The comparison of T velox with T acidaminovorans reached the hi

The comparison of T. velox with T. acidaminovorans reached the highest scores using the GGDC, 44% of the average of genome length are covered with HSPs (Table 5). The identity within the HSPs was 78%, whereas the identity over the whole genome was 35%. Lower similarity scores were observed in the comparison of T. velox with A. paucivorans, only 17% of the average of both genome lengths are covered with HSPs. The identity within these HSPs was 77%, whereas the identity over the whole genome was only 13%. With regard to T. velox and T. acidaminovorans the corresponding DDH estimates were below the 70% threshold under formulas 1-3 throughout: 27.2% (��3.5), 20.4% (��2.3) and 24.6% (��3.0). The DDH estimated confidence intervals are given in parentheses as provided by [41].

These results are in line with a previously reported wet-lab DDH value of 15% (��1) [1] As expected, those distances relating HSP coverage (formula 1) and number of identical base pairs within HSPs to total genome length (formula 3) are higher between the T. velox and T. acidaminovorans than between T. velox and A. paucivorans. That the distances relating the number of identical base pairs to total HSP length (formula 2) behave differently indicates that the genomic similarities between T. velox, T. acidaminovorans and A. paucivorans are strongly restricted to more conserved sequences, a kind of saturation phenomenon [42]. In order to compare the T. velox and T. acidaminovorans genomes, correlation values (Pearson coefficient) according to the similarity on the level of COG category, pfam and TIGRfam were calculated.

A very high correlation value (0.98) was reached on the level of pfam data; the correlation values on the basis of COG and TIGRfam data were only slightly smaller; 0.95 and 0.97, respectively. As a correlation value of 1 indicates the highest correlation, we can find a near perfect correlation between the genomes of T. velox and T. acidaminovorans considering the above data [40]. The comparison of the number of genes belonging to different COG categories revealed no large differences in the genomes of T. velox and T. acidaminovorans, with only 0.2% deviation between the same COG categories on average. A slightly higher fraction of genes belonging to the categories amino acid metabolism (T. velox 11.8%, T. acidaminovorans 11.4%), carbohydrate metabolism (T. velox 5.

7%, T. acidaminovorans 5.3%) and defense mechanisms (T. velox 1.0%, T. acidaminovorans 0.7%) were identified in T. velox. The gene count in further COG categories such as cell cycle control, cell motility, cell biogenesis, lipid metabolism, secondary catabolism, posttranslational modification and signal transduction was also slightly increased in T. velox, but differed at most by 5 genes. In contrast, Dacomitinib a slightly smaller fraction of genes belonging to the categories translation (T. velox 8.8%, T. acidaminovorans 9.2%), nucleotide metabolism (T. velox 3.7%, T. acidaminovorans 4.

Intra-day and inter-day studies [Table

Intra-day and inter-day studies [Table selleck compound 2] support the precision of the method. The proposed method when used for estimation of THIO and ACE from the pharmaceutical dosage form after spiking with the working standard afforded recovery of 99�C101% [Table 3]. Table 2 Intra-day and inter-day precision (n = 3) Table 3 Results of the accuracy study Sensitivity of the ethod (LOD and LOQ) The limit of detection was found to be 20 ng/spot and 10 ng/spot, while the limit of quantitation was found to be 60 ng/spot and 30 ng/spot for LOR and THIO, respectively. The low value of LOD and LOQ indicates that the method is sensitive. Robustness The standard deviation of the peak areas was calculated for each parameter change and the % RSD was found to be less than 2%. The low values of the % RSD [Table 4] indicated robustness of the method.

Table 4 Robustness study of lornoxicam and thiocolchicoside (n = 3) Specificity The method was found to be specific as no interfering spots were seen when Rf values of the standard and sample were compared. There is no difference in the spectra of the sample and standard solution, which indicate the specificity of the method. The peak purity of both drugs was assessed by comparing the respective spectra of standard drugs and samples at peak start, peak apex and peak end positions of the spot. CONCLUSION HPTLC, with its advantage of low-operating cost, high-sample thought and minimum sample preparation need, is now-a-days preferred as a routine analytical technique for control and assurance.

