The thickness of the PS beam (2 45 μm) and porosity (81%) were ch

The thickness of the PS beam (2.45 μm) and porosity (81%) were chosen to achieve the same rigidity as an a-Si beam of thickness Selleckchem Compound C 0.6 μm. This allowed us to demonstrate the Panobinostat nmr fabrication process on extremely high-porosity

meso-porous silicon, which is well suited to sensing applications due to its very large surface area [3, 32]. The high porosity and high thickness balance to produce an expected resonant frequency in the range of 16 to 400 kHz for microbeams with length of 100 to 500 μm. Variation of porosity and thickness are also options to adjust frequency of beams (not detailed in this work). Residual and stress gradients in the films need to be studied to allow both doubly clamped and cantilever structures to be fabricated, as these are the basis on most MEMS devices. We are aware that the use of Au as part of the metallisation scheme would prevent implementation in some CMOS foundries. Our investigations have been limited to metals currently available in our facility; however, alternative metallisation or doping could be used to replace the Cr/Au layers for the

electropolishing steps to achieve a completely CMOS-compatible process. Conclusions This work has demonstrated micromachined, suspended PS microbeams with laterally uniform porosity and structurally well-defined beams. We have demonstrated repeated photolithographic processing on PS films that is compatible with CMOS processes; however, for complete CMOS integration, GW4869 supplier a different metallisation may be required to avoid use of Cr/Au. A deposited metal mask layer was used during electropolishing to ensure a uniform electric field and minimal underetching of the PS layer. A new pore filling technique

using SOG allowed the use of thick (2.45 μm) films. The surface profile of the released microbeams indicated well-defined structures. This approach demonstrates a method of fabricating complex PS structures using a scalable Ketotifen PS-MEMS technology. Authors’ information XS received the B.Sc. degree and the M.Sc. degree in optics from Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, China, in 2005 and 2008. In 2008, he joined the State Intellectual Property Office of China, working on extensive examination of patent applications in the areas of measuring devices and microelectromechanical systems. Since 2012, he has been working toward the Ph.D. degree in microelectronic engineering at The University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia. His thesis focuses on micromachining applications based on porous silicon. GP received the B.S. degree in Chemistry in 1995 and the bachelors and M.Sc. degrees in Electronic Engineering in 1995 and 1997, respectively, all from The University of Western Australia, Perth, and the Ph.D. degree in Electrical Engineering in 2001, from the University of California, Santa Barbara.

Visualization of links to all phenotypes creates a very large fig

Visualization of links to all phenotypes creates a very large figure that is difficult to present and interpret (results not shown). Since each experiment category represents a related set of experiments, each experiment category was analyzed separately. Therefore for four of the experiment categories Selleck Lorlatinib (Table 2), strains were hierarchically clustered based on their phenotypes (see Vismodegib datasheet phenotype clustering section of the Additional file 2). Based on the hierarchical clustering results, strains isolated from the same source showed different levels of phenotype similarity: growth on sugar (high similarity), antibiotic resistance experiments (medium similarity), growth on milk and polysaccharides

(low similarity) and metal resistance (no similarity). Phenotype-based hierarchical clustering of these strains showed that niche properties better correspond to phenotype differences of strains rather than their subspecies-level differences. Clustering provided only limited information

and, thus, it can only be used as an initial screening of phenotype data. As the focus of this study is to find relations between genes and phenotypes we applied integrative analysis of phenotype and genotype data to reveal these associations. Table 2 Experiments grouped based on experimental conditions Group name Number of experiments Description Growth on sugar 16 Contains phenotypes based on 50CH API experiments Antibiotic resistance 18 Contains phenotypes based on antibiotic resistance experiments Metal resistance 17 Contains phenotypes based on metal resistance experiments Growth selleck screening library on milk or polysaccharides 11 Contains phenotypes based on growth on milk or polysaccharides Other experiments 10 Contains phenotypes based on all remaining experiments, which include growth test on medium with nisin, arginine hydrolase, salt or different enzymes.

