For convenient comparison, these activity values of wild-type str

For convenient comparison, these activity values of wild-type strain were defined as 100% and used to normalize the activities check details of other strains. The data presented are the means of three replicates and error bars represents the standard deviation. The impact of BDSF and AHL Smoothened inhibitor signaling systems on B. cenocepacia H111 pathogenicity The impact of BDSF and AHL systems on B. cenocepacia virulence was evaluated by using C. elegans

infection models. Agreeable with the previous reports [14, 22], deletion of either rpfF Bc or cepI led to an reduction of virulence in both slow killing and fast killing assays of C. elegans (Figure 6A, 6B). Remarkably, deletion of both rpfF Bc and cepI completely or almost completely abolished the bacterial virulence against C. elegans (Figure 6A, 6B). Figure 6 Influence of RpfF Bc and CepI on the virulence of B. cenocepacia against C. elegans. (A) Mutants ∆rpfFBc (∆), ∆cepI (●) and ∆rpfFBc∆cepI (○) showed the reduced virulence compared with their parental wild-type strain H111 (□) in slow killing (A) and fast killing (B) assays. OP50 was used as the mock control. The data presented are the mean of triplicate experiments and the error bars represents the standard deviations. Discussion Many bacterial pathogens contain either AHL- or DSF-type QS systems in coordination of

bacterial physiology. The human opportunistic pathogen B. cenocepacia is one of the exceptions which contain

both BDSF and AHL signaling mechanisms [7, 12, 13, 15, 19, 23]. In this study, we Blebbistatin ic50 have investigated the relationship of the two QS systems in signaling modulation of bacterial physiology and virulence. Although the recently published results believe that the BDSF and AHL systems control overlap set and specific genes [17, 18], we found second that the two QS systems exert cumulative effect on bacterial motility, biofilm formation and virulence factor production (Figure 5A-C). In addition, we showed that BDSF regulates AHL signal production by influencing the c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase activity of its receptor RpfR. Given that both QS systems are widely conserved in the members of B. cepacia complex [7, 10], it would be of great interest to investigate whether the similar cross-talking mechanisms of the AHL and BDSF systems are conserved in other members of the Burkholderia species. The intracellular signal c-di-GMP is a widely conserved second messenger, which is known to be involved in the regulation of a range of biological activities, including bacterial motility, biofilm formation and virulence factor production [10, 24, 25]. The research progress over the last few years shows that c-di-GMP commonly controls various biological functions through interacting with different receptor or effector proteins, such as PilZ, FleQ, VpsT, LapD, FimX, PelD, and Clp [26–32].

However, recently several large human outbreaks of S suis have b

However, recently several large human outbreaks of S. suis have been described in China [3, 4], and Thailand

[5], whilst S. suis meningitis has become endemic in Vietnam [6, 7], suggesting that isolates that are more virulent to humans have emerged. The S. suis population is very heterogeneous as different serotypes, phenotypes, and genotypes are found. To date 33 capsular serotypes have been described for S. suis [2, 8] of which serotypes 1, 2, 7, 9, and 14 are most frequently isolated from diseased pigs in Europe [9]. In Northern America, besides these serotypes, serotypes 3 and 8 are frequently 17-AAG in vivo isolated from diseased animals [10, 11]. On European farms, it was shown that up to 81% of healthy animals carried one or more serotypes simultaneously and different genotypes of the same serotype could be isolated at one timepoint from the same animal [12]. Different phenotypes of serotype 2 were described that differ in their virulence; strains can be differentiated by NU7441 molecular weight protein expression of virulence markers muramidase released protein (MRP), extracellular factor (EF) and suilysin (SLY)

[13, 14]. Besides variation in protein expression observed among S. suis PF-6463922 strains, large heterogeneity also exists in gene composition [10, 15–17]. Recently, the genome sequence of S. suis serotype 2 strain P1/7 became available [7] enabling whole genome typing techniques for S. suis. In the present study, we performed oligonucleotide-based comparative genome

