“Purpose: Repair of nasal and auricular malformation remai

“Purpose: Repair of nasal and auricular malformation remains an obstacle for clinicians because of poor regenerative capacity of cartilage and limitation of donor sites. In the Current study, we developed a novel approach to regenerate implantable nasal alar cartilage by using marrow precursor cell (MPC) sheet and biodegradable Scaffold of polylactic acid-polyglycolic acid copolymer (PLGA).

Materials and Methods: Rabbit MPCs were expanded and induced by transforming growth fictor-beta to improve chondrocyte phenotype. MPC sheets were obtained by continuous culture and used to wrap PLGA scaffold in the shape of the human nasal alar.

The constructs were incubated in a spinner flask for 4 weeks, and cartilage formation was investigated by gross inspection and histological examination. BAY 73-4506 research buy The constructs were then implanted subcutaneously into a nude mouse. Specimens were harvested and analyzed 4 weeks after implantation.

Results: The results showed that cartilaginous tissue formed and PLGA absorbed during in vitro incubation. Histological analysis showed engineered cartilage consisted of event, spaced lacunae embedded in a matrix rich in proteoglycans, and kept the FK228 ic50 initial shape of the nasal alar. Based on this “”MPC sheet combining polymer strategy,”" implantable nasal alar could be successfully regenerated.

Conclusion: This strategy has the advantage

of high cell transplantation efficiency and great potential for clinical application. (C) 2009 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons”
“The radiation properties of nonpolar AlGaN quantum wells (QWs) were theoretically investigated by comparing them to those of c-plane AlGaN QWs with heavy holes as the top valence band (VB). First, the conditions to find more minimize the threshold

carrier density of c-plane QW laser diodes were explored. A thin well width (similar to 1 nm) and reduction of the Al content in the well layer were important to reduce threshold carrier density because narrow wells suppressed the quantum confined Stark effect and AlGaN with a lower Al content had a lower density of states. Moreover, the emission wavelength was widely controlled by tuning the Al contents of both the well and barrier layers under the proposed conditions. Then the properties of nonpolar AlGaN QWs were investigated. Nonpolar AlGaN had several superior characteristics compared to c-plane QWs, including large overlap integrals, optical polarization suitable for both edge and surface emissions, an almost linearly polarized optical dipole between the conduction band and top VB due to the isolated VBs, and a reduced VB density of state. Finally, the threshold carrier densities of both nonpolar and optimized c-plane QWs were compared as functions of the transition wavelength. At a given wavelength, the threshold of nonpolar QWs was lower than that of c-plane ones.

Transmission electron microscopy and nanoparticle tracking showed

Transmission electron microscopy and nanoparticle tracking showed near uniform particles of approximately 3035 nm in diameter for pORF2 VLPs and 60100 nm for reporter-linked VLPs. Binding of reporter-linked full-length (1660aa) and N-terminal truncated (?1112aa) pORF2 VLPs to Huh7 cell surfaces was found to be specific with 1.92 +/- 0.065 x 105 sites per cell. Saturation binding indicated an equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd) of 121.1 +/- 23.83 and 123.8 +/- 16.15 nm for pORF2-linker-EGFP and pORF2-linker-Fluc VLPs respectively. A similar binding pattern was observed

for ?1112aa mTOR activation pORF2-linker-EGFP and ?1112aa pORF2-linker-Fluc VLPs with Kd values of 123.6 +/- 10.60 and 135.6 +/- 16.19 nm respectively. The affinity (log Ki) of pORF2 binding on Huh7 cells in the presence of EGFP-tagged and Fluc-tagged pORF2 VLPs was found to be approximately 2.0. However, no VLP formation or binding was observed www.selleckchem.com/products/urmc-099.html with refolded C-terminal truncated (?458660aa) pORF2. We investigated HEV internalization using fluorescent VLPs (EGFP-VLPs), which showed vesicle-mediated uptake starting at 5 min post-incubation. The uptake of VLPs could be stopped by inhibitors for clathrin-dependent

