These differences did not reach statistical significance probably because of small number of patients in these groups. Short duration of levamisole therapy as compared with previous studies might be another contributing factor to the negative seroconversion in two patients in the levamisole group. In earlier studies, the seroconversion rate in haemodialysis patients 1 year after tetanus vaccination has been reported to range from 38% to 65%.[3,
4] However, in our study, only 33% and 25% of the patients in the placebo group developed protective levels of anti-tetanus IgG antibodies 1 and 6 months post-vaccination. Our patients were on low-flux haemodialyser. Low-flux haemodialysers cannot remove large this website molecules like β2-microglobuin Accumulation of these molecules have been reported to be associated systemic toxicity and worsened outcomes like all-cause mortality and death check details from infectious causes.[16, 17] Therefore, being dialysed with low-flux dialyser may be one of the contributing factors to the observed lower rate of seroconversion in our placebo group. In agreement with previous studies,[6, 8-10] our results show that levamisole supplementation could
result in mild and reversible adverse effects like leukopenia and gastrointestinal symptoms in haemodialysis patients. However, levamisole supplementation generally appears to be safe and without major side effects. In conclusion, our study shows that levamisole supplementation could effectively enhance the response rate to tetanus vaccination in haemodialysis patients without having any major side effects. Further studies with larger sample sizes and longer durations of follow-up are needed to better evaluate the enhancing effects of levamisole on tetanus vaccination and also on other vaccines in haemodialysis patients. This trial is registered with Clinicaltrial.gov, number NCT00705692. This trial was funded by a grant from Shiraz University of Medical
Sciences. The authors have no conflict of interest Thalidomide to declare. “
“Aims: Prohibitin (PHB), a ubiquitous protein, is involved in a variety of molecular functions. Renal interstitial fibrosis (RIF) is a hallmark of common progressive chronic diseases that lead to renal failure. This study was performed to investigate whether PHB was associated with Caspase-3 expression/cell apoptosis in RIF rats. Methods: Twenty-four male Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: sham operation group (SHO) and model group subjected to unilateral ureteral obstruction (GU), n = 12, respectively. The model was established by left ureteral ligation. Renal tissues were collected at 14 days and 28 days after surgery.