(C) 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc J Biomed Mater Res Part A 2012 “

(C) 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A 2012.”
“Purpose: A method is introduced to examine the influence of implant duration T, radionuclide, and radiobiological parameters on the biologically effective dose (BED) throughout the entire volume of regions of interest for episcleral brachytherapy using available radionuclides. This method is employed to evaluate a particular eye plaque brachytherapy

implant in a radiobiological context.\n\nMethods: A reference eye geometry and 16 mm COMS eye plaque loaded with Pd-103, I-125, or Cs-131 sources were examined with dose distributions accounting for plaque heterogeneities. For a standardized 7 day implant, doses to 90% of the tumor volume (D-TUMOR(90)) and 10% of the organ at risk volumes (D-OAR(10)) were calculated. The BED equation from Dale and Jones and published alpha/beta and mu parameters GSK461364 in vivo were incorporated with dose volume histograms (DVHs) for various T values such as T = 7 days (i.e., (TUMORBED10)-B-7 and (OARBED10)-B-7). By calculating BED throughout

MK-2206 purchase the volumes, biologically effective dose volume histograms (BEDVHs) were developed for tumor and OARs. Influence of T, radionuclide choice, and radiobiological parameters on TUMORBEDVH and OARBEDVH were examined. The nominal dose was scaled for shorter implants to achieve biological equivalence.\n\nResults: D-TUMOR(90) values were 102, 112, and 110 Gy for Pd-103, I-125, and Cs-131, respectively. Corresponding (TUMORBED10)-B-7 values were 124, 140, and 138 Gy, respectively. As T decreased from 7 to 0.01 days, the isobiologically effective prescription dose decreased by a factor of three. As expected, (TUMORBEDVH)-B-7 did not significantly change as a function of radionuclide half-life but varied by 10% due to radionuclide dose distribution.

Variations in reported radiobiological parameters caused (TUMORBED10)-B-7 to deviate by up to 46%. Over the range of (OAR) alpha/beta values, (OARBED10)-B-7 varied by up to 41%, 3.1%, and 1.4% for the lens, optic nerve, and lacrimal gland, respectively.\n\nConclusions: BEDVH permits evaluation of the relative biological effectiveness for brachytherapy LY3023414 implants. For eye plaques, TUMORBEDVH and OARBEDVH were sensitive to implant duration, which may be manipulated to affect outcomes. (C) 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine. [DOI: 10.1118/1.3679010]“
“Variations in total phenolic and flavonoid contents as well as antioxidant activity of Bellis perennis (common daisy) flowers were investigated. The flowers were collected monthly (from March to October, i.e., during the usual flowering season of the plant) at three localities in three different years.

“Quality and rate of preserved hearing are crucial to make

“Quality and rate of preserved hearing are crucial to make hearing preservation surgery a viable treatment. A long-term experience with hearing preservation surgery, with tumour size and hearing as admission criteria, was evaluated to assess which size and hearing allowed a high rate of success. The hearing outcome in relation to size of tumour and pre-operative hearing was retrospectively reviewed in a

consecutive series of 115 cases of sporadic acoustic neuroma which were operated on with hearing preservation surgery. Inclusion GDC-0068 in vivo criteria were hearing with <= 30 dB pure tone average and >= 70% Speech Discrimination Score. The size was <= 15 mm in the first series of 51 cases, and <= 10 mm in the second series of 64 cases. Pre-operative and post-operative pure tone average were measured at 0.5 to 4.0 KHz, and speech discrimination score at <= 40 dB above perception. Post-operative hearing within 30 dB pure tone average and 70% speech discrimination score was considered socially useful hearing and successful outcome. The change to 40 dB pure tone average and 60% speech discrimination score from a pre-operative 30 pure tone average/70% speech discrimination score was considered an acceptable outcome. Patients with a tumour of <= 10 mm size in the cerebello-pontine-angle and hearing within 20 dB pure tone average/80% speech discrimination score had a success rate

of 76%. Patients with hearing between the 20 dB pure tone average/80% speech discrimination Screening Library cost score and 30 dB pure

