Conversely, an increase in Bim could have interesting consequences. Activation of Bim-mediated lymphocyte killing upon pro-apoptotic BH3-mimetics could adjust the balance between activated and regulatory lymphocyte populations and ameliorate colitis. Inducing apoptosis of autoreactive lymphocytes could be a new promising therapeutic
strategy for CD patients. This work was supported by the Swiss National Foundation (M.H., 31003A_127247) and the Broad Medical Research Program (M.H., IBD-0324R). We thank the microscopy centre at the University of Zurich (ZMB) for technical assistance. K.L., M.K., M.F. and M.H. have no conflicts buy LBH589 of interest to disclose. G.R. discloses grant support from Abbot, Ardeypharm, Essex, FALK, Flamentera, Novartis, Roche, Tillots, UCB and Zeller.
“The adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) is the major cellular adenosine receptor commonly associated with immunosuppression. Here, we investigated whether A2AR activation holds the potential for impacting the severity of experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG) induced following immunization of Lewis rats with the acetylcholine receptor (AChR) R97–116 peptide. This INCB024360 cost report demonstrates reduced A2AR expression by both T cells and B cells residing in spleen and lymph nodes following EAMG induction. A2AR stimulation inhibited anti-AChR antibody production and proliferation of AChR-specific lymphocytes in vitro. Inhibition was blocked with the A2AR antagonists or protein kinase A inhibitor. We also determined that the development of EAMG was accompanied by a T-helper cell imbalance that could be restored following A2AR stimulation that resulted in increased Treg cell levels and a reduction in Th1-, Th2-, and Th17-cell subtypes. An EAMG-preventive treatment regimen was established that consisted of (2-(p-(2-carbonylethyl)phenylethylamino)-5-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine) (CGS21680; A2AR agonist) administration 1 day prior to EAMG induction. Administration
of CGS21680 next 29 days post EAMG induction (therapeutic treatment) also ameliorated disease severity. We conclude that A2AR agonists may represent a new class of compounds that can be developed for use in the treatment of myasthenia gravis or other T-cell- and B-cell-mediated autoimmune diseases. Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a B-cell-mediated, T-cell-dependent autoimmune disease characterized by excessive muscle weakness and fatigue []. The development of an autoimmune response to the neural acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) present at neuromuscular junctions leads to the production of function-blocking anti-nAChR antibodies and this results in symptoms characteristic to MG [[2, 3]].