These are experiments of which at least a single phenotype was accurately classified; for full list of experiments and their descriptions see Additional file 1. Genotype-phenotype ADAMTS5 matching Integrated analysis using an iterative gene selection allowed identification of gene-phenotype relations that could not be found by studying genotype and phenotype data separately. In genotype-phenotype matching, we used the presence/absence of 4026 ortholog groups (OGs; see Methods) in 38 L. lactis strains (Table 1) determined by comparative genome hybridization (CGH) as genotype data. These 38 strains are a subset of a large representative collection of L. lactis trains that covers genotype, niche and phenotype diversity of L. lactis species [15]. For phenotype data, we used phenotypic measurements of these strains in 207 experiments that were previously assessed in separate studies (see Methods and Additional file 1). After pre-processing, phenotype data from 130 experiments was usable for genotype-phenotype matching (see Methods).

The literature indicates that both spectral indices decreased

The literature indicates that both spectral indices decreased this website exponentially according to exercise intensity [30]. Therefore, we expected minimal changes to be observed in these indices due to the work load maintenance during exercise in our study. Similar results for SDNN (ms) and RMSSD (ms) were observed by Casties et al. [31], when 7 young individuals performed 3 consecutive 8 min stages at 40%, 70% and 90% of VO2 peak. However, contrary to our findings, they showed

reduced levels of LF (nu) and LF/HF and an increase in HF (nu) at all intensities. The authors believe that it was due to the mechanical effect of hyperventilation on the sinus node, as well as synchronization between heartbeats, breathing and cycling.

It is possible that different types of physical exercises (intensity and duration) contributed to these conflicting results. Additionally, since the HRV was extremely low during exercise and the LF/HF ratio is calculated using the ratio of two very small values, the data obtained from this relationship may be uncertain or highly sensitive to changes in the LF and HF indices, which may account for the conflicting results. Although not significant, HR was higher when no fluid was ingested during exercise. Hamilton et al. [32] showed an increase in HR (10%), and reduced stroke volume (15%) when subjects performed 2 h of exercise without any fluid intake. When selleck kinase inhibitor Gatorade powder fluid was administered, HR increased to 5% and stroke volume remained unchanged. This behavior observed in our study may be related to the “cardiovascular drift” phenomenon. Cardiovascular drift JNK-IN-8 in vitro is characterized by findings of decreasing stroke volume and mean arterial BCKDHA pressure, rising heart rate, and stable cardiac output during sustained constant-load exercise [33, 34]. A study in adults indicated that when dehydration is prevented by fluid intake, this pattern is altered, with no change in stroke volume and a progressive rise in cardiac output [33]. When analyzed during the recovery period, the indices that

reflect the predominance of vagal activity, RMSSD (ms), HF (ms2) and HF (nu) presented a gradual increase and rapid recovery in approximately 25 min when the individuals were hydrated. Conversely, there was no complete recovery of these indices when the individuals were not hydrated. In addition, LF (ms2) and LF (nu), which predominantly reflect sympathetic nerve activity, also recovered faster in EP, especially LF (nu), which returned to baseline levels 15 min post-exercise. In CP, although LF (ms2) behavior was similar to that observed in EP, LF (nu) did not recover, suggesting sympathetic predominance in unhydrated subjects. Additionally, there was significant interaction between moments and protocols for the LF (nu) and HF (nu) indices, suggesting better post-exercise recovery in the experimental protocol.

4 mM IPTG induced and uninduced cultures, and then reacted with v

4 mM IPTG induced and uninduced cultures, and then reacted with various AHLs to perform whole cell bioassays. Cytoskeletal Signaling inhibitor Identical to the result in Fig. 1, the absence of a violet lawn indicates a positive AHL-degrading ability and is defined as’+'; a violet lawn indicates no AHL-degrading ability and is defined as’-’ Figure 1 The Aac acylase degrades C7-HSL in C. violaceum CV026 cultures and inhibits violacein production. The E. coli DH10B (pS3aac) overnight culture was centrifuged, and the harvested cells were

suspended into 100 mM Tris buffer (pH 7.0). The cell suspensions and cell free supernatants were mixed with 25 μM C7-HSL each and then incubated at 30°C for 1 h. The mixtures were assayed by the in vitro whole cell bioassay. Well 1, C7-HSL (AHL-non-degrading Napabucasin cost control); well 2, Tris buffer (AHL-degrading control); well 3, the mixture of cell suspensions with C7-HSL; well 4, the mixture of supernatants with