hybridization (CGH) using the genome sequence of strain P1/7 to evaluate gene conservation and diversity among S. suis strains. Fifty-five well characterized S. suis strains of various serotypes were analyzed in this CGH study. Results from CGH were clustered, and correlated with MLST data, SB-3CT serotyping results, and virulence of strains. We showed that groups of S. suis isolates can be identified by their own unique profile of putative virulence genes and regions of difference. Besides, a core genome for S. suis was defined. Methods Bacterial strains and growth conditions Bacterial isolates are described in Table 1. S. suis strains were grown on Columbia agar blood base plates (Oxoid Ltd., London, United Kingdom) containing 6% (vol/vol) horse blood. Cultures were grown in Todd-Hewitt broth (Oxoid). Escherichia coli was grown in Luria Broth (Oxoid) and plated on Luria Broth Agar (Oxoid). S. suis isolates used in this study were serotyped using the slide-agglutination test [18] before they were used in the study (Table 1). Expression of three virulence markers, MRP, EF, and SLY [19, 20] was confirmed for all isolates by Western blot analysis [9] using monoclonal antibodies against MRP, EF [21], or SLY [22] (Table 1). Table 1 Characteristics of bacterial strains used in this study.

26 The woody SDF endemics do not include the Equatorial Pacific e

26 The woody SDF endemics do not include the Equatorial Pacific endemics A SDF area of the political unit below 1,100 m.a.s.l.

aPeru: van der Werff and Consiglio (2004); Ecuador: Jørgensen and León-Yánez (1999) bPeru: Bracko and Zarucchi (1993) cEcuador: Jørgensen and León-Yánez (1999) dPeru: León et al. (2006) eEcuador: Valencia et al. (2000) Discussion Patterns of species Epacadostat purchase richness, endemism and distribution In the first comprehensive review of the floristics of neotropical SDF Alwyn Gentry (1995) noted that SDF ecosystems were less species rich and contained only a subset of the plant diversity found in the more humid forests. The lower diversity in the Equatorial Pacific SDFs is clearly due to the low levels of diversity within families and genera. A notable exception is Leguminosae. This family showed high levels of diversity at the generic (34 genera, 19% of the total), specific (70 species, 22% of the total) and endemic species level (15 endemics, 21% of the total). This is not surprising since several studies

have shown that this family is among the most, if not the most, prominent members of SDF in the Neotropics (Gentry 1995; Pennington et al. 2006). Malvaceae, on the contrary, are not necessarily regarded as important constituents of tropical dry forest communities (Pennington et al. 2006). Our data indicated that it is by far the second most important family contributing to the number of ABT-737 in vivo genera (15 genera, 8% of the total), FER species (19 species, 6% of the total) and endemic species (6 species,

9% of all endemics), although our results were based on an expanded Malvaceae concept (including 14 species from the former Sterculiaceae, Tilliaceae and Bombacaceae). Especially interesting was the subfamily Bombacoideae, contributing with several taxa (9 species, 6 genera). Gentry (1993), referring to the northern Peruvian SDFs already stated, “Fabaceae is the most speciose and dominant family of trees. Bombacaceae, though less speciose, are represented by five different genera of large trees and are probably more dominant here than elsewhere on earth”, a statement that we can certainly extend to the SDFs in the Equatorial Pacific region. A narrow concept of Malvaceae would place Boraginaceae, Cactaceae and Moraceae in second place, all with 12 species. In contrast to the low generic and specific diversity (as compared to humid rainforests), levels of endemism seem to be among the highest in the continent. We found 67 endemic species, which represent 21% of the total of woody SDF species reported in the Equatorial Pacific region. This percentage is similar to what Dodson and Gentry (1991) reported for the flora of a SDF in Ecuador and similar to their total estimate for the entire dry forest region in western lowland Ecuador. Considering only SDFs, they estimated that 19% of the species should be endemic (approximately 190 species). The whole flora of the region, including other vegetation types below 900 m.a.s.l.

Figure 3 Effects of BRCA1 on EGFR expression A–D, relative EGFR

Figure 3 Effects of BRCA1 on EGFR expression. A–D, relative EGFR mRNA levels after the overexpression or knockdown of BRCA1 in 293 T cells, human SKOV3 ovarian cancer cells, and primary non-mutated and BRCA1-mutated ovarian cancer cells. Bar graphs show mean ± SD. * P < 0.05 vs. normal. Sh, short hairpin RNAs; Op, overexpression. Discussion In this study, selleck compound we report an association between BRCA1 and EGFR status in ovarian cancer cells: (i) although EGFR expression was increased in BRCA1- and BRCA2-mutated ovarian cancer, only the BRCA1-mutated