endocytosis, but not by caveosome inhibitors. No binding and uptake of EGFP-VLPs were observed on non-hepatic cell lines (HeLa and SiHa). These findings suggest that HEV attaches to the host cell via a specific high affinity receptor and enters the cytoplasm by clathrin-mediated endocytosis.”
“The formation mechanism of 360 degrees domain walls (360DW) created in an exchange-biased bilayer of Co(65.5)Fe(14.5)B(20)/Ir(22)Mn(78) is described. The structural buy HKI-272 and magnetic properties are experimentally characterized and incorporated

into a micromagnetic model of exchange-bias for granular anti-ferromagnetic films. This model is used to study and explain the formation mechanism of 360DWs in the ferromagnetic layer, which occur due to interface coupling to the antiferromagnetic layer. The validity of the resulting calculated magnetization maps are examined by comparing simulated and experimental Fresnel-contrast images of the bilayer. Energy barrier simulations are used to explain the dependence of the areal size and spatial frequency of the 360DW on the anisotropy energy of the anti-ferromagnetic layer. These calculations also show how such structures can form at room temperature at relatively low applied magnetic fields. Calculations based on this model are in agreement with imaging using Lorentz transmission electron microscopy and the measured macro-magnetic properties. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3642982]“
“Background: Liver transplantation and resection surgery involve a period of ischaemia and reperfusion to the liver which initiates an inflammatory cascade resulting in liver and remote organ injury.

Experimental models are providing very important data on the in-v

Experimental models are providing very important data on the in-vitro and in-vivo behavior of Tregs in transplantation, while

recent clinical trials of ��-catenin signaling Treg cellular therapy in graft-versus-host disease are offering a valuable insight into the efficacy of Treg adoptive cellular therapy.


Data in favor of Treg cellular therapy in transplantation are mounting, and we predict that their use in clinical trials is on the horizon.”
“Objective: To assess and compare fetal behavior and neurodevelopment (KANET) between low and high risk pregnancies. Methods: Prospective, comparative, cohort study. One hundred and fifty-two consecutive pregnant women presenting for routine 2nd trimester and 3rd trimester scan had four dimensional ultrasound examinations (4D US) in order to assess buy Cl-amidine fetal behavior and neurodevelopment. This was achieved by the study of: (1) isolated head movements, (2) isolated hand movements, (3) isolated leg movements, (4) cranial sutures, (5) hand to face/head movements, (6) finger movements, (7) yawning – mouthing, (8) facial expressions, (9) isolated eye blinking, (10) “”Gestalt”" perception. According to the maternal background risk, the population

of the study was classified in low risk pregnancies (n = 78) and high risk pregnancies (n = 74) with IUGR fetuses (n = 12), diabetes mellitus (n = 24), and pre-eclampsia (n = 38). Results: The neurodevelopmental score was statistically significant higher in the low risk group compared to the high risk group (p < 0.0004). The diabetes subgroup score was statistically significantly higher compared to the IUGR and the pre-eclampsia subgroup (p = 0.0001). Conclusions: The neurodevelopment fetal assessment by 4D ultrasound appears to be a feasible technique in the evaluation of high risk pregnancies. Further studies where any association between KANET score and neurological outcome of the childhood are warranted.”
“Purpose of review

Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are a heterogeneous

population of immature cells that are considered as potential therapeutic targets. Indeed, selleck products MDSCs have been shown to suppress immune responses to several types of tumor cells and blocking their suppressive activity may adequately enhance immune response against tumor antigens. On the contrary, the activity of MDSCs may be desirable in suppressing unwanted immune responses such as allograft rejection and might be involved as non-T regulatory cells in the induction and maintenance of transplantation tolerance. In addition, recent data reported that MDSC also control innate immune responses suggesting that MDSC might be important players in controlling ischemia reperfusion injury.

Recent findings

Herein, we focused on the few recent studies questioning the possible role played by MDSCs in solid-organ transplantation as well as in experimental models of graft versus host disease.

Since the Plasmodium genome is highly AT rich, there is considera

Since the Plasmodium genome is highly AT rich, there is considerable sequence site diversity even for the structurally and functionally conserved enzymes between Plasmodium and humans. CPP can be used to deliver ZFN to the intracellular nucleus of the parasite. Signal-peptide-based

heterologous protein translocation to Plasmodium-infected RBCs (iRBCs) and different Plasmodium organelles have been achieved. With successful fusion of CPP with mitochondrial-and nuclear-targeting peptides, fusion of CPP with 1 more Plasmodium cell membrane translocation peptide seems achievable.

