Assertiveness is that ��use of legitimate, acceptable physical force and the expenditure of an unusually high degree of effort to achieve an external goal, with no intent to injure�� (Kent, 2005) and ��sometimes showing a self-confident approach�� (Cashmore, 2008). This might be a kind either of vitality (zest) which was suggested by Park and Petersen (2004) as approaching life with energy and excitement. Therefore, exemplars of assertiveness�� items related to sport courage measured by SCS incorporate ��I like to take the initiative in the face of difficulties in my sport��, ��I assert myself even when facing hazardous situations in my sport��. The fourth factor of SCS is VS. Above definitions of courage emphasized that one distinction of courage is relatively high risk taking behaviour which must be present in sport situations.
Risk is from the Italian ��risco�� for ��danger��, risk means exposure to jeopardy. It is a word that crops up a lot. In all sports, athletes often run risks; in some, they put their lives at risk (e.g., extreme sports). Exercise itself is a form of health risk management. So, sport and exercise are full of risk factors (Cashmore, 2008). While there may be economic risks associated with sport (e.g., gambling) and social risks (risk of one��s reputation and social status) of central concern has been the risk of physical injury (and death). A ��culture of risks�� in sport has been indentified largely in the context of the wide spread acceptance of playing through pain and injury (Malcolm, 2008).
Therefore, it could be argued that courage involves relatively high risk situations (perceived by the athlete) rather than an ordinary sport life. It might be suggested that courage is not fearlessness. Rather, it is coping with fear in the face of high risks or dangers. Therefore, VS involves coping with fear. Fear may be no more than the brief thoughts of physical injury that flash through the minds of rugby (or soccer) full back��s fleeting image of another broken nose as he prepares to dive on the ball at the feet of opposing players. In some sports the merest hind of fear might be enough to end careers. All players have doubts and fears, although some may be good at hiding them. Everyone is human and susceptible to fear, fatigue, and indecision (Karageorghis and Terry, 2011).
The result of present research supports the studies related to coping with fear and courageous behaviour (Corlett, 2002; Kilmann et al., 2010; Konter et al., 2013; Martin, 2011; Woodard and Pury, 2007). Fear is ��an emotion associated with Cilengitide an actual impending danger or evil��. It is often characterized by the subjective experience of discomfort and arousal. Fear can induce a kind of paralysis in some competitors so that they freeze in the face of a forbidding rival. It can also act as a friend causing exhilaration that facilitates optimum performance�� (Cashmore, 2008).
, 2009). In short, it is obvious that this anthropometric characteristic allows them to cover the wider space of the goal and hence selleckchem to defend the net more successfully. Because of the constant contact during the game, Centers are known to be the largest of all players in terms of body length and body mass. Therefore, it was not surprising that, although similar to the Points and Goalkeepers in BH, the Centers are the heaviest and have the highest BMI of all five playing positions. Apparently, their increased BM and BMI are partially but not entirely related to increased body fat (i.e. Centers have higher skinfolds than the Goalkeepers and Wings, but there is no significant difference in any of the body fat measures between the Centers, Points and Drivers).
This is in line with previous findings where authors discussed the clear need for a Center��s morphological-anthropometric dominance in terms of advanced BM, especially against rival Points (M. Lozovina, et al., 2009). More precisely, these two playing-positions are direct opponents (i.e. the Point guards the offensive Center) and if a Center wants to be effective in his/her offensive tasks, he/she must be physically superior to the defensive player guarding him (her). Although previous studies rarely studied water polo goalkeepers with regard to their anthropometric status, the results of the Goalkeepers�� anthropometric variables did not surprise us. Most particularly, they are slightly, although not significantly dominant in AS, and have the lowest BMI of all players.