The validated HPTLC method employed here proved to be simple, fast, accurate, precise and sensitive and, thus, can be used for routine analysis of LOR and THIO in tablet dosage form to determine uniformity of contents for both the analytes in tablet in a short time. ACKNOWLEDGMENT The authors are thankful to m/s Glenmark Pharmaceuticals Ltd., Baddi, India and Medley Pharmaceuticals Ltd., Baddi, India for providing gift samples of LOR and THIO, respectively. The authors are thankful to the Management of MAEER’s Maharashtra Institute of Pharmacy, Pune and Anchrom Laboratories for providing necessary facilities to carry out the research work. Footnotes Source of Support: Nil Conflict of Interest: None declared.

Meta-cresol (m-cresol) is used as bactericide in the biotechnological processing of pharmaceuticals; preservative in pharmaceutical formulations [injection solutions of insulin, somatropin, and parathyroid hormone AV-951 (PTH)]; pesticide for the treatment of the stems of fruit trees and plants. Exposure of humans is possible through the use of m-cresol as a preservative in pharmaceutical injection solutions. Meta-cresol, para-cresol, and m/p-cresol mixtures are absorbed across the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts and through the skin, and are distributed throughout the body.

It would also serve to expand the next generation of cephalopod r

It would also serve to expand the next generation of cephalopod researchers. Consequently, a central element of a Cephalopod RCN would be short-term laboratory exchanges for undergraduate and graduate students to aid in genome annotation and analysis, to promote education in bioinformatics and cephalopod biology and to foster new collaborations across the cephalopod community. selleckchem Cephalopods are important to science, including the fields of cellular neurobiology, learning and memory, neuroethology, biomaterial engineering, animal-microbe interactions, developmental biology, and fundamental molecular biology such as RNA editing. Access to genomic information will greatly facilitate this ongoing research, particularly through gene discovery.

Cephalopod genomics will also drive the creation of new areas of investigation, including such biomedically important topics as regeneration and aging [83,84]. Other examples of promising post-genomic cephalopod research include study of the unknown chemosensory systems by which cephalopods monitor their marine environments, and the isolation of cephalopod neurotoxins, which could lead to novel reagents for research and drug-based therapies [12]. Cephalopod genomics will also be important for evolutionary biology, particularly for understanding the great diversity and genomic complexity of the whole molluscan phylum and for probing the emergence of the evolutionary innovations that are represented by cephalopod eyes, large brains and prehensile arms. Cephalopods are a critical component of marine ecology, are important commercially to the fisheries industry and are an emerging aquaculture taxon.

The effects of global warming and marine acidification and hypoxification on cephalopod health and viability are unknown and can only be fully assessed with improved species delineation and a deeper understanding of population dynamics. Specifically, cephalopod genomics will aid our ability to track population migrations and monitor demographic expansions and contractions. This information will in turn directly inform efforts to assess the effects of climate change on cephalopod stocks [85]. Cephalopods are a critical food source and genomic resources can also be expected to help monitor cephalopod overfishing and improve cephalopod aquaculture. People are fascinated by cephalopods, from Nautilus to the octopus to the giant squid. The coupling of genomics to cephalopod biology represents a fusion of two areas of great interest and excitement for the public. This fusion presents a tremendous Anacetrapib educational platform, particularly for K-12 students, who can be engaged in the classroom and through the public media.

Sequencing, finishing and annotation were performed by the DOE Jo

Sequencing, finishing and annotation were performed by the DOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI). A summary of the project information is shown in Table 2. Table 2 Genome sequencing project information Bicalutamide Growth conditions and DNA extractions A culture of DSM 23566T was grown in DSMZ medium 514 (Bacto Marine Broth) [23] at 20��C. gDNA was purified using Jetflex Genomic DNA Purification Kit (GENOMED 600100) following the directions provided by the supplier but modified by the addition of 20 ��l Proteinase K for cell lysis. The purity, quality and size of the bulk gDNA preparation were assessed by JGI according to DOE-JGI guidelines. DNA is available through the DNA Bank Network [24]. Genome sequencing and assembly The draft genome sequence was generated using Illumina data [25].