C7-HSL. Figure 2 SDS-PAGE analysis Aac expressed by E. coli BL21(DE3). The crude proteins were prepared from the recombinant E. coli BL21 (pET21aac) and analysed by 6% SDS-PAGE. The arrow indicates the Aac. Lane 1, pre-stained protein ladder marker; lane 2, IPTG-induced crude proteins; lane 3, IPTG-non-induced crude proteins. Aac is an AHL-acylase and not an aculeacin A acylase To demonstrate whether the Aac protein is an AHL-acylase, we performed Suplatast tosilate the ESI-MS analysis. E. coli DH10B (pS3aac) cells were first reacted with C7-HSL at 30°C for 60 CFTRinh-172 in vivo min. If the enzyme encoded by the aac gene is an AHL-acylase, we predicted that two free digested products, HSL and heptanoic acid, would be detected. Since ESI+-MS could not detect the carboxylic group (COO-), only HSL was detectable. The fatty acids containing the carboxylic group would have to be detected by ESI–MS. The analytic results showed that C7-HSL (M+H m/z = 214) could be digested into HSL (M+H m/z = 102) and heptanoic acid (M-H m/z = 129) (Fig. 3).

We also observed that the amount of the heptanoic acid gradually increased, starting from the 15th min until the 60th min of reaction times (data not shown). Thus, our results indicate that the aac gene encodes an AHL-acylase. Figure 3 ESI-MS spectrometry analysis of C7-HSL degradation by AHL-acylase Aac. The E. coli DH10B (pS3aac) cells were suspended in 0.1 mM sodium phosphate and 0.01 mM ammonia acetate, respectively, and then mixed with 25 μM C7-HSL for the degradation reaction described in Materials and Methods. (a) To detect HSL, the ESI+-MS spectra of undigested C7-HSL (top) and degraded C7-HSL products (bottom) were shown. (b) To detect heptanoic acid, the ESI–MS spectra of undigested C7-HSL (top) and degraded C7-HSL products (bottom) were shown. (c) Mechanism of C7-AHL degradation by Aac. The white arrow indicates the Aac catalytic site.

To investigate

To investigate https://www.selleckchem.com/products/MK-1775.html the association between induction fold and ACP-196 solubility dmso cancer grade, one-way ANOVA test for linear trend was performed between mean induction fold and subdivided cancer grades (Figure 5D). For Prx I, slope = 0.6217, P =.02; for Trx1, slope = 0.4497, P =.02. For both cases, linear trends were considered statistically significant if P <.05. Clinicopathological information for each patient was provided by the supplier. Abbreviations: ANOVA, analysis of variance; Prx I, peroxiredoxin

I; qRT-PCR, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction; Trx1, thioredoxin 1. To examine the relationship between mRNA expression of Prx I and Trx1 and progress of cancer, we displayed the data as box-and-whisker plots (cancer phase versus induction fold mRNA expression) (Prx I, Figure 5B; Trx1, Figure 5C). In both Prx I and Trx1, there was a significant relationship learn more between the induction fold and increasing cancer phase, especially for metastatic cancer (comparison of Prx I expression from stage I to stage IV, P =.040; Trx1, P =.009). Stage IV (n = 12) was classified as metastatic cancer. In addition, we divided the cancer phases into subdivisions (stages I, IIA, IIB, IIIA, IIIB, IIIC, and IV) and compared these by induction fold expression. As shown in Figure 5D,

induction fold was associated with subdivisions of cancer stages (P =.0181 for Prx I and P =.0191 for Trx1) Correlation Between Prx I and Trx1 in Human Breast Cancer To investigate an association between Prx I and Trx1 in human breast cancer, we plotted the both induction folds in breast cancer as x-y plot (x-axis for that of Prx I mRNA; y-axis for that of Trx1 mRNA). Figure 6 depicts the correlation between induction folds of Prx I and Trx1 genes in breast cancer (Pearson

r = 0.6875; P <.0001), indicating an association between Prx I and Trx1 in breast cancer. Figure about 6 Correlation Between Peroxiredoxin I and Thioredoxin1 mRNA Expressions in Breast Cancer. Data of induction folds of Prx I and Trx1 in breast cancer shown in Figure 5A are displayed as a scatter plot. Details are in the legend of Figure 5. Abbreviations: Prx I, peroxiredoxin I; Trx1, thioredoxin 1. Preferential Overexpression of Prx I and Trx1 Protein in Human Breast Cancer Tissue To examine the expression of Prx I and Trx1 proteins, Western blot analysis was conducted of protein lysates from seven cancer tissue types (brain, breast, colon, kidney, liver, lung, and ovary) separated by SDS-PAGE. Both Prx I and Trx1 proteins appeared to be elevated at the highest level when compared with those of other tissues (Figure 7A). Western blot analysis of the human breast cancer samples revealed a band at approximately 40 kDa. Western blot analysis in Figure 7B showed that the band in the reducing gel was entirely shifted to several higher molecular weight forms as shown in the nonreducing gel, suggesting that the 40-kDa band represents the dimer form of Prx I.