Such an anthropometric profile allows them to cover the net efficiently (because of their large arm span) and to change position quickly (because of their low BMI). Since the official rules of water polo protect Goalkeepers from the contact-game, their low BMI is clearly a function of their agile movement and quick positioning in front of the goal with regard to offensive actions and his/her team��s defensive tactics. The importance of the specific physical fitness profile of different playing positions is already recognized in team sports (Ben Abdelkrim et al., 2010; Markovic and Mikulic, 2011; Pyne et al., 2006), but such studies are evidently scarce in water polo, especially among junior players. Therefore, the results of the specific physical fitness tests we presented above are hardly comparable to previous findings.
Although the playing positions did not differ significantly in the lactate capacity (4x50m) and 100m swimming results, the swimming performance Cilengitide measured by swimming 25m (ATPCP capacity), and 400m (aerobic capacity) revealed the Points to be the best swimmers. According to previous studies, the background to such findings should be identified through anthropometric profiles. In a recent study where authors identified the optimal morphological/anthropometric characteristics of young competitive swimmers, Sekulic et al.
Achievement goal theory typically differentiates between two types of goal orientations: task and ego. Task orientation is related to developing competence by improving upon one��s skills, personal competence Seliciclib msds and task mastery. It is assumed that task orientation will lead to positive and adaptive achievement behaviors (Duda et al., 1995). Athletes with a task goal orientation tend to select and persist at challenging tasks because they value effort as a way to attain new skills. In contrast, ego orientation is based on one��s subjective evaluation of performance compared with that of others (Nicholls, 1989). Generally, ego orientation is associated with maladaptive motivational patterns that are dependent on an individual��s perceived ability (Xiang et al., 2004).
Athletes who endorse an ego orientation tend to select tasks that are easier and tasks at which they perceive their chances of success will be high (Tyson et al., 2009). Research has shown a link between these two theories that are concerned with the underlying motivations for an individual��s behavior though focusing on different dimensions of motivation. An ego orientation represents an internally controlling state that can undermine intrinsic motivation, whereas a task goal orientation represents a state in which individuals derives pleasure from participation that facilitates intrinsic motivation (Cox, 2002; Deci and Ryan, 1985). Task orientation predicted intrinsic motivation, but did not predict amotivation (Ntoumanis, 2001). Conversely, ego orientation was associated with extrinsic motivation.
These studies show that task goal orientation fostered intrinsic motivation, whereas ego orientation promoted extrinsic motivation. Among the factors that influence athletes�� perceptions of self-determination and goal orientations are socio-demographic characteristics like gender, age and locality. Gender differences Adolescents�� self-determination of activities tends to differ mainly in sex stereotypic ways where females have higher self-determined motivational profiles than males in a diversity of sporting activities (Medic et al., 2007; Recours et al., 2004). Researchers have found that females tend to be more intrinsically motivated, whereas males tend to be more extrinsically-motivated in the sports context (Beaudoin, 2006). Intrinsically-motivated athletes participate more for pleasure, fun and satisfaction.
In contrast, extrinsically-motivated athletes participate more for competition Carfilzomib and the satisfaction of winning (Hellandsig, 1998). Other studies have shown that extrinsically-motivated male athletes tend to focus on rewards and recognition whereas intrinsically-motivated female athletes focus more on fun and task mastery (Tuffey, 2000). Researchers have also found that females tend to be more task-oriented, whereas males tend to be more ego-oriented in the sports context (Li et al., 1996).
The most common is the functional method of identifying selleck chemical Nintedanib segmental parameters has been proposed as an effective way to reduce the proposed variability of anatomical definitions (Besier et al., 2003; Della Croce et al., 1999). However, the use of markerless technology to record 3-D kinematics is still a minority technique (Richards and Thewlis, 2008) and has been limited by the intricacy of obtaining precise 3-D kinematics using this approach (Corazza et al., 2006). Future research may wish to replicate the current investigation using markerless anatomical frame definition to further examine the efficacy of this technique. The fact that this paper focused solely on 3-D angulation and angular velocities is potentially a limitation of the current investigation.