For this genome, we constructed and sequenced an Illumina short-insert paired-end library with an average insert size of 247 �� 59 bp which generated 16,028,960 reads and an Illumina long-insert paired-end library with an average insert size of 8,186 �� 3,263 bp which generated 9,112,084 reads totaling 3,771 Mbp of data (Feng Chen, unpublished). All general aspects of library construction and sequencing can be found at the JGI web site [26]. The initial draft assembly contained 20 contigs in 12 scaffolds. The initial draft data were assembled with Allpaths [27], version 39750, and the consensus was computationally shredded into 10 Kbp overlapping fake reads (shreds). The Illumina draft data were also assembled with Velvet [28], and the consensus sequences were computationally shredded into 1.

5 Kbp overlapping fake reads (shreds). The Illumina draft data were assembled again with Velvet using the shreds from the first Velvet assembly to guide the next assembly. The consensus from the second Velvet assembly was shredded into 1.5 Kbp overlapping fake reads. The fake reads from the Allpaths assembly and both Velvet assemblies and a subset of the Illumina CLIP paired-end reads were assembled using parallel phrap (High Performance Software, LLC). Possible mis-assemblies were corrected with manual editing in Consed [29-31]. Gap closure was accomplished using repeat resolution software (Wei Gu, unpublished), and sequencing of bridging PCR fragments with Sanger and/or PacBio (Cliff Han, unpublished) technologies. A total of 13 PCR PacBio consensus sequences were completed to close gaps and to raise the quality of the final sequence.

The final assembly is based on 3,771 Mbp of Illumina draft data, which provides an average 739�� coverage of the genome. Genome annotation Genes were identified using Prodigal [32] as part of the JGI genome annotation pipeline [33], followed by a round of manual curation using the JGI GenePRIMP pipeline [34]. Dacomitinib The predicted CDSs were translated and used to search the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) nonredundant database, UniProt, TIGR-Fam, Pfam, PRIAM, KEGG, COG, and InterPro databases.

The wound was closed in layers, using absorbable suture All pati

The wound was closed in layers, using absorbable suture. All patients were followed up in the out-patient clinic after 7 days, 2 weeks, 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years. Parents were advised to contact the department of pediatric surgery, if there were any concerns research use only in the immediate postoperative period. 3. Statistical Analysis The collected data were organized, tabulated, and statistically analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 16 (SPSS Inc., USA). Qualitative data, frequency, and percent distribution were calculated, and Chi square test was used for comparison between groups. Quantitative data, mean, standard deviation (SD), and range were calculated, and for comparison between two groups, the independent samples (t) test was used. For interpretation of results, P < 0.

05 was considered significant. 4. Results Two hundred and fifty patients with IH were operated upon by 2 different techniques. Group A (n = 125) was subjected to laparoscopic assisted inguinal hernia repair by RN. Group B (n = 125) was subjected to OH. They were 179 males and 71 females. The youngest was 5 months and the oldest was 96 months, given an overall mean age of 61.56 �� 28.32 months. All procedures of group A were completed laparoscopically without any conversion. No intraoperative complications occurred during this study. In group A the patients resumed normal activities within 6 hours after surgery, whereas in patients of group B they resumed normal activities within 10 hours. All patients had uneventful postoperative recoveries and were discharged on the same day of admission.

The mean hospital stay was 5 �� 3.23 hours with no significant difference between both groups. There is significant statistical difference between the studied groups as regards operative time (Table 2). Three cases developed hydrocele in the early postoperative follow-up period in group A, while in group B, postoperative hydrocele was reported in 5 cases. However, all cases responded well to conservative management within 3 weeks (Table 3). Over a mean follow-up period of 24 months (range of 16�C30 months), the recurrence rate was 0.8% (one case) in group A, whereas in group B recurrence rate was 2.4% (3 cases) (Table 3). Table 2 Distribution of the studied groups according to operative time. Table 3 Postoperative complications in the studied groups.

