Our review of the randomized trials on which these guidelines

Our review of the randomized trials on which these guidelines

are based selleck inhibitor shows that the annual risk of recurrent venous thromboembolism after stopping warfarin is 2%-10%. No similar evidence is available for patients with atrial fibrillation, but the published CHADS2 index uses multiple factors to estimate stroke risk. The risk of bleeding complications with warfarin is most closely linked to degree of anticoagulation. Nutritional compromise and changes in drug therapy increase this risk and require that any patient remaining on warfarin must undergo frequent monitoring of anticoagulant effect.”
“Through exome resequencing, we identified two unique mutations in recombination signal binding protein for immunoglobulin kappa J (RBPJ) in two independent families affected by Adams-Oliver syndrome (AOS), a rare multiple-malformation disorder consisting primarily of aplasia cutis congenita of the vertex scalp and transverse terminal limb defects. These identified mutations link RBPJ, the primary transcriptional regulator for the Notch pathway, with AOS, a human genetic disorder. Functional assays confirmed impaired DNA binding of mutated RBPJ, placing it among other notch-pathway Selleckchem Galardin proteins altered in human genetic syndromes.”
“Given their tremendous importance for correct chromosome segregation, the number and distribution of crossovers are tightly controlled

during meiosis. In this review, we give an overview of crossover formation in polyploid Brassica hybrids and haploids that illustrates or underscores several aspects of crossover control. We first demonstrate that multiple this website targets for crossover formation (i.e. different but related chromosomes or duplicated regions) are sorted out during meiosis based on their level of relatedness. In euploid Brassica napus (AACC; 2n = 38), crossovers essentially occur between homologous chromosomes and only a few of them form between homeologues. The

situation is different in B. napus haploids in which crossovers preferentially occur between homeologous chromosomes and a few can then form between more divergent duplicated regions. We then provide evidence that the frequency of crossovers between a given pair of chromosomes is influenced by the karyotypic and genetic composition of the plants that undergo meiosis. For instance, genetic evidence indicates that the number of crossovers between exactly the same pairs of homologous A chromosomes gets a boost in Brassica digenomic tetraploid (AACC) and triploid (AAC) hybrids. Increased autosyndesis within B. napus haploids as compared to monoploid B. rapa and B. oleracea is another illustration of this process. All these observations may suggest that polyploidization overall boosts up crossover machinery and/or that the number of crossovers is modulated through inter-bivalents or univalent-bivalent cross-talk effects.

Methods: Literature

was collected systematically via

\n\nMethods: Literature

was collected systematically via the Internet using the key words “intussusception” and “children.” The evidence level of each paper was rated in accordance with the levels of evidence of the Oxford Center for Evidence-based Medicine. The guidelines consisted of 50 clinical questions and the answers. Grades of recommendation were added to the procedures recommended on the basis of the strength of evidence levels.\n\nResults: Three criteria of “diagnostic criteria,” “severity assessment criteria,” and “criteria for patient transfer” ICG-001 were proposed aiming at an early diagnosis, selection of appropriate treatment, and patient transfer for referral to a tertiary hospital in severe cases. Barium is no longer recommended for enema reduction (recommendation D) because the patient becomes severely ill once perforation occurs. Use of other contrast media, such as water-soluble iodinated contrast, normal Epigenetics inhibitor saline, or air, is recommended under either fluoroscopic or sonographic guidance. Delayed repeat enema improves reduction success rate, and is recommended if the initial enema partially reduced the intussusception and if the patient condition is stable.\n\nConclusions: The guidelines

offer standards of management, but it is not necessarily the purpose of the guidelines to regulate clinical practices. One should judge each individual clinical situation in accordance with experiences, available devices, and the patient’s condition.”
“BACKGROUND: Ribonucleotide reductase subunit M1 (RRM1) has emerged as a promising biomarker to predict the efficacy