Future investigations should focus on additional kinetic parameters such as joint moments which may be influenced by differences in anatomical frame definition (Thewlis et al., 2008). Joint moments have strong sporting and clinical significance and may also be influenced by variations in the anatomical frame thus it is important to also consider their reliability. Finally, care should be taken when attempting to generalize the findings of this study to investigations examining pathological kinematics. It is likely that variations will exist in the relative contributions of the sources of measurement error in participants who exhibit an abnormal gait pattern (Gorton et al., 2009). For participants with skeletal alignment pathologies, palpation and subsequent marker placement may be more complex and result in reduced reliability (Gorton et al.
, 2009). In conclusion, based on the results obtained from the methodologies used in the current investigation, it appears that the anatomical co-ordinate axes of the lower extremities can be defined reliably. Future research should focus on the efficacy and advancement of markerless techniques. Table 2 Knee joint kinematics (means, standard deviations) from the stance limb as a function of Test and Retest anatomical co-ordinate axes (* = Significant main effect p��0.05). Table 5 Knee joint velocities (means, standard deviations) from the stance limb as a function of Test and Retest anatomical co-ordinate axes (* = Significant main effect p��0.05) Acknowledgments Our thanks go to Glen Crook for his technical assistance.
Uniform instructions on the Code of Points (CoP) in gymnastics under the Federation International Entinostat of Gymnastics (FIG) date back to 1949. Every four years after the Olympic Games, the FIG Technical Committee improves and further develops the CoP. Biomechanics research in gymnastics is a growing area of interest, especially when related to scoring of vault difficulty. Physical parameters of vaults are generally-known (Brueggeman, 1994; Prassas, 1995; 2006; Krug, 1997; Takei, 1991; 1998; 2007; Takei et al., 2000; ?uk and Kar��csony, 2004; Naundorf et al.
It is also possible to change from a low-intensity high-volume Perifosine chemical structure training zone to a higher intensity and lower volume zone. For example, a standing long jump is performed and 100% of the best standing long jump is achieved or sets of 8�C10 repetitions are planned, but the trainee achieves 12 repetitions per set in the first exercise of a training session. In this case rather than continuing with a training zone of 8�C10 repetitions a higher intensity zone (4�C6 repetitions) may be performed because fatigue is not indicated and it appears the trainee is ready to train at a high intensity. Flexible daily nonlinear periodization and training zone changes have been previously extensively discussed (Kraemer and Fleck 2007). To date, little research has been performed concerning flexible nonlinear periodization.
A variation of this type of periodization has been employed to maintain and increase physiological markers in collegiate Division I soccer players throughout a 16-week season (Silvestre et al. 2006). Resistance training sessions were changed to meet the players readiness to perform a specific type of training session based upon the strength and conditioning coaches subjective evaluation and heart rates during soccer practice sessions and games. The flexible nonlinear periodized program resulted in the maintenance of vertical jump ability, short sprint ability and maximal oxygen consumption throughout the season. However, significant increases in total lean tissue, leg lean tissue, trunk lean tissue, total body power (17% increase in repeat push press power) and lower body power (11% increase in repeat squat jumps followed by a short sprint) were shown pre – to post-season.
This study did not compare flexible nonlinear periodization to a different type of training. However, the results indicate the flexible nonlinear periodization did maintain or increase fitness markers throughout a soccer season. A comparison of a flexible daily nonlinear to nonlinear periodization indicates flexible nonlinear periodization offers some advantages (McNamara and Stearne 2010). Students in a college weight training class performed either a flexible nonlinear or planned (had to perform the planned training session on a specific day) nonlinear periodized program two times per week for 12 weeks.
The individuals performing the flexible nonlinear program could choose prior to a training session which of three training zones (10, 15, 20 repetitions per set) they would perform. However, at the end of the 12 weeks of training trainees in the flexible nonlinear program had to perform the same number of training sessions in each training zone as the planned nonlinear program. Pre- to post-training one repetition maximal (1 RM) chest press ability and maximal standing long jump ability Entinostat significantly increased with both training plans with no significant difference shown between plans.