group exhibited dramatically increased expression of EGFR compared with the non-BRCA1-mutated group; (ii) BRCA1 inactivation (BRCA1 mutation or promoter hypermethylation) dramatically increased the expression of EGFR; and (iii) Luminespib cost BRCA1 knockdown was an effective way to activate the EGFR gene. These results suggest that BRCA1 may be a Selleck Combretastatin A4 potential regulator of EGFR in ovarian cancer, although a similar phenomenon has even been observed in breast cancer [14]. It appears that BRCA1 rather than BRCA2 may be a potential regulator of EGFR expression. In agreement with

these findings, Nisman suggested that the concentration of soluble EGFR was significantly higher in women with BRCA1 mutations than in controls and women with BRCA2 mutations [8]. Interestingly, the activation effect due to the loss of BRCA1 was primarily observed in cells originating from ovarian C59 cancer, while 293 T cells were insensitive to the overexpression or knockdown of BRCA1. Hence, the induced expression of EGFR was likely to be the result of a complex interaction of special factors in ovarian cancer cells. Notably, several studies suggest that BRCA1 haploinsufficiency is more likely to become cancerous compared with the non-BRCA1-mutated group, due to an extraordinary ability for clonal growth and proliferation [15]. EGFR also plays an important role in regulating cell proliferation and resistance to cell apoptosis during cancer development [3]. As shown in Additional file 2 (methods shown in Additional file 3), BRCA1 knockdown-mediated EGFR overexpression is associated

with increased proliferation, and proliferative effects were reversed by the EGFR inhibitor erlotinib. Moreover, patients with low BRCA1-related high levels of EGFR showed a trend for poor survival (Additional file 4, methods shown in Additional file 3). Therefore, it can be predicted that BRCA1 inactivation-related high levels of EGFR may be involved in promoting ovarian cancer progression. To date, it is not fully understood how BRCA1 represses EGFR gene expression at the molecular level. However, is it possible that the repression takes place at the transcriptional level? Some insight was gained by a study demonstrating that BRCA1 is an important transcriptional regulator, which modulates the translational efficiency of approximately 7% of the mRNAs expressed in human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 [16].

087 2 08 5121, 5123 Household (n = 12,822) and guest service work

087 2.08 5121, 5123 Household (n = 12,822) and guest service workers (n = 940) 13,762 0.178 1.91 2142–2147, 7136, 7212, 7213, 7222, 7224, 7231–7233, 7311, 8120, 8211, 8223 Metal workers 6,063 0.127 1.86 7412 Bakers and confectioners 766 0.402 1.83 7311, 7343, 7346, 8142, 8143 Paper and printing industry workers 511 0.121 1.57 7137, 7240, 8282, 8283 Technicians 3,626 0.090 1.52 2450, 3470,

7124, 7141, 7142, 7331, 7420, 8141 Painters, carpenters, artists 1,901 0.133 1.26 1000, 2300, 4000, and others Office occupations and teachers 18,468 0.125 1.25 a(Sub-) major and minor groups padded with trailing zeros bAverage number of consultations of all 15 years in the German departments GANT61 nmr related to 1999 statistics of workers employed in the respective occupation(s) Blebbistatin mw according to “Bundesagentur für Arbeit” (Federal Labour Office, http://​www.​pub.​arbeitsagentur.​de/​hst/​services/​statistik/​detail_​2004/​b.​html, last accessed ABT-888 mouse 2009-07-23) Evidently, the crude prevalence varies considerably across the occupations and occupational groups, respectively. To examine the selection of patients

from different occupations, those patients consulting German IVDK departments were addressed (disregarding the 6,718 Austrian and Swiss patients). The average annual number of consultations per occupation served as the numerator, and the denominator was the number of persons employed in the respective occupational categories covered by the German statutory social security in 1999 (the central year of the study period). The proportion is given as per mille in the second right column of Table 1; considerable differences of almost one order of magnitude can be observed. There was no significant correlation between this proportion and the crude prevalence of positive patch test reactions to the thiuram mix in the German subgroup (Spearman rank correlation coefficient: 0.25, p = 0.24). In a next step, the multifactorial analysis yielded estimates of the relative risk in terms of PRs, which were mutually adjusted for all other factors included in the model.