tone average/ 70% speech discrimination score had a success rate of 41%, which increased to 53% if the limit to success was set at 40 dB pure tone average/60% speech discrimination score. Patients with a tumour larger than 10 mm or hearing worse than 30 dB pure tone average/70% speech discrimination score had a poor preservation rate. In conclusion, hearing preservation surgery on a <= 10 mm acoustic neuroma with good hearing had a high rate of success and appeared to be a realistic treatment option which could be integrated with observation and radiotherapy in updated guidelines of treatment.”
“Disease is a universal feature of life for multicellular organisms, and the study of disease has contributed to the establishment of key concepts in the biological sciences. This implies strong OICR-9429 in vivo connections between plant pathology and basic biology, something that could perhaps be made more apparent to undergraduate students interested in the life sciences. To that end, we present an instructional narrative that begins with a simple question: Why are there diseases? Responses and follow-up questions can facilitate exploration of such topics as the evolution of parasitism, plant adaptations to parasitism, impacts of parasites on native plant communities, and ways in which human intervention can foster the emergence of aggressive plant pathogens.

Although none of the SNPs caused a significant effect on steady-s

Although none of the SNPs caused a significant effect on steady-state levels of NAT1-specific mRNA, C97T(R33stop), C190T(R64W), C559T (R187stop) and A752T(D251V) each reduced NAT1 protein level and/ or N-and O-acetyltransferase catalytic activities to levels below detection. G560A(R187Q) substantially GNS-1480 reduced NAT1 protein level and catalytic activities and increased substrate Km. The G445A(V149I), G459A(synonymous) and T640G(S214A) haplotype present in NAT1* 11 significantly (P<0.05) increased NAT1 protein level and catalytic activity. Neither T21G(synonymous), T402C(synonymous),

A613G(M205V), T777C(synonymous), G781A(E261K) nor A787G(1263V) significantly affected Km, catalytic activity, mRNA or protein level. These results suggest heterogeneity among slow NAT1 acetylator phenotypes.”
“2-Chlorohexadecanal (2-ClHDA), a 16-carbon chain chlorinated

fatty aldehyde that is produced by reactive chlorinating species attack of plasmalogens, is elevated in atherosclerotic plaques, infarcted myocardium, and activated leukocytes. We tested the hypothesis that 2-ClHDA and its metabolites, 2-chlorohexadecanoic acid (2-ClHA) and 2-chlorohexadecanol (2-ClHOH), induce COX-2 expression in human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAEC). COX-2 protein expression increased in response to 2-ClHDA treatments at 8 and 20 h. 2-ClHA also increased COX-2 expression following an 8 h treatment. Quantitative PCR showed that 2-ClHDA treatment increased COX-2 mRNA over 8 h, while 2-ClHA treatment led to a modest increase PI3K inhibitor by 1 h and those levels remained Selleckchem PCI-34051 constant over 8 h. 2-ClHDA led to a significant increase in 6-keto-PGF(1 alpha) release (a measure of PGI(2) release) by HCAEC. These data suggest that 2-ClHDA and its metabolite 2-ClHA, which are produced during leukocyte activation, may alter vascular

endothelial cell function by upregulation of COX-2 expression.”
“Nasopharyngeal mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) is an extremely rare entity. To date, there is little published about its clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes. Between 1997 and 2009, 13 cases of MEC were confirmed and treated at the department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital of Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences (CAMS) and Peking Union Medical College (PUMC). Nasal obstruction, bleeding and hearing loss were the most common presentations, whereas, neck mass, headache and cranial nerve palsy were uncommon. Tumors remained stable after either primary radiation therapy or post-operative radiation therapy for the residual, though the majority of them were high or high-intermediate grade tumors. Five patients, who received either primary surgery or salvage surgery, had positive surgical margins, however, all are alive with stable disease except one old patient died of heart failure.

The G10-W strain is a promising producer of PHB, with decreased e

The G10-W strain is a promising producer of PHB, with decreased expenses for purification and PHB biosynthesis.”

receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B (RANK), RANK ligand (RANKL), and osteoprotegerin (OPG) signaling pathway (RANKL/RANK/OPG signaling) is implicated in the osteolysis associated with diabetic Charcot neuroarthropathy (CN); however, the links with medial arterial calcification (MAC) seen in people with CN are unclear. This study aimed to investigate the role of RANKL/OPG in MAC in patients with CN.\n\nRESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS-Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Bio-plex multiarray technology SB525334 chemical structure were used to quantify a range of cytokines, including RANKL and OPG in sera from 10 patients with diabetes, 12 patients with CN, and 5 healthy volunteers. Human tibial artery segments Cytoskeletal Signaling inhibitor were immunohistochemically stained with Alizarin red and human RANKL antibody. Human vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) were also explanted from arterial segments for in vitro studies.\n\nRESULTS-We demonstrate colocalization and upregulation of RANKL expression in areas

displaying MAC. Systemic levels of RANKL, OPG, and inflanunatory cytokines (interleukin-8, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor) were elevated in those with CN compared with diabetic patients and healthy control subjects. Human VSMCs cultured in CN serum showed accelerated osteoblastic differentiation (alkaline phosphatase activity) and mineralization (alizarin red staining) compared with cells treated with diabetic or control serum (P < 0.05). Coincubation with OPG, the decoy receptor for RANKL, attenuated osteogenic differentiation of VSMCs and was independent of a high calcium-phosphate milieu. The accelerated

mineralization induced by RANKL and CN serum correlated with nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-kappa B, a process abrogated by OPG.\n\nCONCLUSIONS-Our data provide direct evidence that RANKL/RANK/OPG signaling is modulated in patients with CN and plays a role in vascular learn more calcification. This study highlights this pathway as a potential target for intervention. Diabetes 60:2187-2196, 2011″
“The ability to simultaneously visualize expression of multiple antigens in cells and tissues can provide powerful insights into cellular and organismal biology. However, standard methods are limited to the use of just two or three simultaneous probes and have not been widely adopted for routine use in paraffin-embedded tissue. We have developed a novel approach called sequential immunoperoxidase labeling and erasing (SIMPLE) that enables the simultaneous visualization of at least five markers within a single tissue section.

By seizing this opportunity to also attend to maternal mental hea

By seizing this opportunity to also attend to maternal mental health care, important public health gains can be made for both the mother and her children.”
“Growth and virulence of mycobacteria requires sulfur uptake. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome contains, in addition to the ABC sulfate permease cysTWA,

three SLC26-related SulP genes of unknown function. We report that induction of Rv1739c expression in E. BMS-754807 nmr coli increased bacterial uptake of sulfate, but not Cl-, formate, or oxalate. Uptake was time-dependent, maximal at pH 6.0, and exhibited a K-1/2 for sulfate of 4.0 mu M. Na+-independent sulfate uptake was not reduced by bicarbonate, nitrate, or phosphate, but was inhibited by sulfite, selenate, thiosulfate, N-ethylmaleimide Cilengitide price and carbonyl cyanide 3-chloro-phenylhydrazone. Sulfate uptake was also increased by overexpression of the Rv1739c transmembrane

domain, but not of the cytoplasmic C-terminal STAS domain. Mutation to serine of the three cysteine residues of Rv1739c did not affect magnitude, pH-dependence, or pharmacology of sulfate uptake. Expression of Rv1739c in a M. bovis BCG strain lacking the ABC sulfate permease subunit CysA could not complement sulfate auxotrophy. Moreover, inducible expression of Rv1739c in an E. coli strain lacking CysA did not increase sulfate uptake by intact cells. Our data show that facilitation of bacterial sulfate uptake by Rv1739c requires CysA and its associated sulfate permease activity, and suggest that Rv1739c may be a CysTWA-dependent sulfate transporter. (C) 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“It has been reported that hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA is detected in serum and/or liver in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) without HBsAg. To adress this issue, we analyzed HBV genome in 2 HCC cases without HBsAg.\n\nThe DNA from serum from patients with HCC was amplified with a nested

PCR, Sirtuin inhibitor and ‘a’ determinant of S region, core promoter region and precore region were sequenced.\n\nThe first case, a 50 years-old male, was negative for HBsAg and HBeAg, and positive for anti-HBs, anti-HBe and anti-HBc. Viral load of HBV in serum was 4.0 log genome equivalent/ml by TMA assay, and was 1.1X105 copy/ml by real-time PCR system. A nucleotide analysis of the common ‘a’ determinant of S gene showed that the 5 first amino acids of ‘a’ determinant, CTIPA, were changed to CKTCTTPA. The second case, a 76 years-old male, was positive for anti-HBe, but negative for HBsAg, anti-HBs, HBeAg and anti-HBc. No missense or nonsense mutations were seen in ‘a’ determinant of S region. Viral load of serum, HBV was < 3.7 log genome equivalent/ml by TMA assay, but was 2.4X103 copy/ml by real-time PCR system.\n\nThe results of the present study suggest that the mechanisms of HBsAg loss are diverse among HCC patients without HBsAg, and that an analysis of HBV genome is a useful tool to dissolve molecular mechanisms losing HBs antigenicity.