of gemcitabine. The purpose of the study was to evaluate whether the tailored chemotherapy based on RRM1 immunohistochemical (IHC) expression Crenolanib had any benefit for patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).\n\nMETHODS: A single-institution study was conducted in patients with advanced NSCLC. In personalized therapy group, patients received chemotherapy based on RRM-1 IHC expression levels. Low RRM1 group received gemcitabine or gemcitabine/cisplatin, high RRM1 group received docetaxel or docetaxel/cisplatin. In standard therapy group, non-customized chemotherapy was delivered. In this trial, Patients aged >= 70 years received single agent chemotherapy, whereas patients below 70 had platinum-based chemotherapy.\n\nRESULTS: There were statistically significant improvements between the personalized therapy group versus the standard therapy group in disease control rate (82.9% vs 55.3%, P = 0.004), and PFS (median: 5.5 months vs 3.0 months, P = 0.005). Besides, the OS had a tendency to become more prolonged (median: 16.0 months vs 12.4 months, P = 0.286). The subgroup analysis suggested the survival benefit in the elderly patients was more obvious.\n\nCONCLUSION: RRM1 IHC expression tailored selection of first-line therapy could improve therapeutic outcomes in patients with advanced NSCLC.

The fatal proband in the present report has provided clinical evi

The fatal proband in the present report has provided clinical evidence challenging the traditional concept

on NICCD prognosis. Moreover, as the first trial on CD prenatal https://www.selleckchem.com/products/azd8186.html diagnosis, this study might open a novel area for clinical management of CD.”
“Rubber nanocomposites based on hot styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) and organophilic layered silicate were prepared via mechanical mixing followed by compression molding. Varying amount of organically modified nanosilicate, 2.5, 5, 10, and 15 parts per hundred of rubber (phr), was added to the SBR matrix to examine the influence of nanosilicate on morphology and structureproperty relationships. The morphology of nanocomposites was studied by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy which reveal that the nanocomposite contained a good

dispersion of intercalated/exfoliated layers through the matrix. The interaction between SBR matrix and nanofiller was studied by infrared spectroscopy. No clear evidence for the formation of new components in the rubber was found but infrared spectroscopy denoted evidence for exfoliation. The reinforcing effect of the nanosilicate was determined by mechanical testing and dynamomechanical analysis. The results indicate that the tensile properties and the storage modulus increased with increasing nanofiller loading. This suggests a strong rubbernanosilicate interaction which is attributed to the exfoliated/intercalated

structure. Thermogravimetric analysis revealed that incorporation of organoclay enhances the AZD6738 cell line thermal stability of the nanocomposites. The selleck inhibitor best thermal stability was observed for nanocomposites containing 5 phr nanosilicate. (C) 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2012″
“OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this investigation was to examine the association of body mass index (BMI) category with short-term outcomes in minority surgical patientsa relationship that previously has not been well characterized.\n\nMETHODS: Data from the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program were used to calculate the BMI of minority patients undergoing surgery from 2005 to 2008. Patients were stratified into 5 BMI classes. Stepwise logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios for mortality after controlling for known clinically relevant covariates.\n\nMAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Morbidity and mortality at 30 days, across all 5 BMI classes.\n\nRESULTS: Among 119,619 minority patients studied, 50% were African American, 36% Hispanic, 10% Asian and Pacific Islanders, and 4% American Indian and Alaskan natives. Seventy percent were overweight or obese. Women were more likely to be obese or severely obese. The overall mortality rate was 1.5%, and this varied significantly by BMI class.

We compared the regulation of human FUT4 gene transcription in hu

We compared the regulation of human FUT4 gene transcription in human breast cancer cells (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) using promoter/luciferase analyses. Using a series of promoter deletion constructs, we identified a potential regulatory site located between 0.8 and 1.6kb of the FUT4 promoter. As shown by EMSA and ChIP analyses, heat-shock factor 1 (HSF1) and Sp1are required for FUT4 promoter activity. In addition, we explored the role of HSF1 and Sp1 on cell proliferation, and found that the ERK1/2 MAPK

