Nine homoisoflavones (1-9) yielded from this extract were further

Nine homoisoflavones (1-9) yielded from this extract were further examined for their antioxidative activities. Among these chemicals tested, five homoisoflavones (1-3, 5 and 7), six homoisoflavones (1-3 and 5-7) and two homoisoflavones (4 and 5) resulted in showing higher activities than the others in DPPH radical, H2O2 and NO scavenging assays, respectively. Calculated EC50 values indicate 3 as the strongest in the DPPH radical scavenging analysis. These results may indicate a potential role of S. scilloides for its medicinal use and homoisoflavones as the antioxidants responsible.”
“Objectives and aims: We examine the efficacy and complications of general anesthesia

with ilioinguinal-iliohypogastric selleck chemical nerve block performed on expremature neonates undergoing inguinal herniotomy.

Background: The ex-premature neonate has many co-morbidities and is at risk of postoperative apnea and bradycardia. Anesthesia techniques aimed to provide good surgical conditions include general anesthesia and central neuroaxial techniques. There are still significant complications after these techniques

and none is superior.

Methods/Materials: A retrospective search of our department’s computer database was conducted on ex-premature neonates, post-menstrual age of RepSox in vivo 48 weeks and under, who received general anesthesia and ilioinguinal-iliohypogastric nerve block for bilateral inguinal herniotomy from 1997 to 2009.


Eighty-two neonates were selected. All medical notes were traced and information including the demographics, co-morbidities CCI-779 purchase and perioperative data were obtained. The mean gestational age was 30.3 weeks (SD +/- 3.2) and the mean post-conception age was 40.0 weeks (SD +/- 3.1). Mean birth weight was 1284 g (SD +/- 518) and mean weight at the time of surgery was 2795 g (SD +/- 958). Thirty-two (39.0%) neonates had apnea of prematurity, which required caffeine treatment. Thirty-five (42.7%) neonates required intubation for ventilatory support preoperatively. There was a good success rate of the ilioinguinal-iliohypogastric nerve block in 73 (89.0%) patients. They were deemed successful clinically by the attending anesthesiologist. No perioperative rescue opioid was required. Four neonates had postoperative apnea requiring intervention.

Conclusion: Ilioinguinal-iliohypogastric nerve block has a success rate similar to other techniques and when combined with general anesthesia, provides a viable alternative technique of anesthesia in these high-risk patients.”
“”"Negative resistance”" errors due to nonuniform current distributions significantly distort the apparent electronic performance of devices formed with crossed wires, demonstrated here by resistance, magnetoresistance, current-voltage, and variable temperature measurements with and without corrections.

A detailed literature review was conducted on epidemiology, risk

A detailed literature review was conducted on epidemiology, risk factors, pathophysiology, chemoprevention and outcomes of colorectal cancer (CRC) in IBD as part of the 3rd ECCO scientific pathogenesis workshop. Crown Copyright (C) 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of European Crohn’s and Colitis Organisation. All rights reserved.”
“Study Design and Objective. This study performs a meta-analysis to compare complication rates from vertebroplasty (VP) and kyphoplasty (KP).

Summary of Background Data. Recently, the development of VP and balloon KP has been shown to provide symptomatic relief and restoration of sagittal alignment of vertebral compression fractures refractory

to medical therapy. Complications in treatment of vertebral compression fractures AZD2014 ic50 are rare, however can be potentially devastating. Fortunately, clinical sequelae are rare; however, severe clinical complications from cement extravasation have been reported.

Methods. Using PubMed find more and Ovid, we performed a literature search for “”kyphoplasty,”" “”vertebroplasty,”" and “”vertebral augmentation.”" This search was performed

in December 2006. Case reports and reports not available in English were excluded. We categorized complications in 3 categories: (1) procedure-related complications, (2) medical complications, and (3) new vertebral fracture. Cement leakage, asymptomatic and symptomatic, and its locations were recorded. We performed a meta-analysis of complications of all studies. We then repeated the meta-analysis examining only prospective studies. We then used proportion analysis to determine statistical significance. We defined statistical significance as a P value less than 0.05.