Several of these factors were associated with a significantly increased risk of contact allergy to the thiuram mix (Tables 2, 3). Although the role of occupational exposures is in SDHB the focus of this paper, the other factors are nevertheless of interest and are thus shown (Table 2). While female sex and past or present atopic dermatitis were associated with a minute, 11 and 16% elevation of risk, a considerable age gradient of sensitisation risk can be observed, with risk almost doubled in the oldest age group. Interestingly, the overall risk of contact sensitisation to the thiuram mix apparently declined during the study period (p for trend < 0.0001). Among the anatomical sites of dermatitis, the hands are associated with the highest risk, followed by arms, legs and feet.

China Medical Science and Technology Press,

China Medical Science and Technology Press, Beijing Tilson R, Nyhus P (eds) (2010) Tigers of the world: the science, politics and conservation of panthera tigris, 2nd edn. Elsevier Inc., Amsterdam Vallee L, Hogbin T, Monks L, Makinson B, Matthes M, Rossetto M (2004) Guidelines for the translocation of threatened S63845 plants in Australia. Australian Network for Plant Conservation, Canberra Xu J-C (2011) China’s new forests aren’t as green as they seem. Nature 477:371PubMedCrossRef Xu H et al (2009) China’s progress toward the significant reduction of the rate of biodiversity loss. Bioscience 59:843–852CrossRef Xu Z-H, Jiang H, Ye

D-P, Liu E-D (2010) The wild orchids in Yunnan. Yunnan Publishing Group Corportation and Yunnan Science & Technology Press, Kunming Ya H, Wang S-C, Wang Z-T, Hu Z-B (2004) Structural analysis of polysaccharides from Dendrobium candidum. Chinese Pham J 39:254–256 (in Chinese) Zhang K (2011) Chinese nature reserves: closed or open?

Available from http://​finance.​sina.​com.​cn/​roll/​20110413/​00579677683.​shtml Accessed on 18 Oct 2012 Zhang L, Hua N, Sun S (2008) Wildlife trade, consumption and conservation LY2606368 in vivo awareness in southwest China. Biodivers Conserv 17:1493–1516CrossRef Zhou D-Q, Grumbine RE (2011) National parks in China: experiments with protecting nature and human livelihoods in Yunnan province, People’s Republic of China (PRC). Biol Conserv 144:1314–1321CrossRef Zhou L-C, Chen X-M, Li X-L, Yang X-Q, Xia W, Cui C (2010) Variation of physical parameters of soil under different rocky desertification in Karst region, Southwest China. J Earth Sci Environ 32:195–199 (in Chinese with an English abstract) Zhu G-H, Tsi Z-H, Wood J, Wood H-P (2009) 139. Dendrobium.

In: Wu Z-Y, Raven P, Hong D-Y (eds) Flora of China, vol 25. Beijing & Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis, pp 367–397″
“Erratum to: Biodivers Conserv DOI 10.1007/s10531-014-0633-6 The author wishes to correct the following errors in the original publication of the article. In the sentence in the Introduction, ‘Australia’s natural forest wood production has declined from 10.8 million m3 in 2000–2001 to 4.53 million m3 in 2010–2011 (ABARE 2013)’, the final figure and date should be 4.5 million m3 in 2011–2012, not 4.53 million m3 in 2010–2011. Under Total global I-BET151 roundwood production: C59 supplier data sources and sensitivity analysis, the sentence ‘Totals for global industrial roundwood and fuelwood developed by the above methods were then combined to derive global total roundwood production for the period 1945–1912’, should end with the date 2012, not 1912. In the legend of Fig. 2 the label for the first symbol should read ‘FAOSTAT 2014’, not ‘FAOStat 2012’.”
“Introduction Pollination is a key ecosystem service, underpinning the reproduction of ~78 % of temperate flowering plants (Ollerton et al. 2011) and influencing yields of ~75 % of global crops (Klein et al. 2007).