“Hepatitis C virus genotype 4 (HCV-4) is spreading beyond

“Hepatitis C virus genotype 4 (HCV-4) is spreading beyond Africa and the Middle East but data regarding treatment with pegylated interferon alpha and

ribavirin of European populations infected with HCV-4 remains limited. Interestingly, European (vs. Egyptian) Daporinad datasheet origin has been associated with lower sustained virological response rates. Hence the aim of this study was to investigate the treatment outcomes of Greek (vs. Egyptian), treatment-naive patients infected with HCV-4 (subtype a) and to identify factors influencing response rates. One hundred seventy-seven consecutive patients (mean age: 44.6 +/- 10.2, males: 143/177; 80.8%, Egyptians: 76/177; 42.9%) treated over a 7-year period at the Hepatology clinics of three tertiary care hospitals in Greece were retrospectively evaluated. Overall, sustained virological response was achieved in 75/177 (42.4%) of the cohort without a significant

difference between the two ethnic groups [Greek: 44/101 (43.6%); Egyptian 31/76 (40.8%), P?=?0.7598]. In multivariate analysis, it was found that ethnicity was not associated with an impaired response but age =45 years [odds ratio (OR): 0.4225, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.21350.8133; P?=?0.0134], diabetes (OR: 0.2346, 95% CI: 0.08160.0674; P?=?0.0071), advanced liver fibrosis (OR: 0.3964, 95% CI: 0.19330.8133; P?=?0.0116), and treatment suspension A-1210477 (OR: 0.1738, 95% CI: 0.04820.6262; P?=?0.0075) showed an independent negative association with response to antiviral treatment. In contrast to previous European data suggesting Egyptian ethnicity to be a positive predictor for a sustained virological this website response, there was no influence of Greek versus Egyptian ethnicity on treatment outcomes. Higher age, advanced liver fibrosis, and diabetes have been shown to reduce significantly response rates in patients infected with HCV-4. J. Med. Virol. 84: 12171223, 2012. (C) 2012 Wiley

Periodicals, Inc.”
“Objective: To describe the ethics issues that pediatric residents encounter during routine care in an outpatient teaching clinic.\n\nDesign: Qualitative study including in-depth interviews with pediatric residents and direct observation of interactions between preceptors and residents in a pediatric teaching clinic.\n\nSetting: The Johns Hopkins Harriet Lane Pediatric Primary Care Clinic, March 20 through April 11, 2006.\n\nParticipants: A convenience sample including all pediatric faculty preceptors supervising at the clinic during the 19 half-day sessions that occurred during the observation period (N=15) and the pediatric residents seeing patients during these clinic sessions (N=50).

(C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved “
“The main goal

(C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The main goal of this study was to study the www.selleckchem.com/products/lcl161.html performance of fuzzy logic controllers combined with simplified hybrid amplitude/pulse-width (AM/PW) modulation to regulate muscle force via nerve electrical stimulation. The recruitment curves with AM/PW and AM modulations were constructed for the calf muscles of rabbits. Integrated with the modulation methods, a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) and three fuzzy logic controllers were designed and applied for the electrical stimulation of tibial nerves to control the

ankle torque under isometric conditions. The performance of the two modulation methods combined with the four controllers was compared when the ankle was fixed at three positions for both in vivo

experiments and model simulations using a nonlinear muscle model. For the animal experiments, AM/PW modulation performed better than AM modulation alone. The fuzzy PI controller performed marginally better and was resistant to external noises, though it tended to have a larger overshoot. The performance of the controllers had a similar trend in the three different joint positions, and the simulation results with the nonlinear model matched the experimental results well. In conclusion, AM/PW modulation improved controller performance, while the contribution