5 M NaCl, pH 8 0), and then ultrasonic treatment was performed on

5 M NaCl, pH 8.0), and then ultrasonic treatment was performed on ice. The supernatant was collected by centrifugation, and the elution buffer (20 mM Na3PO4, 0.5 M NaCl, 0.5 M imidazole, pH 8.0) in accordance with 1:20

were added. The protein of interest (VirB1-89KCHAP) was purified on His GraviTrap column prepacked with Ni Sepharose 6 Fast Flow, then MLN2238 in vitro washed with binding buffer until the absorbance reaches the baseline. The target protein was eluted with elution buffer using a linear gradient. The elution was checked by SDS-PAGE (12%) and fractions containing the interest protein were further purified by gel filtration chromatography using Superdex-75 column. Peak elution fractions were analyzed by gel electrophoresis and those containing pure protein were pooled and concentrated in an Amicon apparatus (Millipore) with a 10-kDa molecular weight cutoff membrane, then stored in 0.1-ml aliquots at −80°C. The protein concentration was determined by using the Pierce BCA protein assay kit. Determination of the lytic activity of VirB1-89KCHAP To determine the peptidoglycan-degrading activity of VirB1-89KCHAP, zymogram analysis was performed as described previously [32, 33]. Peptidoglycan isolated and purified from S. suis 2 was added into 12% polyacrylamide gels to a final concentration of 100 mg/ml [24, 34]. After PLX4032 nmr electrophoresis,

the gels were incubated at 37°C in renaturation buffer (20 mM sodium phosphate buffer, 0.1% Trition X-100, 10 mM MgCl2, pH 8.0) for 16 h, and then stained with 1% methylene blue containing 0.1% KOH. The deionized water was used for depolarization. The bacteriostatic activity of VirB1-89KCHAP was determined Sitaxentan with slip-agar diffusion method [35]. A small piece of filter paper loaded with purified VirB1-89KCHAP was placed on a 1.5% agar plate inoculated with S. suis 2 cells, and then bacteriostatic rings of protein-sensitive slips were generally observed

after incubation and the diameters of bacteriostatic rings were measured with a vernier caliper. Hen egg white lysozyme and BSA were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. The effect of pH and temperature on the enzymatic activity of VirB1-89KCHAP The effect of pH and temperature on the enzymatic activity of VirB1-89KCHAP was determined as previously described with minor modifications [31]. Purified VirB1-89KCHAP protein was added to 200 μl the dried cells of M. lysodeikticus as substrate. To determine the optimal pH value, the enzyme activity was monitored at 37°C with different pH values ranging from 3.0 to 11.0. The optimum temperature of the enzyme was tested at the temperature ranging from 20°C to 70°C at the optimum pH value. For the thermal stability estimation, the enzyme was pre-incubated at temperatures between 30°C and 90°C for 30 min, and the remaining activity was determined under the optimum reaction conditions. In vivo virulence Selleckchem LXH254 studies To determine whether the virB1-89K gene is necessary for the virulence of the highly pathogenic S.

The consent was obtained from parents of each

The consent was obtained from parents of each neonate prior to enrolment. The stool samples from 75 randomly selected LBW neonates were used to study gut colonization with ESBL, AmpC and carbapenemase p38 MAPK inhibitor producing Enterobacteriaceae. The inclusion criteria were vaginally delivered, healthy and exclusively breast fed LBW neonates. The exclusion criteria were