In group A, there were no cases of iatrogenic ascent of the testis, while in group B 4 cases (4.35%) developed iatrogenic ascent of the testis. The early cosmetic results for bilateral cases were excellent (Figures 3(a) and 3(b)). At a follow-up examination more than 6 months later, there were practically no visible scars in group A, while Anacetrapib in group B 5 cases had ugly scars as reported by parents (Figure 4). The umbilical scars were not visible in all of the patients of group A. Figure 3 (a) Bilateral huge inguinal hernia. (b) Postoperative view.

fudan edu cn/cvtree/) with the K parameter with the K parameter selleck kinase inhibitor set at 6 [17]. The outcome from the program is a distance matrix based on amino acid sequence comparisons, which is then used to generate a phylogenetic tree with the neighbor-joining method. In the shown tree, the outgroup chosen was Methanothermus fervidus (an Archaea). After tree visualization with MEGA5, branches were collapsed wherever possible with the exception of the Negativicutes branch, which remained expanded. Consensus tree of conserved genes Using the list of universally conserved core genes, previously identified by Ciccarelli et al. [18], and an implementation of BLAST, a set of genes that was shared among all 145 genomes was identified. Proteins that had no match in at least one genome or showed poor E-value were eliminated.

The 27 conserved core genes were extracted (Table 1) and a multiple alignment was produced using MUSCLE software [19]. A set of phylogenetic trees was constructed by PAUP [20] and a best-fit consensus tree was generated using Phylogeny Inference package (PHYLIP) as described elsewhere [21]. Bootstrap values were found after 27 re-samplings, which is equal to the number of gene families conserved in all the analyzed genomes. DNA tetramer analysis and amino acid usage A tetramer frequency heatmap was constructed from the observed ratios of tetra-nucleotide frequencies divided by estimated tetra-nucleotide frequencies for each genome [22]. The estimated tetra-nucleotides were computed from the genomes’ base composition.

The ratio of observed over expected frequency was used for hierarchical clustering using complete linkage and Euclidean distance, which was subsequently performed with respect to both strain and tetramer frequencies. The amino acid heatmap is based on frequencies of deduced proteomic amino acids from each genome normalized with respect to the total number of amino acids in each genome. The amino acid frequencies for each genome were clustered using complete linkage and Euclidean distance with respect to both genomes and amino acids. The heatmap was made using the R package ggplot2 [23]. Comparison of metabolism potential The protein sequences of Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) orthology categories [24] were downloaded and only the Bacterial sequences were considered.

The Hidden Markov model (HMM) of each ortholog was generated using HMMER version 3 [25] based on the multiple alignment of each orthologous set of KEGG proteins, using MUSCLE software [19]. The 145 proteomes were queried against the HMMs to infer their ontology. A cutoff GSK-3 of 1��10?30 was used for statistical significance. A heatmap of each pathway and process derived from the database KEGG was illustrated based on normalized abundance of the enzymes present in each pathway.

According to the findings of the longevity of vital bleaching, we

According to the findings of the longevity of vital bleaching, we found that the longevity of both types is a maximum of 6 months; while in contrast to the results of the present study, Swift et al.[25] showed that satisfactory results persist for 1-2 years and patient should be advised regarding the need for re-bleaching procedures Wortmannin mTOR for 1 week every year. In that study, color evaluation was using only a Vita 3D Master shade guide that was not quantitative. Post-treatment sensitivity of teeth, results from the penetration of peroxide through the enamel and dentin tubules to the pulp. Cooper et al.[26] claimed that this takes approximately five 15-min to occur. This explains why the color of dentin adjacent to the pulp can be whitened as rapidly as the dentin along the dentinoenamel junction.

[27] There was no significant difference between both methods regarding tooth sensitivity. This finding leads to the acceptance of the third null hypothesis of the study. One previous study demonstrated that sensitivity persisted for up to 4 days after treatment.[28] However, a longer duration of sensitivity up to 39 days has been reported as well.[29,30] In the present study, the overall percentages of subjects who experienced mild tooth sensitivity after bleaching were 42.9% for the at-home bleaching and 57.1% for power bleaching. This finding is same as the results of previous study carried out by Tavares et al.[31] who found no significant difference between at-home and power bleaching procedures. Kossatz et al.[32] found a range of 50 to 80% of patients experienced post-treatment tooth sensitivity after power bleaching.

Matis et al.[33] showed that the subjects who received three 15-min treatments with light activation expressed less gingival and tooth sensitivity than that was observed with one application of H2O2 within 40 min. In the present study, 38% H2O2 was applied in three 15-min treatments as a preventive strategy. One of the limitations of this study was to not to test the re-bleaching procedure as well as the efficacy of doing so. A second limitation is related to the interval time between the 3 and 6 month evaluation intervals. This was very long in comparison with the other time intervals of this study and probably led to the inability to determine the exact time of color regression.