of fuzzy logic was only marginal.”
“Background: Quizartinib mouse Glenoid reconstruction with distal tibial allografts offers the theoretical advantage over Latarjet reconstruction of improved joint congruity and a cartilaginous articulation for the humeral head.\n\nHypothesis/Purpose: To investigate changes in the magnitude and location of glenohumeral contact areas, contact pressures, and peak forces after (1) the creation of a 30% anterior glenoid defect and subsequent glenoid bone augmentation Epoxomicin research buy with (2) a flush Latarjet coracoid graft or (3) a distal tibial osteochondral allograft. It was hypothesized that the distal tibial bone graft would best normalize glenohumeral contact areas, contact pressures, and peak forces.\n\nStudy Design: Controlled laboratory study.\n\nMethods: Eight cadaveric shoulder specimens were dissected free of all soft tissues and randomly tested in 3 static positions of humeral abduction with a 440-N compressive load: 30 degrees, 60 degrees, and 60 degrees of abduction with 90 degrees of external rotation (ABER). Glenohumeral contact area, contact pressure, and peak force were determined sequentially using a digital pressure mapping system for (1) the intact glenoid, (2) the glenoid with a 30% anterior bone defect, and (3) the glenoid after reconstruction with a distal tibial allograft or a Latarjet bone block.

Patients with smear-negative pulmonary TB were at greater risk of

Patients with smear-negative pulmonary TB were at greater risk of death in the first 2 months of treatment (human immunodeficiency virus Selleckchem BMS-777607 [HIV] positive HR 1.49, 95%Cl 0.89-2.49; HIV-negativc

HR 1.77 95%Cl 1.06-2.95), but tot thereafter. Patients with extra-pulmonary TB were at increased risk of death in the first 2 months of anti-tuberculosis treatment if they were non-HIV-infected (HR 2.42, 95%CI 1.52-3.85), and were half as likely to die during the remainder of treatment (HIV-positive HR 0.46, 95%CI 0.22-0.97; HIV-negative HR 0.47, 95 %CI 0.23-0.94). Antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduced the risk of death by an estimated 36% (HR 0.64, 95%CI 0.37-1.11).\n\nCONCLUSION: High mortality in the first months of anti-tuberculosis treatment could be reduced by addressing diagnostic delays, particularly for extra-pulmonary and smear-negative TB cases and, in HIV-infected patients, by initiation of ART soon after starting antituberculosis treatment.”

The aim of the paper was to identify the models of information exchange for UK telehealth systems.\n\nMethodology: Twelve telehealth offerings were evaluated and models representing the information exchange routes were constructed. Questionnaires were used to validate the diagrammatical representations of the models with a response rate of 55%. Results: The models were classified as possessing four sections: preparing for data transfer, data transfer, information selleck generation and information transfer from health professional to patient.\n\nIn preparing for data transfer, basic data entry was automated in most systems though additional inputs (i.e. information about diet, lifestyle and medication) could be entered before the data was sent into

the telehealth system. For the data transfer aspect, results and additional inputs were sent to intermediate devices, which were connectors between point-of-care devices, patients and health professionals. Data were then forwarded to either a web portal, a remote database or a monitoring/call centre. Information generation was either through computational methods or through the expertise of health professionals. Information transfer to the patient occurred in four forms: email, telehealth monitor message, text message or phone call.\n\nConclusion: On comparing the models, three generic models were outlined. Five different forms of information exchange between users GDC-0973 molecular weight of the system were identified: patient-push, system-stimulation, dialogue, health professional-pull and observation. Patient-push and health professional-pull are the dominant themes from the telehealth offerings evaluated. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The shallow waters of the nearshore ocean are popular, dynamic, and often hostile. Prediction in this domain is usually limited less by our understanding of the physics or by the power of our models than by the availability of input data, such as bathymetry and wave conditions.

PHB-DNA adduct levels

were higher in lung than in liver a

PHB-DNA adduct levels

were higher in lung than in liver at each Selleckchem JQ1 time point, consistent with previous studies of POB-DNA adducts in rats treated with NNK and NNAL in the drinking water. The results showed that NNK and (S)-NNAL behaved in a similar fashion, while (R)-NNAL was strikingly different. In the rats treated with NNK or (S)-NNAL, levels of each adduct at each time point were remarkably similar in lung, and levels of O-2-PHB-dThd were generally greater than 7-PHB-Gua > O-6- PHB-dGuo. The highest PHB-DNA adduct levels were found in lung and liver of rats treated with (R)NNAL, suggesting that there are cytochrome P450s that efficiently catalyze the alpha-methyl hydroxylation of this compound. The results of this study provide further support for our hypothesis that (S)-NNAL is rapidly formed from NNK, sequestered at an unknown IWR-1-endo site in the lung, and then released and reoxidized