and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways regulate the expression of FUT4, which play a role in cell proliferation via HSF1 and Sp1. These results suggest Pitavastatin inhibitor that FUT4 is a target gene for HSF1 and Sp1 that is required for cell cycle progression in breast cancer epithelial cells. J. Cell. Biochem. 115: 168-178, 2014. (c) 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.”
“Runoff generation at the hillslope scale is an important component of the hydrological cycle. Recent work has shown that a common hillslope runoff response mechanism is driven by connectivity of saturated patches in the subsurface (via filling and spilling) to a threshold initiation of lateral flow at the hillslope base. Here, we show that directed percolation theory is able to represent this key runoff process including the details of dynamical flowpath development and filling and spilling processes at the soil-bedrock

interface. We then use the directed percolation model to investigate how changes in slope angle, soil depth, and subsurface microtopography influence stormflow response. We map INCB024360 in vitro the evolving subsurface flow network under different hillslope classes and compare this website them to the natural system response. Our results suggest that the natural system sheds water more efficiently than randomly generated systems providing some insights into key hydrogeomorphic controls on water shedding in the environment.

(C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Synthetic biology has developed numerous parts for building synthetic gene circuits. However, few parts have been described for prokaryotes to integrate two signals at a promoter in an AND fashion, i.e. the promoter is only activated in the presence of both signals. Here we present a new part for this function: a split intein T7 RNA polymerase. We divide T7 RNA polymerase into two expression domains and fuse each to a split intein. Only when both domains are expressed does the split intein mediate protein trans-splicing, yielding a full-length T7 RNA polymerase that can transcribe genes via a T7 promoter. We demonstrate an AND gate with the new part: the signal-to-background ratio is very high, resulting in an almost digital signal. This has utility for more complex circuits and so we construct a band-pass filter in Escherichia coli. The split intein approach should be widely applicable for engineering artificial gene circuit parts.

058) numerical reduction at one site The effects of EPF and EPN

058) numerical reduction at one site. The effects of EPF and EPN were

additive. There was evidence of mortality due to native Beauveria sp. at all three eradicant sites, identified as Beauveria caledonica at one. A proportion of weevils at depths of up to 18 cm in the soil were infected by the applied Beauveria bassiana showing that applied fungi can reach this cryptic pest. If choice of EPF strain and application technologies are optimised, EPF may present LY2603618 a viable control method for pine weevil in the future. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“We report a case of primary bone lymphoma (PBL) in a 15-year-old girl assessed by MR imaging with diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). DWI has been shown to help characterize the cellularity of solid tumors and this case correlates well with previous data.”
“Revision total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a complex procedure which carries both a greater risk for patients and greater

cost for the treating hospital than does a primary TKA. As well as the increased cost of peri-operative investigations, blood transfusions, surgical instrumentation, implants and operating time, there is a well-documented increased length of stay which accounts for most of the actual costs associated with surgery. We compared revision surgery for infection with revision for other causes (pain, instability, aseptic loosening and fracture). Complete clinical, demographic and economic data were obtained for 168 consecutive H 89 purchase revision TKAs performed at a tertiary referral centre between 2005 and 2012. Revision surgery for infection was associated with AZD8055 cost a mean length of stay more than double that of aseptic cases (21.5 vs 9.5 days, p smaller than 0.0001). The mean cost of a revision for infection was more than three times that of an aseptic revision (30

pound 011 (SD 4514) vs 9655 pound (SD 599.7), p smaller than 0.0001). Current NHS tariffs do not fully reimburse the increased costs of providing a revision knee surgery service. Moreover, especially as greater costs are incurred for infected cases. These losses may adversely affect the provision of revision surgery in the NHS.”
“Malignant hematologic diseases are highly malignant and refractory to conventional therapies. Ligand-mediated targeting of liposomal anticancer drugs to surface receptors expressed on malignant B cells can be an effective strategy for treating B-cell malignancies. BAFF plays an important role in the maintenance of normal B-cell development and homeostasis and the expression of its receptors is significantly increased in numerous B-cell malignancies. mBAFF (a soluble BAFF mutant with amino acid 217-224 being replaced by two glycine residues) may be used as a competitive inhibitor for BAFF to treat relevant malignant hematologic diseases. It may also hold promise as a novel ligand for targeted anticancer therapy.