Drug_discovery As a result, it is not known if color regression occurred between the 3rd and 4th month interval or the 4th and 5th month interval or the 5th and 6th month post-treatment time interval. However, it is statistically clear that in-office bleached teeth reverted back to the original color sooner than at-home bleached teeth. The specific time when this occurred in this study could not be determined beyond that it was between the 3rd and 6th month time interval. However, it is important to note that after 6 months there was no trace of the whitening effect produced by either the at-home or in-office bleaching methods.

MATERIALS AND METHODS Mice Mice with gene-targeted disruption

MATERIALS AND METHODS Mice. Mice with gene-targeted disruption selleck chemicals llc of the murine homolog of Cftr [Abcc7, Cftr knockout (KO)] and wild-type (WT) littermates were used. All comparisons were made with sex- and age-matched (+/+ or +/?) siblings. The mutant mice were identified using a PCR-based analysis of tail snip DNA, as previously described (9). All mice were maintained ad libitum on standard laboratory chow (Formulab 5008, Rodent Chow; Ralston Purina) and distilled water containing Colyte laxative to avoid intestinal obstruction in the Cftr KO mice (9). Mice were housed individually in a temperature (22�C26��C)- and light (12:12-h light-dark cycle)-controlled room in the Association for Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care-accredited animal facility at the Dalton Cardiovascular Research Center, University of Missouri.

All experiments involving animals were approved by the University of Missouri Animal Care and Use Committee. Enteroid culture. The enteroid culture method was modified from Sato et al. (52). Mouse proximal small intestine (~10 cm) was excised, opened longitudinally, and washed with ice-cold PBS. The intestine was cut into small pieces (~4- to 5-mm diameter) and incubated in ice-cold PBS containing 2 mM EDTA for 30 min. After being rinsed once with ice-cold PBS to remove EDTA, the intestinal fragments were resuspended four times in ice-cold PBS (10 ml) by repeated, vigorous pipetting using a 10-ml pipette. After each resuspension, the tissue fragments were allowed to settle and the supernatant from the first two resuspensions was discarded.

The supernatant from the last two resuspensions was collected and passed through a 70-��m cell strainer (Becton-Dickinson Bioscience, Franklin Lakes, NJ) to remove tissue fragments. Crypts in the strained solution were separated from suspended single cells by centrifugation (200 g, 1 min). The crypt pellet was resuspended with cold PBS and mixed 1:2.5 vol/vol with Matrigel (BD Bioscience) for plating (e.g., ~100 ��l/35-mm petri dish). After polymerization of the Matrigel, culture medium composed of Ham’s F-12 containing 5% FBS, 50 ��g/ml gentamicin, 125 ng/ml Rspondin1, 25 ng/ml noggin, and 12.5 ng/ml epidermal growth factor (EGF) was added and changed every 2�C4 days. The percentage of FBS and concentrations of Rspondin1, noggin, and EGF are 25% of those used in the method by Sato et al.

(52). Preliminary studies of WT enteroids grown in increasing dilutions of these growth factors indicated that enteroid development, as assessed by size and crypt numbers, was slowed by ~1�C2 days but not prevented using 25% of the original concentration (data not shown). For enteroid passage at 7�C10 days postplating, culture dishes were rinsed twice with ice-cold Entinostat PBS before addition of cell recovery solution (BD Biosciences).

A higher proportion of males also stated readiness to quit smokin

A higher proportion of males also stated readiness to quit smoking within 30 days. Table 1. Demographics and Other Characteristics Confirmatory Factor Analyses The CFA of the original measurement model of WISDM (Piper et al., 2004) indicated inadequate fit with data (��2 = 7,408.4, df = 2132, CFI = 0.0824, TLI selleck = 0.811, RMSEA = 0.059, Cfit < .05; SRMR = 0.069). Modification indices highlighted several error covariances and significant cross-loadings. Moreover, the latent variable covariance matrix was not positive definite owing to correlations close to 1.00 between some factors. Because specification searches based on modification indices are more likely to be successful when the model contains only minor misspecifications (Brown, 2006; MacCallum, 1986), we did not examine further the cross-loadings and error covariances, and we decided to test the shorter version, the brief version of WISDM.