to NNK with consequent DNA adduct formation resulting in lung carcinogenicity.”
“Over the past 20 years, immunotherapy has not played a role in the treatment of lung cancer outside of clinical trials. Early trials with vaccines yielded promising results, but phase III trials have yet to show an improvement in survival. Recently, immune checkpoint pathway inhibitors have yielded exciting and consistent activity across this class of antibodies. However, phase III trials are now ongoing. Currently, the hope of bringing immunotherapy to lung cancer patients lies in this class of drugs. Only time will show us if these antibodies will yield an Staurosporine manufacturer improvement in long-term survival. This review will focus on checkpoint pathway inhibitors that have completed early-phase trials. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Chlorophyll f (1) is the most red-shifted absorbing natural chlorophyll reported, and it is assigned the structure [2-formyl)-chlorophyll a (C55H70O6N4Mg). This structural assignment is confirmed based

on the relative retention time on HPLC, mass spectroscopy, UV/vis absorption, and CD spectroscopy, and proton and carbon NMR of chlorophyll f purified from Halomicronema hongdechlorls.”
“Objectives: We aimed to survey the current management of venous thromboprophylaxis in patients undergoing elective surgery for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) by vascular surgeons in the United Kingdom.\n\nDesign: A questionnaire was designed to investigate anticoagulation strategies in the perioperative period of elective AAA repair, both open and endovascular. This included both chemical and mechanical prophylaxis. A total of 395 questionnaires was posted to the members of the Vascular Society of Great Britain and Ireland.\n\nResults: One hundred and seventy-two (44%) valid responses were received.

“The aim of this research was the selection of spermatozoa

“The aim of this research was the selection of spermatozoa parameters related to boar fertility performance and their combination into an in vitro index. A first set (data set 1) of 36 Pietrain boars with 138 ejaculates from two seasons with 5083 selleck chemicals llc single-sire inseminations from 34 farms was used to determine correlations between in vitro sperm quality parameters and fertility performance. 2970 ejaculates representing a second set (data set 2) served calculation of seasonal and age effects on semen quality. Morphological spermatozoa parameters were estimated manually with a phase contrast microscope on the day of semen collection, whereas mitochondrial activity and viability were analyzed by double-staining with rhodamine123/propidium

iodide on day 2 of semen storage using flow cytometry. Sperm motility was tested on day 7 by thermoresistance (TRT) after 30 min (TRT1) and 300 min (TRT2) incubation at 38 degrees C using computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA).\n\nCorrelations revealed four independent sperm quality parameters qualifying as relevant predictors of boar fertility: (i) percentage of spermatozoa with proximal cytoplasmic droplets, (ii) percentage of spermatozoa with active mitochondria, (iii) beat cross frequency

of progressively motile spermatozoa in TRT1, and (iv) oscillation measure of the actual path of progressively motile spermatozoa in TRT2. There were no significant effects of sperm concentration, ejaculate volume, and total number of sperm cells Selleck Autophagy inhibitor per ejaculate on litter size (LS) and on pregnancy rate (PR). Our findings suggest the usefulness of sperm quality parameters based on adjusted range of methods and enable the construction of an in click here vitro index as a means to predicting boar fertility. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Introduction Various functional residual capacity (FRC) repeatability criteria have

been proposed for lung clearance index (LCI) measurement by multiple breath washout (MBW). Adult guidelines recommend three technically acceptable tests with FRC values within 10%, whilst preschool guidelines recommend two such tests. Feasibility of and need for recommendations in children is unclear. Methods Retrospective analysis of MBW data was undertaken in healthy control (n=90) and cystic fibrosis (CF) subjects (n=108) encompassing infancy, pre-school and school age ranges. Feasibility of FRC repeatability recommendations was investigated in those with three technically acceptable tests. Validity of mean LCI from the first two tests alone (vs. all three) was investigated by comparing mean data and sensitivity to detect abnormal peripheral airway function in CF. Results LCI coefficient of variation (CoV) was related to FRC CoV (P<0.001) and disease category (P=0.002). Application of adult repeatability criteria decreased LCI CoV (4.7 vs. 8.5%, P<0.001), but had poor feasibility beyond infancy (62/150, 41%). Preschool recommendations increased feasibility but only to 70% overall.