44 hypothetical

44 hypothetical check details protein (phage-related protein) XF0710 -183 CGGCACGGAGGGGGCA 8.44 hypothetical protein (phage-related protein) XF2093 -263 TGGCATCCAAAGTGCA 8.40 HlyD family secretion protein (XF2093-94) XF1640 -56 TGGCAGTGCTACTGCA 8.40 ankyrin-like protein XF2008 -44 CGGCACGCAACACGCA 8.30 hypothetical protein XF2733 -86 TGGCAACCGCATTGCG 8.28 hypothetical protein XF2408 -25 AGGCCCCGCAGTTGCG 8.28 hypothetical protein (XF2408-09-10) XF0567 -16 TGGAGCACTCTTTGCA 8.22 hypothetical protein XF2358 -36 TGGAACGCAATCTGCG

8.17 23S rRNA 5-methyluridine methyltransferase XF0726 -255 TGGCGTGGTGGCCGCA 8.14 hypothetical protein (XF0726-27-28-29) XF2202 -80 GGGGATGGGTGTTGCT 8.11 hypothetical protein XF0625 -46 TGGAATTGCTATTGCT 8.11 hypothetical protein XF0641 -179 TGGCAAAGCGGTTGAA 8.07 DNA methyltransferase (XF0641-40) * Distance between the -12 region of the promoter relative to the initiation codon. # Predicted RpoN-binding site detected upstream of the re-annotated initiation codon of XF1842 (glnA). Figure 2 Sequence logo for Xylella RpoN-binding site. RpoN-binding sites predicted by PATSER (44 sites with score

>7.95 shown in Table 3) were used to create the logo with the WebLogo generator http://​weblogo.​berkeley.​edu/​. buy PS-341 Functional classification of the genes associated to predicted RpoN-binding sites reveals the involvement of σ54 with several cellular functions, such as motility, transcription regulation, transport, carbon metabolism and protein degradation among others. However, a large number of genes (50%) encode proteins

FG4592 that have no attributed function (Table 3). The highest scoring RpoN-regulated promoter was located upstream of the pilA1 gene (XF2542), confirming a promoter previously characterized by primer extension analysis Aldol condensation and the role of σ54 in pili biogenesis [25]. The next best hit was found in front of a gene encoding a MarR transcriptional regulator (XF1354), the only regulatory gene associated with RpoN-binding site in our in silico analysis. MarR-like regulators control a variety of biological functions, including resistance to multiple antibiotics, organic solvents, sensing of aromatic compounds and regulation of virulence [40]. A regulatory gene belonging to σ54 regulon could explain how RpoN might indirectly control the expression of genes that are not associated with RpoN-binding sites. Predicted RpoN-binding sites were identified upstream of four putative operons encoding transport systems: two operons encoding translocases of the major facilitator superfamily (MSF) (XF1749-48-47-46 and XF1609-10-11), one operon encoding resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND) family efflux pump (XF2093-94) and the exbB-exbD-exbD2-XF0013 operon. Genes encoding transporters are regulated by sigma 54 in various bacteria such as E. coli [19], P. putida [20] and Rhizobiaceae [21], although most of these transporters are of the ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) type.

The fragment was

The Torin 1 in vivo fragment was Selleck MEK162 sequenced and inserted into plasmids. Figure 2 Cloning of miR-9 target gene. A, identification of junction fragment of norientation. There was a 430 bp fragment, which demonstrated that the fragment was norientation. B, junction fragment digested by XbaI. The 360 bp fragment was destination fragment. Figure 3 Cloning of miR-433 target gene. A, identification of junction fragment of norientation. There was a 580 bp fragment, which demonstrated

that the fragment was norientation. B, junction fragment digested by XbaI. The 360 bp fragment was destination fragment. We measured luciferase activity and the relative light unit (RLU) at 48 h after the transfection. Luciferase activity of cells cotransfected pGL3-miR-9 and hsa-miR-9 decreased selleck kinase inhibitor 50% compared with pGL3-miR-9 (P < 0.05) (Figure 4A). Luciferase activity of cells cotransfected pGL3-miR-433 and hsa-miR-433 decreased by 54% compared with pGL3-miR-433 (P < 0.05) (Figure 4B). Figure 4 miR-9 and miR-433 down regulated luciferase activity of RAB34 and GRB2. A, miR-9 regulated luciferase activity by integrating the binding site in the 3'-UTR of RAB34. Luciferase activity of SGC7901 cotransfected pGL3-miR-9 and hsa-miR-9 decreased 50% compared with pGL3-miR-9 (P < 0.05). B, miR-433 regulated luciferase activity by integrating the binding site in the 3'-UTR of GRB2. Luciferase activity of SGC7901 cotransfected pGL3-miR-433 and hsa-miR-433