Theories of cultural altruism do not lift the selective pressures

Theories of cultural altruism do not lift the selective pressures weighing on strictly altruistic actions; they merely shift the burden of maladaptation from social cognition to cultural transmission.”
“There are estimated 120 000

girl child soldiers worldwide. Recruitment makes girls vulnerable to the violence of war, torture, psychological trauma and sexual KPT-8602 nmr abuse with huge impact on their physical, mental and reproductive health. Despite this, girl soldiers often remain an invisible and marginalised group frequently neglected from disarmament, demobilisation and reintegration programmes. This is not just a local issue: with former child soldiers seeking asylum as refugees there is an increasing need for health workers in the destination countries to

understand their health needs in order to inform appropriate holistic service provision. This review provides an overview of how the duties and life experiences of girl soldiers, including gender-specific abuses, impacts upon their health and concludes with a summary Staurosporine price of recommendations as to how their rehabilitation needs can be addressed.”
“Objectives. Cellular fibronectin (cFn) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and we previously demonstrated the presence of citrullinated cFn in rheumatoid synovial tissues. The present study aimed to investigate whether citrullinated cFn can be detected in the plasma or synovial fluid of RA patients. Methods. Twenty-five rheumatoid arthritis synovial fluid (RASF), seven osteoarthritis synovial fluid (OASF) and 12 plasma

samples from RA patients were examined. Citrullination of cFn was U0126 chemical structure determined by immunoprecipitation (IP), western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), in which peptidyl-citrulline within cFn was detected using a specific anti-cFn monoclonal antibody in combination with anti-modified citrulline antibody after chemical modification. Results. Levels of citrullination associated with cFn, as determined by ELISA, were significantly higher in RASF than in OASF samples. IP and western blotting detected citrullinated cFn in RASF but not in plasma samples from RA patients. Levels of total cFn were elevated in RASF compared with OASF, and 24 out of 25 RASF samples were positive for anti-CCP antibody. However, no correlation was observed between levels of citrullinated cFn and those of total cFn or anti-CCP antibody in RASF. On the other hand, a significant positive correlation was observed between the levels of matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) and cFn citrullination in RASF. Conclusions. Citrullinated cFn appears to be produced within the affected joint and might be involved in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid synovitis.”
“The prognostic significance of early response to treatment has not been reported in relapsed pediatric acute myeloid leukemia.

These in vitro observations suggest that one mode of action of CP

These in vitro observations suggest that one mode of action of CP is through stimulating insulin secretion which may be mediated, in part, by the ability of CP to increase [Ca(2+)](i) levels through VGCC. CP extracts may provide an affordable and inexpensive alternative for treating patients with T2DM.

Copyright (C) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“In cyanobacteria, the thermal dissipation of excess absorbed energy at the level of the phycobilisome (PBS)-antenna is triggered by absorption of strong blue-green light by the photoactive orange carotenoid protein (OCP). This process known as non-photochemical quenching, whose molecular mechanism remains in many respects unclear, is revealed in vivo as a decrease in phycobilisome fluorescence. In vitro reconstituted system on the interaction of the OCP and the PBS isolated from the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. GSK923295 Cytoskeletal Signaling inhibitor KC 6803 presents evidence that the OCP is not only a photosensor, but also an effecter that makes direct contacts with the PBS and causes dissipation of absorbed energy. To localize the site(s) of quenching, we have analyzed the role of chromophorylated polypeptides of the PBS using PBS-deficient mutants in conjunction with in vitro systems of assembled PBS and of isolated components DMXAA inhibitor of the PBS core. The results demonstrated that km, the core-membrane linker protein and terminal emitter of the PBS, could act as the docking site

for OCP in vitro. The ApcD and ApcF terminal emitters of the PBS core are not directly subjected to quenching. The data suggests that there could be close contact between the phycocyanobilin chromophore selleck compound of L-CM and the 3′-hydroxyechinenone chromophore present in OCP and that L-CM could be involved in OCP-induced quenching. According to the reduced average life-time of the PBS-fluorescence and linear dependence of fluorescence intensity of the PBS on OCP concentration, the quenching has mostly dynamic character. This article is

