The paced breathing was first practised using a metronome in the laboratory until it could be reliably performed without the metronome. Patients rested for 5 seconds after every 6 deep breaths. Training was performed at home for 30 minutes, twice KPT-330 concentration a day, every day for 8 weeks. Patients in the control group were
asked to continue with their normal daily life. Home-based measurements: Subjects were taught to measure their blood pressure at home with a digital upperarm blood pressure monitoring device a. Two measurements were made in the morning between 7.00 and 9.00 am, after at least 5 minutes rest while sitting in a comfortable chair. Subjects were asked to refrain from physical activity or caffeine for at least 30 minutes before the measurement. Resting heart rate was measured by the same device whilst the blood pressure was being
measured. Data were recorded daily in the week before training and likewise in the week after the training program had ended. Two measurements were made on each day and the values averaged to give single values for that day. The measurements made on the seven days during each of these weeks were averaged to give single values pre- and post-training for each patient. Patients were contacted once a week during the training to monitor their well-being and compliance. Laboratory-based measurements: Laboratory-based blood pressure measurements were made on one occasion in the week before training and within 3 days of the end of the training. Blood pressure was measured between 9.00 and 12.00 am with an automatic digital bedside BMS-907351 price monitor b after at least 15 minutes rest while sitting. Subjects were asked not to smoke or consume caffeine for 30 minutes before the measurements. The electrocardiogram was recorded with bipolar limb leads and resting heart rate calculated from averaged three consecutive R-R intervals. Two measurements were made on each occasion and the values were averaged to give single values pre- and post-training for each patient. Rolziracetam Participants were trained by physiotherapists from Khon Kaen University. We sought to detect a difference
of 10 mmHg in blood pressure between groups. Assuming a standard deviation of 7.5 mmHg, 10 participants per group would provide 80% power to detect as significant, at the two-sided 5% level, a 10-mmHg difference in blood pressure between groups. To allow for loss to follow-up, the total sample size was increased to 40 participants. Pulse pressure was taken as the difference between systolic and diastolic pressures and mean arterial pressure was calculated as diastolic blood pressure plus one-third of pulse pressure. A two-way AVOVA with post hoc analysis (Tukey’s test) was used to compare the mean values before and after training within groups and differences in mean changes between groups. Data are presented as means and standard deviations or 95% CIs. Statistical significance was assumed at p ≤ 0.05.