gross congenital malformations, hospitalization, prematurity, predisposing factors for sepsis, antibiotics use by mother during pregnancy and neonates during study period. After discharge from the hospital, trained field workers visited the newborns for probiotic SN-38 in vivo supplementation, collection of stool sample and related complications up to 60 days of life. The study was duly approved by ethical committee of Safdarjung Hospital. Study of colonization by Enterobacteriaceae Stool samples were collected on Day (D) 1, 21 and 60, serially diluted and plated on McConkey agar without antibiotic to study dominant gut flora. D1 sample is the first stool passed after birth (meconium). Different colony types of gram negative bacteria which were judged to differ in morphology (size, shape, consistency Y-27632 and colour) from each sample

were enumerated separately and identified using conventional biochemical tests. Phenotypic assessment and molecular characterization of antimicrobial susceptibility All Enterobacteriaceae isolated were screened for ESBL using disk diffusion and Etest methods (AB BIODISK, Solna, Sweden) and plasmid mediated AmpC or hyperproduction using AmpC disc test [12]. In 27 randomly selected neonates Enterobacteriaceae were characterised for ESBL (bla TEM , bla SHV (self designed, Table 1), bla CTX-M [group1, 2, 8, 9 and 25]) [13] and ampC (MOX, CIT, DHA, ACC, EBC, and FOX) [14] genes. Table 1 Primers used for detection of TEM, SHV and Carbapenemase genes Primers Primer Sequence (5′ to 3′ direction) Annealing Amplicon size     Temperature

(°C) (bp) TEM FP- ATG AGT ATT CAA CAT TTC CG 50 858   RP- CCA ATG CTT AAT CAG TGA GG     SHV FP- ATG CGT TAT ATT CGC CTG TG 58 862 Aspartate   RP- AGC GTT GCC AGT GCT CGA TC     KPC-1 FP- AGC CGT TAC AGC CTC TGG AG 55 1351   RP- GAT GGG ATT GCG TCA GTT CAG     KPC-2 FP- CAC TGT ATC GCC GTC TAG TTC 55 812   RP- TGT GCT TGT CAT CCT TGT TAG     NDM-1 FP- CGACGATTGGCCAGCAAATG 58 551   RP- ACTTGGCCTTGCTGTCCTTG     IMP FP- TTGAAAAGCTTGATGAAGGCG 58 616   RP- ACCGCCTGCTCTAATGTAAG     VIM FP- TTGACCGCGTCTATCATGGC 58 762 Carbapenemase screening All neonates were screened for gut colonization by carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) using 2-step broth enrichment method incorporating 10 μg meropenem disc [15]. Suspected CRE isolates with resistance to any one carbapenem [16] i.e. ertapenem (Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) > 0.

Tompkins DS, Dave J, Mapstone MP: Adaptation of Helicobacter pylo

Tompkins DS, Dave J, Mapstone MP: Adaptation of Helicobacter pylori to aerobic growth. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 1994, 13:409–412.check details PubMedCrossRef 27. Lee JH, Choe YH, Choi YO: The expression of iron-repressible outer membrane proteins in Helicobacter pylori and its association with iron deficiency

anemia. Helicobacter 2009, 14:36–39.PubMedCrossRef 28. Mendz GL, Meek dJ, Hazell SL: Characterization of fumarate transport in Helicobacter pylori . J Membr Biol 1998, 165:65–76.PubMedCrossRef 29. Mouery K, Rader BA, Gaynor EC, Guillemin H 89 order K: The stringent response is required for Helicobacter pylori survival of stationary phase, exposure to acid, and aerobic shock. J Bacteriol 2006, 188:5494–5500.PubMedCrossRef 30. Park SA, Lee HW, Hong MH, Choi YW, Choe YH, Ahn BY, Cho YJ, Kim DS, Lee NG: Comparative proteomic analysis of Helicobacter pylori strains associated with iron deficiency anemia. Proteomics 2006, 6:1319–1328.PubMedCrossRef 31. Bury-Moné S, Kaakoush NO, Asencio C, Mégraud F, Thibonnier M, de Reuse H, Mendz GL: Helicobacter pylori a true microaerophile? Helicobacter 2006, 11:296–303.PubMedCrossRef 32. Huang D, Zhang Y, Chen X: Analysis of intracellular nucleoside triphosphate levels in normal and buy PLX4032 tumor cell lines by high-performance liquid chromatography. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2003, 784:101–109.PubMedCrossRef 33. Sjöström JE, Larsson H:

Factors affecting growth and antibiotic susceptibility of Helicobacter pylori : effect of pH and urea on the survival of a wild-type strain and a urease-deficient mutant. J Med Microbiol 1996, 44:425–433.PubMedCrossRef 34. Meyer-Rosberg K, Scott DR, Rex D, Melchers K, Sachs G: The effect of environmental pH on the proton motive force of Helicobacter pylori . Gastroenterology 1996,

111:886–900.PubMedCrossRef 35. Sachs G, Kraut JA, Wen Y, Feng J, Scott DR: Urea transport in bacteria: acid acclimation by gastric Helicobacter spp. J Membr Biol triclocarban 2006, 212:71–82.PubMedCrossRef 36. Sachs G, Weeks DL, Wen Y, Marcus EA, Scott DR, Melchers K: Acid acclimation by Helicobacter pylori . Physiology (Bethesda) 2005, 20:429–438. 37. Scott DR, Marcus EA, Wen Y, Singh S, Feng J, Sachs G: Cytoplasmic histidine kinase (HP0244)-regulated assembly of urease with UreI, a channel for urea and its metabolites, CO 2 , NH 3 , and NH 4 + , is necessary for acid survival of Helicobacter pylori . J Bacteriol 2010, 192:94–103.PubMedCrossRef 38. Weeks DL, Eskandari S, Scott DR, Sachs G: A H + -gated urea channel: the link between Helicobacter pylori urease and gastric colonization. Science 2000, 287:482–485.PubMedCrossRef 39. Bury-Moné S, Mendz GL, Ball GE, Thibonnier M, Stingl K, Ecobichon C, Avé P, Huerre M, Labigne A, Thiberge JM, de Reuse H: Roles of alpha and beta carbonic anhydrases of Helicobacter pylori in the urease-dependent response to acidity and in colonization of the murine gastric mucosa. Infect Immun 2008, 76:497–509.PubMedCrossRef 40.

26 PSPPH_4546 hypothetical protein 9 44 PSPPH_4549 hypothetical p

26 PSPPH_4546 hypothetical www.selleckchem.com/products/3-deazaneplanocin-a-dznep.html protein 9.44 PSPPH_4549 hypothetical protein PSPPH_4549 9.13 PSPPH_4553 major facilitator family protein 15.83 PSPPH_4554 arginine aminomutase, putative 12.67 PSPPH_4555 conserved hypothetical protein 7.46 Cluster 3: Type VI secretion system PSPPH_0122 hcp 2.13 PSPPH_0124 hypothetical protein 1.66 PSPPH_0125 icmF 1.94 PSPPH_0131 HsiG 1.61 PSPPH_0135 hypothetical protein 1.64 PSPPH_4978 prophage PSPPH06, putative reverse transcriptase/maturase

1.65 PSPPH_4979 prophage PSPPH06, putative reverse transcriptase/maturase 2.68 PSPPH_4984 prophage PSPPH06, site-specific recombinase, phage integrase family 1.70 Cluster 4: Genes involved in membrane synthesis PSPPH_1430 leucine-rich repeat domain protein 1.75 PSPPH_1464 EPZ5676 chemical structure lipoprotein, putative 1.66 PSPPH_1708 ABC transporter, periplasmic substrate-binding protein 1.84 PSPPH_2260 UTP-glucose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase 1.72 PSPPH_2542 membrane protein, putative 1.94 PSPPH_2643 outer membrane efflux protein 1.68 PSPPH_2654 lipoprotein, putative 1.55 PSPPH_2842 lipoprotein, putative 1.55 PSPPH_3226 glycosyl transferase, group 1 family protein 1.72 PSPPH_3288 predicted

periplasmic lipoprotein 2.05 PSPPH_3810 lipoprotein 1.71 PSPPH_3916 membrane protein, putative 1.86 PSPPH_4139 UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 1-carboxyvinyltransferase 1.55 PSPPH_4669 acetyltransferase, GNAT see more family 1.73 PSPPH_4682 lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis protein, putative 3.03 PSPPH_5220 inner membrane protein, 60 kDa