Results. We identified 121 reports of KP and/or VP that specifically addressed complications. buy PFTα Of these studies, 33 addressed KP and 82 addressed VP (6 reports addressed complications of both). There were 29 reports in which the data appeared to be collected prospectively. Of these, 9 addressed KP and 21 addressed VP.

VP was found to have a significantly increased

rate of procedure-related complications than KP in the analysis of all studies and only prospective studies. VP also appears to have a significantly higher rate of symptomatic and asymptomatic cement leakage than KP (P < 0.05). The incidence of medical complications was significantly higher in the KP procedure; however, this difference was not observed when analyzing only prospective studies. The incidence of new fracture was significantly higher in the VP procedure; however, this was not observed when analyzing only prospective studies.

Conclusion. VP and KP are 2 minimally invasive procedures that have been shown to be effective in the treatment of symptomatic vertebral compression fractures.

Finally, our logical model can be used to explore novel different

Finally, our logical model can be used to explore novel differentiation pathways in silico.”
“Astragalus polysaccharides (APS), extracted from the root of Astragalus membranaceus, a traditional Chinese medicinal herb, have extensive pharmacological and strong immunomodulatory effects. In this study, the potential adjuvant effect of APS on humoral and cellular immune responses to hepatitis B subunit vaccine was investigated.

Coadministration of APS with recombinant hepatitis B surface antigen significantly increased antigen-specific antibody production, T-cell proliferation and CTL (cytotoxic T lymphocyte) activity. Production of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), interleukin-2 (IL-2) and IL-4 in CD4(+) T cells and of IFN-gamma in CD8(+) T cells were dramatically increased. Furthermore, expression of the genes PFP, GraB, Fas L and Fas were up-regulated; interestingly, expression of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) Wnt inhibitor and the frequency of CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Treg cells) were down-regulated. Expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) was significantly increased by administration of APS. Together,

these results suggest that APS is a potent adjuvant for the hepatitis B subunit vaccine and can enhance both humoral and cellular immune responses via activating the TLR4 signaling pathway and inhibit the expression of TGF-beta and frequency of Treg cells.”
“In this paper, we present the design and performance of a MEMS-device based on the magnetostrictive effect, which can be used as a micro-loudspeaker. The device basically consists of a comb structure of monomorph bending cantilevers with an active area up to 3.0 x 2.5 mm(2). It produces a sound-pressure-level

up to 101 dB at 400 Hz in a standard 2 ccm measurement volume. We show our measurement setup as well as a mechanic-acoustic-coupled lumped element model to Ulixertinib research buy calculate sound pressure. The model incorporates finite element results for mechanical behavior. Measurement results validate our model assumptions. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3554200]“
“Synchronized gamma frequency oscillations in neural networks are thought to be important to sensory information processing, and their effects have been intensively studied. Here we describe a mechanism by which the nervous system can readily control gamma oscillation effects, depending selectively on visual stimuli. Using a model neural network simulation, we found that sensory response in the primary visual cortex is significantly modulated by the resonance between “”spontaneous” and “”stimulus-driven” oscillations. This gamma resonance can be precisely controlled by the synaptic plasticity of thalamocortical connections, and cortical response is regulated differentially according to the resonance condition. The mechanism produces a selective synchronization between the afferent and downstream neural population.