decreased 54% compared with pGL3-miR-433

(P < 0.05). The expression level of RAB34 and GRB2 were measured after miR-9 or miR-433 were transfected into SGC7901. The expression of RAB34 decreased 45% in group 1 and 72% in group 2 compared with control group (P < 0.05) ID-8 (Figure 5A). The expression of GRB2 decreased 53% in group 1 and 89% in group 2 compared with control group (P < 0.05) (Figure 5B). Meanwhile, we measured the level of miR-9 and miR-433 by qRT-PCR. MiR-9 level increased 1.3-fold and 2.8-fold respectively in group 1 and 2 compared with control group (P < 0.05) (Figure 6A). MiR-433 level increased1.6-fold and 3.0-fold in group 1 and 2 compared with control group (P < 0.05) (Figure 6B). Figure 5 miR-9 and miR-433 down regulated RAB34 and GRB2 expression in SGC7901 cell line. A, RAB34 decreased 45% and 72% compared with control group after 50 pmol (group 1) and 100 pmol (group 2) hsa-miR-9 transfection. Relative gray scale value was compared with β-actin. B, GRB2 decreased 53% and 89% compared with control group after 50 pmol (group 1) and 100 pmo l (group 2) hsa-miR-433 transfection. Relative gray scale value was compared with β-actin. Figure 6 MiR-9 and miR-433 increased after hsa-miR-9 and hsa-miR-433 transfection. A, miR-9 level increased 1.3-fold and 2.8-fold respectively after 50 pmol (group 1) and 100 pmol (group 2) hsa-miR-9 transfection. B, miR-433 level increased 1.6-fold and 3.0-fold respectively after 50 pmol (group1) and 100 pmol (group 2) hsa-miR-433 transfection. (P < 0.05).

1995 Lumbsch and Huhndorf 2010 Present studya Auerswaldia Auerswa

1995 Lumbsch and Huhndorf 2010 Present studya Auerswaldia Auerswaldia Amarenomyces Auerswaldiella Aplosporella Auerswaldiella Auerswaldiella Auerswaldiella Barriopsis Auerswaldia Bagnisiella

#SBE-��-CD in vitro randurls[1|1|,|CHEM1|]# Botryosphaeria Botryosphaeria Botryosphaeria Auerswaldiella Botryosphaeria Discochora (= Guignardia) Dothidotthia Guignardia Barriopsis Cleistosphaeria Dothidotthia? Sivanesania Leptoguignardia Botryobambusa Ellisiodothis Homostegia   Neodeightonia Botryosphaeria/Fusiccocum b Guignardia Leptoguignardia   Phaeobotryon Cophinforma Montagnellina Neodeightonia   Phaeobotryosphaeria Endomelanconiopsis Microdothiella Phyllachorella   Saccharata Diplodia Muyocopron     Sivanesania Dothiorella Parastigmatea     Spencermartinsia Lasiodiplodia Pilgeriella       Leptoguignardia Pyrenostigme       Macrophomina Trabutia       Macrovalsaria Vestergrenia       Melanops WH-4-023 price         Neodeightonia         Neofusicoccum         Neoscytalidium         Phaeobotryon         Phaeobotryosphaeria/Sphaeropsis c         Phyllachorella         Phyllosticta/Guignardia d         Pseudofusicoccum         Pyrenostigme         Saccharata         Sivanesania         Spencermartinsia         ?Tiarosporella         Vestergrenia aIf two names are known for the genus both names are listed.

The name that should be used following the introduction of the rule requiring a genus to have a single name is listed first and in bold b Botryosphaeria is preferred over Fusicoccum, even though the latter Grape seed extract is the older name because this name has been used against Fusicoccum in recent publications, it is the type of the order and family, it is more commonly recorded in publications and as a pathogen (e.g. Slippers et al. 2004b; Crous et al. 2006) c Phaeobotryosphaeria is preferred over Sphaeropsis; even through the latter is the older name because this name has been used against Sphaeropsis in recent publications (e.g. Phillips et al. 2008). Sphaeropsis is