1.61 Cluster 5: Genes involved in motility PSPPH_0730 type IV pilus-associated protein, putative 1.74 PSPPH_0818 type IV pilus prepilin peptidase PilD 1.53 PSPPH_0820 type IV pilus Atezolizumab biogenesis protein PilB 1.53 PSPPH_1200 pili assembly chaperone 2.03 PSPPH_3387 flagellar regulator FleQ 1.64 PSPPH_3880 CheW domain protein WspB 1.94 PSPPH_3881 methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein WspA 1.5 Cluster 6: Oxidative stress response genes and iron metabolism PSPPH_1309 cysteine desulfurase IscS 1.93 PSPPH_1311 iron-sulfur cluster assembly protein IscA 1.69 PSPPH_1909 RNA polymerase sigma-70 family protein. pvdS 1.59 PSPPH_1923 pyoverdine sidechain peptide synthetase I, epsilon-Lys module 1.70 PSPPH_2117 FecR protein superfamily 2.05 PSPPH_3007 iron ABC transporter, permease protein, putative 1.61 PSPPH_3274 catalase KatB 2.31 PSPPH_3274 catalase KatB 1.65 PSPPH_3753 siderophore biosynthesis protein 1.57 Cluster 7: Unknown function PSPPH_0317 conserved hypothetical protein 1.81 PSPPH_0611 conserved hypothetical protein 2.15 PSPPH_0612 hypothetical protein PSPPH_0612 1.94 PSPPH_1142 hypothetical protein PSPPH_1142 1.58 PSPPH_1230 hypothetical protein PSPPH_1230 1.59 PSPPH_1243 conserved hypothetical protein 1.98 PSPPH_1637 hypothetical protein 2.25 PSPPH_1835 conserved hypothetical protein 1.72 PSPPH_1938 conserved hypothetical protein 1.52 PSPPH_2103 conserved hypothetical protein 1.89 PSPPH_2116 conserved hypothetical protein 1.58 PSPPH_2147 hypothetical protein PSPPH_2147 2.

Electronic transport measurements were performed on multiple samp

Electronic transport measurements were performed on multiple samples, using the physical property Wnt inhibitor measurement system (PPMS, Quantum Design, San Diego, CA, USA) with a fixed excitation current of 0.01 mA; the temperature varied from 5 to 340 K. Figure 1 Comparison of Raman PD173074 spectra at 532 nm for few-layer graphene. The position of G peak and the spectral features of 2D band confirm the number of atomic layer of the graphene devices. Results and discussion Figure 2 shows the representative current–voltage (I-V) characteristics at different temperatures of (a) tri- and (b) four-layer graphene interconnects. Insets show the

enlargement of the measurement results at low electric fields. For the tri- and four-layer graphene, the interconnect resistors display two distinct regions of ohmic characteristic: one at fields larger than 0.01 V/μm but less than 0.10 V/μm and the other at fields larger than 0.10 V/μm. The nonlinear behaviour of current–voltage characteristics at low threshold (<0.10 V/μm), and the second ohmic region in the strong DC electric field (>0.10 V/μm) can be explained by the heating effect [18]. Within a strong DC electric field, the relaxation grows sharply with heating, and the recombination of carriers is dominant as compared to thermal generation [18, 19]. At sufficiently high DC electric field, we observe linear I-V over the whole temperature measurement range. Figure 2 Temperature-dependent

current–voltage characteristics

of (a) tri- and (b) four-layer graphene interconnects. Insets show the details of the low electric Dorsomorphin in vivo field measurements. For tri- and four-layer graphene, resistors show sublinear characteristics at low field (<0.01 V/μm) and superlinear I-V curve for the high field due to the heat effect. In order to Thymidylate synthase study the existence of electron–electron Coulomb interaction and how it plays an important role in our system, we adopted the resistance curve derivative analysis (RCDA) method to investigate the dominant scattering mechanism [20]. Figure 3 shows the differential conductance G d  = dI/dV of (a) tri- and (b) four-layer graphene as function of the temperature T −1/2 on a semi-logarithmic scale. As shown in the Figure 3, we can see the experiment results can be well fitted with the Efros-Shklovskii (ES) variable-range-hopping (VRH) model at the low DC electric field. One should note that, for the high electric field conductance, the fitted line shows some deviation from the model due to the heating effect. Therefore, our data suggest that Coulomb scattering is the main scattering mechanism in our device. Figure 3 Differential conductance of (a) tri- and (b) four-layer graphene as function of temperature T −1/2 . The fit line shows good consistency with the Efros-Shklovskii (ES) variable-range-hopping (VRH) model at the low DC electric field, and the results clearly indicate that Coulomb scattering is the dominant scattering mechanism in our system.