime and 20% were non- susceptible to meropenem in case of meningitis. These observations underline the importance of confirming susceptibility to beta-lactams in severe infections such as meningitis and septicemia. When isothipendyl the prevalence of low-rPBP3 in Japanese respiratory isolates reached 17% in the mid 1990s, group III isolates increased from zero to 29% in six years [13]. This was followed by a rapid increase in group III isolates in meningitis (predominantly Hib) from zero to 70% [15]. A recent report revealed a shift from low-level to high-level resistance in respiratory tract isolates in South Korea during the last decade, with an increase in the prevalence of group III isolates from 1% to 21% in five years [16, 22]. A similar development in other parts of the world would seriously compromise current empiric antibiotic therapy in severe infections.

9% (39)    ▪ shift

to an abnormal microflora   – grade I-

9% (39)    ▪ shift

to an abnormal microflora   – grade I-like – - grade II 7.1% (3) – grade III – - grade IV – all samples with an L. gasseri/iners TRF (n = 83)      ▪ sustained grade I microflora 85.5% (71)    ▪ shift to an abnormal microflora   – grade I-like 6.0% (5) – grade II 7.2% (6) – grade III 1.2% (1) – grade IV – Gram stained vaginal smears were scored according find more to the criteria previously described by Verhelst et al [7]. Briefly, Gram-stained vaginal smears were categorized as grade I (normal) when only Lactobacillus cell types were present, as grade II (intermediate) when both Lactobacillus and bacterial vaginosis-associated cell types were present, as grade III (bacterial vaginosis) when bacterial vaginosis-associated cell types were abundant in the absence of lactobacilli, as grade Selleck AZD6738 IV when only gram-positive cocci were observed, and as grade I-like when irregularly shaped or curved gram-positive rods were predominant [7]. For the purpose of this study, grade I or Lactobacillus-dominated vaginal microflora is designated as ‘normal vaginal microflora’ and all other grades as ‘abnormal vaginal microflora’. Summary of the association between normal microflora type and vaginal microflora status on follow-up Overall, in this cohort, normal VMF at baseline examination shifted to an abnormal VMF on follow-up

at a rate of 16.9%, whereby – according to Gram stain – 92.3% of Selleck Verteporfin these cases were associated with a departure from grade Ib VMF and – according to tRFLP and culture – 92.3% of these cases Anlotinib involved a departure from grade I VMF comprising

L. gasseri/iners. Conversely, the presence of L. crispatus even when accompanied by the other Lactobacillus species, L. jensenii, L. gasseri and/or L. iners, emerged as a prominent stabilising factor to the vaginal microflora. In particular, normal VMF comprising L. gasseri/iners incurred a ten-fold increased risk of conversion to abnormal VMF relative to non-L. gasseri/iners VMF (RR 10.41, 95% CI 1.39–78.12, p = 0.008), whereas normal VMF comprising L. crispatus had a five-fold decreased risk of conversion to abnormal VMF relative to non-L. crispatus VMF (RR 0.20, 95% CI 0.05–0.89, p = 0.04). Of importance is that, while on the one hand it was observed that L. jensenii and L. gasseri/iners tended to disappear at a significantly higher rate over time (i.e. displaying poorer colonisation strength) as compared to L. crispatus, and on the other hand that L. jensenii and in particular L. gasseri/iners were associated with a much higher risk of conversion from normal to abnormal VMF (i.e. displaying poorer colonisation resistance), these phenomena did not seem to be interrelated, i.e. conversion to abnormal VMF is mostly accompanied by the persistence rather than the disappearance of the Lactobacillus index species. Hence, it appears as if L. jensenii and L. gasseri/iners in particular, elicit in comparison to L.