In this study we use a techno-economic approach to examine the technological feasibility of a global reduction of GHG emissions by 50 % relative to the 1990 level by 2050, a target that roughly corresponds to the climate target of 2 °C. We also perform a detailed analysis of the contribution of low-carbon APR-246 cost technologies to GHG emission reduction in the mid- and long-term and evaluate the required technological cost.2 Methodology AIM/Enduse[Global] The analysis in this paper uses AIM/Enduse[Global], a techno-economic model for mid- to long-term climate change mitigation policy assessment. AIM/Enduse[Global]
is a dynamic recursive https://www.selleckchem.com/products/byl719.html model with a 1-year time step and a detailed framework for technology selection. The model selects technologies by linear programming algorithms that minimize the
total system cost (including the initial investment, operation, and maintenance costs of technologies, energy cost, and other costs such as carbon tax) given fixed service demands such as steel production, passenger transport, space heating demand, HDAC inhibitor etc. The model estimates energy consumption and GHG emissions (e.g., CO2, CH4, N2O, HFC, PFC, and SF6) driven by technological change. Kainuma et al. (2003) provide a detailed formulation of the model. The version of AIM/Enduse[Global] used in this article splits the world into 32 regions over a time horizon from 2005 to 2050. It covers energy sectors through the phases of energy production to end-use, and non-energy sectors, including agriculture, waste, and F-gases (Fig. 1). Emission from land use change is treated as an exogenous scenario.3 A foremost feature of the model is its detailed description of technologies not only in energy supply sectors, but also in energy end-use sectors and non-energy sectors (Table 2). Fig. 1 Overview of AIM/Enduse[Global] Table 2 List of technologies
considered in AIM/Enduse[Global] Sector Category Technology options Power generation Coal Pulverized coal combustion (PCC), click here supercritical PCC (SC-PCC), ultra-supercritical PCC (USC-PCC), advanced ultra-supercritical PCC (AUSC-PCC), integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), SC-PCC with carbon capture and storage (CCS), USC-PCC with CCS, AUSC-PCC with CCS, IGCC with CCS Oil Combined cycle (CC) Gas Combined cycle (CC), advanced combined cycle (ACC) [level 1–2], ACC with CCS Renewables Hydropower, wind power [level 1–3], wind power with storage battery [level 1–3], photovoltaics [level 1–4], photovoltaics with storage battery [level 1–4], biomass power plant, biomass IGCC, biomass IGCC with CCS Hydrogen production Coal, coal with CCS, natural gas, natural gas with CCS, biomass, biomass with CCS Industry Steel Coke oven (e.g., large-sized coke oven, coke gas recovery, automatic combustion, coal wet adjustment, coke dry type quenching, COG latent heat recovery, next generation coke oven), sinter furnace (e.g.