also likely to be polyphyletic dA case has already been presented for using Phyllosticta in Wikee et al. (2011a) Auerswaldia Sacc., Syll. Fung. 2:626 (1883) MycoBank: MB463 Saprobic on dead wood. Ascostromata black, superficial, gregarious, becoming erumpent at maturity, but still under host surface, flattened at the upper surface, globose to subglobose, with 4 to numerous locules, with individual ostioles, cells of ascostromata brown-walled textura angularis. Peridium of locules two-layered, outer layer composed of small heavily pigmented thick-walled cells of textura angularis, inner layer composed of hyaline thin-walled cells of textura angularis. Pseudoparaphyses not observed. Asci 6–8–spored, bitunicate, fissitiunicate, clavate to cylindro-clavate, with a short pedicel, apically rounded, with a small ocular chamber. Ascospores hyaline to brown, aseptate, oblong to ovate. Conidiomata pycnidial, immersed in the host tissue and becoming erumpent at maturity, globose, coriaceous, dark brown in the erumpent part.

Scleroramularia henaniensis G Y Sun, H Y Li & Crous, sp nov F

Scleroramularia henaniensis G.Y. Sun, H.Y. Li & Crous, sp. nov. Fig. 7

Fig. 7 Scleroramularia henaniensis (CPC 18167). A. Colony on malt extract agar. B. fragmenting conidia in older cultures on synthetic nutrient-poor agar. C. Two conidia joined by hyphal bridge (anastomosis). D–H. Disarticulating conidial chains. Scale bars = 10 μm MycoBank MB517456. Etymology: Named after its type locality, Henan Province, China. Scleroramulariae asiminae morphologice valde similis, sed conidiis brevioribus; conidiis basalibus, anguste cylindraceis, 1–3-septatis, 22–70 × 1.5–2 μm; conidiis intercalaribus et terminalibus anguste ellipsoideis vel fusoidibus-ellipsoideis, 0–3-septatis, (7–)12–17(–20) × (1.5–)2(–2.5) μm. On selleckchem SNA. Mycelium creeping, superficial and submerged, consisting of hyaline, smooth, branched, septate, 1–2 μm diam hyphae.

Conidiophores mostly reduced to conidiogenous cells, or with one supporting cell. Conidiogenous cells solitary, erect, intercalary on hyphae, subcylindrical, straight, with 1–2 terminal loci, rarely with a lateral locus, 2–5 × 2–3 μm; scars thickened, darkened and somewhat refractive, 0.5–1 μm wide. Conidia in branched chains, hyaline, smooth, finely guttulate, straight or gently curved if long and thin; basal conidia mostly narrowly cylindrical, 1–3-septate, 22–70 × 1.5–2 μm; intercalary and terminal conidia becoming more narrowly ellipsoid Proteasome activity to fusoid-ellipsoid, 0–3-septate, (7–)12–17(–20) × (1.5–)2(–2.5) μm; hila thickened, darkened and somewhat refractive, 0.5–1 μm wide. Culture characteristics: After 2 weeks at 25°C sporulating profusely on SNA, white with abundant aerial mycelium, reaching 20 mm diam. On OA flattened, spreading, with sparse aerial mycelium, and even, raised margins, white, reaching 20 mm diam. On MEA spreading, flattened, with sparse aerial mycelium,

surface white, ridged, with feathery margin; ITF2357 mouse reverse umber in middle, orange to sienna in outer region, reaching 15 mm diam; surface white, reverse umber in centre and outer region. On PDA flattened, spreading, with moderate aerial mycelium, and feathery margin; much surface cream to white, reverse umber in middle, sienna in outer region, reaching 20 mm diam after 2 weeks. Black, globose bodies (sclerotia), variable in size, are sparsely formed on MEA and PDA. Appearance on apple: Compact speck consisting of shiny, black, flattened sclerotium-like bodies, round to irregular (35–418 μm diam) appressed to the cuticle and densely arranged (5–22/mm2) with irregular margins. Specimen examined: CHINA, Henan Province, Lingbao, on fruit surface of apple cv. ‘Fuji’, 6. Oct. 2006, H. Li, CBS H-20481 holotype, ex-type cultures CPC 18167 = 06-LHY-HNIb-8 = CBS 128073. USA, Kentucky, on fruit surface of apple cv. ‘Golden Delicious’, Sept. 2005, P. Tokosh, CPC 16104 = KY238B1a = CBS 128074; USA, New York, on fruit surface of apple cv. ‘Gold Rush’, Oct. 2005, D. Rosenberger, CPC 16106 = NY2CS4b = CBS 128075.