Implications of the hypothesis: Targeting of the Plasmodium genome using ZFN has great potential for the development of anti-malarial drugs. It allows the development of a single drug against all malarial infections, including multidrug-resistant strains. Availability ACY-241 ic50 of multiple ZFN target sites in a single gene will provide alternative drug target sites to combat the development of resistance Selleck Rabusertib in the future.”
“Introduction: Bladder augmentation

predisposes humans to many metabolic, renal and enteropatch changes. Our aim was to evaluate in a rat model of ileocystoplasty mid- and long-term urinary, metabolic, renal and graft changes. Materials and Methods: We performed an ileocystoplasty and a sham operation in 30 rats. Seven augmented rats and 3 sham-operated animals were euthanized after 1, 3 and 6 months. We performed urinalysis, urine culture and blood sampling for serum electrolytes

and urea. Histopathological changes of the ileal patch and kidneys were also evaluated. Results: The urine cultures were positive in 14.3, 57 and 71%, respectively, 1, 3 and 6 months after surgery. Urinary pH, serum chloride and urea of the augmented group were significantly higher. Bladder calculi were formed in 23.8% of ileocystoplasty. Histopathological examination showed urothelialization of the graft with hyperplastic/metaplastic changes. The kidneys showed glomerular depletion and a marked distal tubular ectasia. Conclusions: Our data showed that, in GW3965 a mid-and long-term follow-up, rat bladders subjected to ileocystoplasty displayed hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis, electrolyte imbalance, enhanced serum blood urea levels and glomerular/tubular changes. Hyperplastic and/or metaplastic changes at the junctional zone were observed. Our experimental results suggest that frequent monitoring of renal function and surveillance of humans who have undergone ileocystoplasty are recommended. Copyright (C) 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“Activity in neural circuits is spatiotemporally organized. Its spatial organization consists of multiple, localized coherent patterns, or patchy clusters. These patterns propagate across the circuits over time. This type of collective behavior has ubiquitously been observed, both in spontaneous activity and evoked responses; its function, however, has remained unclear.

Without corn stover (substrate) in the saccharification process,

Without corn stover (substrate) in the saccharification process, examinations by UV absorption spectra and FTIR demonstrate that

the interactions AS1842856 mw between PEG4000 and CBH I are hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interaction. In addition, it is found that the activity of CBH I is decreased with increasing interaction time and the amount of the PEG4000 added in the saccharification process.

CONCLUSION: The addition of PEG4000 before cellulase to lignocellulose saccharification processes is a reasonable way to improve the saccharification rate of lignocellulose. (C) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry”
“Biologics such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors are highly effective for treating severe psoriasis, and an increasing number of patients www.selleckchem.com/products/xmu-mp-1.html benefit from them. However, subsidiary subjects have arisen in the course of treatment which may directly impact the continued use of these drugs in a given case. In this article, we report two cases of psoriasis vulgaris refractory to treatment with both adalimumab and infliximab. We measured the

serum drug concentration and absorbance value of antidrug antibodies using the sandwich enzyme-linked immunoassay method. Antibodies to adalimumab and infliximab were detected in both patients. The low drug concentration and adverse clinical response observed corroborated these findings. Dosage and concomitant medication are considered to be important factors influencing the development of antibody formation. Therapeutic drug monitoring and measurement of antidrug antibodies will assist in maintaining a clinical response and in optimizing the response of patients being treated www.selleckchem.com/products/Flavopiridol.html with biological therapies. The use of concomitant immunosuppressive medication should be considered for patients

who will be treated with their second TNF inhibitor after having developed antidrug antibodies against their first TNF inhibitor.”
“BACKGROUND: There is a lack of systematic studies of biodegradation of mixtures of VOCs with different hydrophobicities in two-phase partitioning bioreactors (TPPBs). The role of tailored mixtures of solid polymers on the biodegradation of MEK (low hydrophobicity), toluene (moderate hydrophobicity) and hexane (high hydrophobicity) was evaluated under steady state operation and transient loading (2- and 3.6-fold 4 h step increase) in TPPBs. Two mixtures of polymer beads (A and B) were selected based on their 2 h partition coefficients for the target VOCs tested, biocompatibility and resistance to microbial attack.