part of a Special Issue entitled: Photosynthesis Research for Sustainability: from Natural to Artificial. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Precise spatial and temporal expression of the recently identified G-protein coupled receptor GPR54 is critical for proper reproductive function and metastasis suppression. However, regulatory factors that control GPR54 expression remain unknown. Thus, the identification of these cis-acting DNA elements can provide insight into the role of GPR54 in reproduction and cancer. Using luciferase reporter, electrophoretic mobility shift, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, we demonstrate that three SP1 sites and a partial estrogen response element modulate mouse GPR54 (mGPR54) promoter activity. Supporting experiments show transcription factor SP1 binds directly to the mGPR54 promoter region and activates gene expression.

Methods: We studied 103 consecutive patients with acute heart

\n\nMethods: We studied 103 consecutive patients with acute heart failure (86 men, age: 64 +/- 13 years, LVEF: 28 +/- 8%). The primary end-point was all-cause mortality at 1-year follow-up.\n\nResults:

Median plasma NT-proBNP on admission was 6116 pg/mL (upper/lower Saracatinib quartiles: 3575, 10,958) vs. 2930 pg/mL (1674, 5794) after clinical stabilization (7 +/- 3 days after admission). During the 1-year follow-up 29 (28%) patients died. A decrease in plasma NT-proBNP during clinical recovery (expressed as percentage of NT-proBNP on admission) predicted favorable outcome in the single predictor analysis (p<0.001) and multivariable analyses (p<0.001). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed that 65% was the cut-off value for NT-proBNP decrease having best prognostic accuracy for predicting death (sensitivity 90%, specificity 37%, AUC=0.65, 95% CI: 0.54-0.74). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that 12-month survival was 92% (95% CI: 81-100%) for patients

with >= 65% NT-proBNP decrease vs 66% (95% CI: 56-76%) in those with <65% NT-proBNP decrease (p=0.02).\n\nConclusions: The magnitude of plasma NT-proBNP decrease in patients with acute heart failure is helpful in LY2606368 nmr discrimination of patients at high risk of death. Plasma NT-proBNP level monitoring is important for risk stratification in this group of patients. (C) 2007 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“A new isofuranonaphthoquinone, 7,8-dihydroxy-1-methylnaphtho[2,3-c]furan-4,9-dione, was isolated from cultures of an Actinoplanes isolate obtained using an in situ diffusion technology that facilitates the isolation of soil microorganisms. This compound was demonstrated to have the ability to complex Fe(III). The structure was determined on the basis of spectroscopic data.”
“Mucosal tissues are continually

bombarded with infectious agents seeking to gain entry into the body. The absence of a tough physical exterior layer surrounding these tissues creates a unique challenge for the immune system, which manages to provide broad protection against a plethora of different organisms selleck kinase inhibitor with the aid of special adaptations that augment immunity at these vulnerable sites. For example, specialized populations of memory T lymphocytes reside at initial sites of pathogen entry into the body, where they provide an important protective barrier. Similar anatomically-confined populations of pathogen-specific CD8 T cells can be found near the outer margins of the body following recovery from a variety of local infections, where they share very similar phenotypic characteristics. How these tissue-resident T cells are retained in a single anatomic location where they can promote immunity is beginning to be defined.

“Gadolinium (Gd) based contrast agents are routinely used

“Gadolinium (Gd) based contrast agents are routinely used as part of many magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) procedures. The widespread use of these agents and concerns about Gd toxicity, motivated us to develop a monitoring procedure that could non-invasively measure quantitatively potential retention of toxic free Gd in tissues after use of the agent. We have been developing a method to measure Gd painlessly and non-invasively by prompt

gamma neutron activation analysis. In this paper we present the results of a pilot study where we show that we can measure Gd, quantitatively in vivo, in the lower leg muscle of 10 participants. A series of three neutron leg scans PF-03084014 purchase were performed. The effective radiation dose for a single MLN2238 in vitro neutron leg scan was very low, 0.6 mu Sv, so