With the brief version of WISDM, we performed a series of CFA with four models. The fit indices of these models are presented in Table 2. Model 1��a one-factor model��indicated inadequate fit, so we cannot support this measurement option. Model 2 with 11 first-order freely correlating factors and no error covariances yielded fit indices in the acceptable range. Model 3 includes 11 first-order freely correlating factors with the error covariances documented by Smith et al. (2010). This latter model yielded significantly better fit than earlier models. Finally, with Model 4, we also tested a model containing 11 first-order factors with the error covariances and 2 second-order factors, namely primary dependence motive and secondary dependence motive (Smith et al.

, 2010). This latter model also yielded fit indices in the acceptable range, but the indices are significantly lower than for Model 3 (Satorra�CBentler scaled ��2difference test =198.9, df = 43, p < .001). Therefore, our data support best Model 3, which contains 11 first-order factors with four freely estimated error covariances (Items 9 and 54; Items 62 and 63; Items 6 and 28; and finally Items 47 and 63), although we cannot reject Model 4. Table 2. Degree of Model Fit of Four Competing Measurement Models of Brief Wisconsin Inventory of Smoking Dependence Motives. Detailed analysis of Model 3 demonstrated that all standardized factor loadings are above 0.62. All factor determinacies are above 0.92.

Correlations between factors are presented in Table Brefeldin_A 3, and the range of correlations is between 0.15 and 0.94. Two correlations are higher than 0.90, which indicates limited discriminant validity between craving, loss of control, and tolerance scales. Internal consistencies of each scale are reported in Table 3. All scales have Cronbach’s �� higher than .80, with the exception of the cue exposure/associative processes scale. Table 3.

ED Assessments All full assessments included

ED Assessments All full assessments included selleck chem common items on smoking urge, setting, activity, mood, and PTSD symptoms. Setting Participants reported their current setting (home, friend/family member��s home, work, car/bus, bar/restaurant, outside, or other location). They also recorded the social situation (alone, with family, strangers, coworkers, or friends) and whether others were smoking in view of them (no; yes, in my social group; yes, in view only). Activity Participants recorded the activity in which they were engaged (work, leisure, interaction with others, telephone, inactivity, or driving). They also recorded recent consumption of food or drink, coffee or other caffeine, alcohol, and medications.

Affect Participants rated the severity items from the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (Watson, Clark, & Carey, 1988; Watson, Clark, & Tellegen, 1988) along with several additional items (e.g., stress, boredom, and alertness) and items from the DSM-IV (American Psychiatric Association, 1994) criteria for nicotine withdrawal (e.g., anxiety, worry, hunger, and restlessness). Smoking Abstinence Self-efficacy Smoking self-efficacy was assessed daily with an ED item asking, ��Confident in ability to abstain?�� scored on a 4-point scale (1 = NO!!, 2 = no??, 3 = yes??, 4 = YES!!) (Shiffman et al., 2000). Smoking abstinence self-efficacy was computed by averaging self-efficacy responses from random ED assessments between the quit date and first lapse, resulting in one self-efficacy mean score for each participant who completed an assessment before lapsing.

PTSD Symptoms Presence and severity of 13 of the 17 DSM-IV (American Psychiatric Association, 1994) PTSD symptoms were assessed using the Davidson Trauma Scale (Davidson et al., 1997). Frequency was assessed following procedures outlined in our previous work (Beckham et al., 2005). Severity was assessed on a 5-point scale with anchors ranging from ��not at all�� to ��extremely.�� This yielded a summary score for trauma-related symptoms at each measurement. Lapse Factors When participants indicated their first lapse, it triggered an assessment that included an item asking for their attributed cause of the lapse by stating ��What factor(s) do you feel are MOST related to smoking this cigarette? (Check all that apply).

�� Potential lapse causes included ��where you are,�� ��who you are with,�� ��what you are doing,�� ��positive emotion,�� ��negative emotion,�� ��trauma symptoms,�� and ��physical craving.�� Items were scored dichotomously. Of the 94 Dacomitinib participants who lapsed, 12 reported their first lapse on random alarm assessments, 2 reported first lapse at study visits instead of using the diary, 2 reported first lapse on the evening diary, 5 did not report a lapse but were classified as lapsers based on biological data, and 2 completed lapse readings that were invalid or incomplete.