RESULTS: The addition of polymer mixture A (20%) into the bioreactor resulted in a severe microbial inhibition, likely due to the leaching of a polymer component, however, the presence of polymer mixture B (20%) supported removal efficiencies (REs) comparable with those recorded in the absence of polymers during steady state operation (hexane, toluene and MEK REs of 7%, 76% and 98%).

Nine homoisoflavones (1-9) yielded from this extract were further

Nine homoisoflavones (1-9) yielded from this extract were further examined for their antioxidative activities. Among these chemicals tested, five homoisoflavones (1-3, 5 and 7), six homoisoflavones (1-3 and 5-7) and two homoisoflavones (4 and 5) resulted in showing higher activities than the others in DPPH radical, H2O2 and NO scavenging assays, respectively. Calculated EC50 values indicate 3 as the strongest in the DPPH radical scavenging analysis. These results may indicate a potential role of S. scilloides for its medicinal use and homoisoflavones as the antioxidants responsible.”
“Objectives and aims: We examine the efficacy and complications of general anesthesia

with ilioinguinal-iliohypogastric selleck chemical nerve block performed on expremature neonates undergoing inguinal herniotomy.

Background: The ex-premature neonate has many co-morbidities and is at risk of postoperative apnea and bradycardia. Anesthesia techniques aimed to provide good surgical conditions include general anesthesia and central neuroaxial techniques. There are still significant complications after these techniques

and none is superior.

Methods/Materials: A retrospective search of our department’s computer database was conducted on ex-premature neonates, post-menstrual age of RepSox in vivo 48 weeks and under, who received general anesthesia and ilioinguinal-iliohypogastric nerve block for bilateral inguinal herniotomy from 1997 to 2009.


Eighty-two neonates were selected. All medical notes were traced and information including the demographics, co-morbidities CCI-779 purchase and perioperative data were obtained. The mean gestational age was 30.3 weeks (SD +/- 3.2) and the mean post-conception age was 40.0 weeks (SD +/- 3.1). Mean birth weight was 1284 g (SD +/- 518) and mean weight at the time of surgery was 2795 g (SD +/- 958). Thirty-two (39.0%) neonates had apnea of prematurity, which required caffeine treatment. Thirty-five (42.7%) neonates required intubation for ventilatory support preoperatively. There was a good success rate of the ilioinguinal-iliohypogastric nerve block in 73 (89.0%) patients. They were deemed successful clinically by the attending anesthesiologist. No perioperative rescue opioid was required. Four neonates had postoperative apnea requiring intervention.

Conclusion: Ilioinguinal-iliohypogastric nerve block has a success rate similar to other techniques and when combined with general anesthesia, provides a viable alternative technique of anesthesia in these high-risk patients.”
“”"Negative resistance”" errors due to nonuniform current distributions significantly distort the apparent electronic performance of devices formed with crossed wires, demonstrated here by resistance, magnetoresistance, current-voltage, and variable temperature measurements with and without corrections.

A detailed literature review was conducted on epidemiology, risk

A detailed literature review was conducted on epidemiology, risk factors, pathophysiology, chemoprevention and outcomes of colorectal cancer (CRC) in IBD as part of the 3rd ECCO scientific pathogenesis workshop. Crown Copyright (C) 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of European Crohn’s and Colitis Organisation. All rights reserved.”
“Study Design and Objective. This study performs a meta-analysis to compare complication rates from vertebroplasty (VP) and kyphoplasty (KP).

Summary of Background Data. Recently, the development of VP and balloon KP has been shown to provide symptomatic relief and restoration of sagittal alignment of vertebral compression fractures refractory

to medical therapy. Complications in treatment of vertebral compression fractures AZD2014 ic50 are rare, however can be potentially devastating. Fortunately, clinical sequelae are rare; however, severe clinical complications from cement extravasation have been reported.

Methods. Using PubMed find more and Ovid, we performed a literature search for “”kyphoplasty,”" “”vertebroplasty,”" and “”vertebral augmentation.”" This search was performed

in December 2006. Case reports and reports not available in English were excluded. We categorized complications in 3 categories: (1) procedure-related complications, (2) medical complications, and (3) new vertebral fracture. Cement leakage, asymptomatic and symptomatic, and its locations were recorded. We performed a meta-analysis of complications of all studies. We then repeated the meta-analysis examining only prospective studies. We then used proportion analysis to determine statistical significance. We defined statistical significance as a P value less than 0.05.