multiple scans were possible. Calibration phantom and in vivo detection limits were determined to be identical: 0.58 ppm. Gd was not detectable in muscle prior to exposure to the contrast agent Gadovist (R). Gd was detected, at greater than 99% confidence, in 9 participants within 1 h of contrast administration and in 1 participant approximately 3.3 h post-contrast administration. The measured concentrations of Gd ranged from 2.0 to 17.3 ppm (6.9 to 56 uncertainties different from zero). No detectable Gd was measured in any participant in the third neutron scan (conducted 0.7 to 5.9 d post-contrast). The results of this

study validate our new measurement technology. This technique could be used as a non-invasive monitoring procedure for exposure and retention of Gd from Gd-based chelates used in MRI.”
“Nineteen 5-nitrothiazolylthiosemicarbazones were synthesized from find more 5-nitrothiazole by three-step synthesis and evaluated for in vitro activities against seven mycobacterial species. Among them, N-(5-nitro-1,-3-thiazol-2-yl)-2-((Z)-4-[(phenylmethyl)oxy]phenylmethylidene)hydrazine-1-carbothioamide (4m) was found to be the most active compound with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0.23 mu M against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37 Rv, and was three times more potent than isoniazid and equally active as rifampicin. Compound 4m also inhibited six non-tubercular mycobacteria with MICs ranging from 1.88 to 30.25 mu M.”
“Somatic alterations of the lymphoid transcription factor gene PAX5 (also known as BSAP) are a hallmark of B cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL)(1-3), but inherited mutations of PAX5 have not previously been described. Here we report a new heterozygous germline variant, c.547G>A (p.Gly183Ser), affecting the octapeptide domain of PAX5 that was found to segregate with disease in two unrelated kindreds with autosomal dominant B-ALL.

Among the overexpressed proteins, 23 proteins were related to DNA

Among the overexpressed proteins, 23 proteins were related to DNA replication and repair. These included high-mobility group box 2 (HMGB2) protein, which was overexpressed in all three HNSCC lines

studied. Overexpression of HMGB2 has been reported in various cancers, yet its role in HNSCC remains unclear. Immunohistochemical labeling of HMGB2 in a panel of HNSCC tumors using tissue microarrays revealed overexpression in 77% (54 of 70) of tumors. Entinostat research buy The HMGB proteins are known to bind to DNA structure resulting from cisplatin-DNA adducts and affect the chemosensitivity of cells. We observed that siRNA-mediated silencing of HMGB2 increased the sensitivity of the HNSCC cell lines to cisplatin and 5-FU. We hypothesize that targeting HMGB2 could enhance the efficacy of existing chemotherapeutic

regimens for treatment of HNSCC. All MS data have been deposited in the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000737 (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD000737).”
“We present an optimized and validated liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) method Torin 2 for the simultaneous measurement of concentrations of different ceramide species in biological samples. The method of analysis of tissue samples is based on Bligh and Dyer extraction, reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography separation, and multiple reaction monitoring of ceramides. Preparation of plasma samples also requires isolation of sphingolipids by silica gel column chromatography prior to LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis. The limits of quantification were in a range of 0.01-0.50 ng/ml for distinct ceramides. The method was reliable for inter- and intraassay precision,

accuracy, and linearity. Recoveries of ceramide subspecies from human plasma, rat liver, RG-7388 and muscle tissue were 78 to 91%, 70 to 99%, and 71 to 95%, respectively. The separation and quantification of several endogenous long-chain and very-long-chain ceramides using two nonphysiological odd chain ceramide (C17 and C25) internal standards was achieved within a single 21-min chromatographic run. The technique was applied to quantify distinct ceramide species in different rat tissues (muscle, liver, and heart) and in human plasma. Using this analytical technique, we demonstrated that a clinical exercise training intervention reduces the levels of ceramides in plasma of obese adults. This technique could be extended for quantification of other ceramides and sphingolipids with no significant modification. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Objective. Congenital arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) in the maxillofacial region are rare, potentially life-threatening, vascular lesions.