Results. We identified 121 reports of KP and/or VP that specifically addressed complications. buy PFTα Of these studies, 33 addressed KP and 82 addressed VP (6 reports addressed complications of both). There were 29 reports in which the data appeared to be collected prospectively. Of these, 9 addressed KP and 21 addressed VP.

VP was found to have a significantly increased

rate of procedure-related complications than KP in the analysis of all studies and only prospective studies. VP also appears to have a significantly higher rate of symptomatic and asymptomatic cement leakage than KP (P < 0.05). The incidence of medical complications was significantly higher in the KP procedure; however, this difference was not observed when analyzing only prospective studies. The incidence of new fracture was significantly higher in the VP procedure; however, this was not observed when analyzing only prospective studies.

Conclusion. VP and KP are 2 minimally invasive procedures that have been shown to be effective in the treatment of symptomatic vertebral compression fractures.

Finally, our logical model can be used to explore novel different

Finally, our logical model can be used to explore novel differentiation pathways in silico.”
“Astragalus polysaccharides (APS), extracted from the root of Astragalus membranaceus, a traditional Chinese medicinal herb, have extensive pharmacological and strong immunomodulatory effects. In this study, the potential adjuvant effect of APS on humoral and cellular immune responses to hepatitis B subunit vaccine was investigated.

Coadministration of APS with recombinant hepatitis B surface antigen significantly increased antigen-specific antibody production, T-cell proliferation and CTL (cytotoxic T lymphocyte) activity. Production of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), interleukin-2 (IL-2) and IL-4 in CD4(+) T cells and of IFN-gamma in CD8(+) T cells were dramatically increased. Furthermore, expression of the genes PFP, GraB, Fas L and Fas were up-regulated; interestingly, expression of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) https://www.selleckchem.com/products/z-ietd-fmk.html Wnt inhibitor and the frequency of CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Treg cells) were down-regulated. Expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) was significantly increased by administration of APS. Together,

these results suggest that APS is a potent adjuvant for the hepatitis B subunit vaccine and can enhance both humoral and cellular immune responses via activating the TLR4 signaling pathway and inhibit the expression of TGF-beta and frequency of Treg cells.”
“In this paper, we present the design and performance of a MEMS-device based on the magnetostrictive effect, which can be used as a micro-loudspeaker. The device basically consists of a comb structure of monomorph bending cantilevers with an active area up to 3.0 x 2.5 mm(2). It produces a sound-pressure-level

up to 101 dB at 400 Hz in a standard 2 ccm measurement volume. We show our measurement setup as well as a mechanic-acoustic-coupled lumped element model to Ulixertinib research buy calculate sound pressure. The model incorporates finite element results for mechanical behavior. Measurement results validate our model assumptions. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3554200]“
“Synchronized gamma frequency oscillations in neural networks are thought to be important to sensory information processing, and their effects have been intensively studied. Here we describe a mechanism by which the nervous system can readily control gamma oscillation effects, depending selectively on visual stimuli. Using a model neural network simulation, we found that sensory response in the primary visual cortex is significantly modulated by the resonance between “”spontaneous” and “”stimulus-driven” oscillations. This gamma resonance can be precisely controlled by the synaptic plasticity of thalamocortical connections, and cortical response is regulated differentially according to the resonance condition. The mechanism produces a selective synchronization between the afferent and downstream neural population.

Biodiesel is usually generated from food-grade vegetable oils usi

Biodiesel is usually generated from food-grade vegetable oils using transesterification process. Using the food-grade vegetable oils is not economical since they are more expensive than diesel fuel. Therefore,

it is said that the main obstacle for commercialization of biodiesel is its high cost. The kind of feedstock, which is used is the most effective factor on the biodiesel characteristics and the price. So, at first finding a proper feedstock has an important role in different places. Therefore in this research the possibility Gamma-secretase inhibitor of using date seed as a cheap feedstock for biodiesel production was investigated, because it is produced largely in the hot arid regions of southwestern Asia and northern Africa. After extracting oil and producing biodiesel from Phoenix dactylifera (date seed) oil, the properties of biodiesel were evaluated by

fuel standard tests and the results were compared with EN14214 and ASTM D6751 standards and also compared with the properties of produced. According to the results, the important benefit of the biodiesel from the date seed oil is high cetane number (60.3), low iodine value (46), viscosity (3.84 mm(2)/s) and buy SN-38 flash point (140 degrees C) and the only weak point is its high pouring point (-1 degrees C) which limits the use of date seed biodiesel in cold weather in comparison with other vegetable biodiesel fuels. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Humanized monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are the fastest growing class of biological therapeutics that are being developed for various medical indications, and more than 30 mAbs are already approved and in the market place. Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) is an important biological function attributed to the selleck chemical mechanism of action of several therapeutic antibodies, particularly oncology targeting mAbs. The ADCC assay is a complicated and highly variable assay. Thus, the use of an ADCC assay as a lot release test or a stability test for clinical trial batches of mAbs has been a substantial challenge to install in quality control laboratories.

We describe here the development and validation of an alternate approach, an ADCC-reporter gene assay that is based on the key attributes of the PBMC-based ADCC assay. We tested the biological relevance of this assay using an anti-CD20 based model and demonstrated that this ADCC-reporter assay correlated well with standard ADCC assays when induced with the drugable human isotypes [IgG1, IgG2, IgG4, IgG4S>P (S228P) and IgG4PAA (S228P, F234A, L235A)] and with IgG1 isotype variants with varying amounts of fucosylation. This data demonstrates that the ADCC-reporter gene assay has performance characteristics (accuracy, precision and robustness) to be used not only as a potency assay for lot release and stability testing for antibody therapeutics, but also as a key assay for the characterization and process development of therapeutic molecules.

The TonB2 protein was verified to be immunogenic and could afford

The TonB2 protein was verified to be immunogenic and could afford partial protection for animals from lethal infection. In the present study, the recombinant TonB2 (rTonB2) was overexpressed in Escherichia coli wBL21(DE3) and purified. The rTonB2 was then used as antigen to immunize BALB/c mice for the production of monoclonal antibodies (MAb). Four clones of TonB2-specific MAb secretion hybridomas-2F2, 2G8, 3D2, and 6F10-were selected. The MAbs 2F2, 3D2, and 6F10 were classified as IgG1 isotype and 2G8 was of IgG2a isotype. Western blot and ELISA results indicated that MAbs had specific binding activity to rTonB2. The MAbs generated here will

be used for further functional analyses of the TonB2

“Objectives: EVP4593 The objective was to evaluate the impact of gender on long-term survival of patients who underwent non-cardiac vascular surgery.

Design, Material and Methods: Our prospectively collected Selleck LBH589 data contained information on 560 patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy (CEA), 923 elective abdominal aortic aneurysm repairs (AM) and 1046 lower limb reconstructions (LLR). Patient characteristics and long-term mortality of women were compared to that of men. Kaplan-Meier (KM) survival curves were constructed for men and women, on which we superimposed age- and sex-matched KM survival curves of the general population. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to identify risk factors for mortality.

Results: Men in the CEA group had statistically significant higher all-cause mortality, hazard rate ratio (HRR) 1.41(95% CI 1.01-1.98) No differences in mortality between the genders were observed in the AAA and LLR groups.

Overall, men had more co-morbidities but received more disease-specific medication compared to women. Women retained their higher life expectancy after CEA but lost it in the AAA and LLR groups.

Conclusion: Women retain their higher life expectancy after CEA; however, after AAA repair and LLR, this advantage is lost.

Both men and women received too little disease-specific medication, but women were worse off. (C) 2011 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Rubber seed oil (Hevea LY333531 chemical structure Brasiliensis) a non-edible oil, widely grown in India with fatty acid composition, palmitic, 9.3%; stearic, 8.4%; oleic, 25.4%; linoleic, 41.1% and linolenic, 15.3% acids, was exploited for the preparation of lubricant base stocks. The oil was hydrolyzed to obtain fatty acids and these fatty acids were reacted with branched chain alcohol, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol (2-EtH) and polyols namely neopentyl glycol (NPG), trimethylolpropane (TMP), pentaerythritol (PE) at 135-140 degrees C in the presence of para toluene sulfonic acid (p-TSA) as catalyst in xylene medium. The branched and polyol esters were obtained in the range of 91-96.5% yields.