Biodiesel is usually generated from food-grade vegetable oils usi

Biodiesel is usually generated from food-grade vegetable oils using transesterification process. Using the food-grade vegetable oils is not economical since they are more expensive than diesel fuel. Therefore,

it is said that the main obstacle for commercialization of biodiesel is its high cost. The kind of feedstock, which is used is the most effective factor on the biodiesel characteristics and the price. So, at first finding a proper feedstock has an important role in different places. Therefore in this research the possibility Gamma-secretase inhibitor of using date seed as a cheap feedstock for biodiesel production was investigated, because it is produced largely in the hot arid regions of southwestern Asia and northern Africa. After extracting oil and producing biodiesel from Phoenix dactylifera (date seed) oil, the properties of biodiesel were evaluated by

fuel standard tests and the results were compared with EN14214 and ASTM D6751 standards and also compared with the properties of produced. According to the results, the important benefit of the biodiesel from the date seed oil is high cetane number (60.3), low iodine value (46), viscosity (3.84 mm(2)/s) and buy SN-38 flash point (140 degrees C) and the only weak point is its high pouring point (-1 degrees C) which limits the use of date seed biodiesel in cold weather in comparison with other vegetable biodiesel fuels. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Humanized monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are the fastest growing class of biological therapeutics that are being developed for various medical indications, and more than 30 mAbs are already approved and in the market place. Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) is an important biological function attributed to the selleck chemical mechanism of action of several therapeutic antibodies, particularly oncology targeting mAbs. The ADCC assay is a complicated and highly variable assay. Thus, the use of an ADCC assay as a lot release test or a stability test for clinical trial batches of mAbs has been a substantial challenge to install in quality control laboratories.

We describe here the development and validation of an alternate approach, an ADCC-reporter gene assay that is based on the key attributes of the PBMC-based ADCC assay. We tested the biological relevance of this assay using an anti-CD20 based model and demonstrated that this ADCC-reporter assay correlated well with standard ADCC assays when induced with the drugable human isotypes [IgG1, IgG2, IgG4, IgG4S>P (S228P) and IgG4PAA (S228P, F234A, L235A)] and with IgG1 isotype variants with varying amounts of fucosylation. This data demonstrates that the ADCC-reporter gene assay has performance characteristics (accuracy, precision and robustness) to be used not only as a potency assay for lot release and stability testing for antibody therapeutics, but also as a key assay for the characterization and process development of therapeutic molecules.

The TonB2 protein was verified to be immunogenic and could afford

The TonB2 protein was verified to be immunogenic and could afford partial protection for animals from lethal infection. In the present study, the recombinant TonB2 (rTonB2) was overexpressed in Escherichia coli wBL21(DE3) and purified. The rTonB2 was then used as antigen to immunize BALB/c mice for the production of monoclonal antibodies (MAb). Four clones of TonB2-specific MAb secretion hybridomas-2F2, 2G8, 3D2, and 6F10-were selected. The MAbs 2F2, 3D2, and 6F10 were classified as IgG1 isotype and 2G8 was of IgG2a isotype. Western blot and ELISA results indicated that MAbs had specific binding activity to rTonB2. The MAbs generated here will

be used for further functional analyses of the TonB2

“Objectives: EVP4593 The objective was to evaluate the impact of gender on long-term survival of patients who underwent non-cardiac vascular surgery.

Design, Material and Methods: Our prospectively collected Selleck LBH589 data contained information on 560 patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy (CEA), 923 elective abdominal aortic aneurysm repairs (AM) and 1046 lower limb reconstructions (LLR). Patient characteristics and long-term mortality of women were compared to that of men. Kaplan-Meier (KM) survival curves were constructed for men and women, on which we superimposed age- and sex-matched KM survival curves of the general population. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to identify risk factors for mortality.

Results: Men in the CEA group had statistically significant higher all-cause mortality, hazard rate ratio (HRR) 1.41(95% CI 1.01-1.98) No differences in mortality between the genders were observed in the AAA and LLR groups.

Overall, men had more co-morbidities but received more disease-specific medication compared to women. Women retained their higher life expectancy after CEA but lost it in the AAA and LLR groups.

Conclusion: Women retain their higher life expectancy after CEA; however, after AAA repair and LLR, this advantage is lost.

Both men and women received too little disease-specific medication, but women were worse off. (C) 2011 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Rubber seed oil (Hevea LY333531 chemical structure Brasiliensis) a non-edible oil, widely grown in India with fatty acid composition, palmitic, 9.3%; stearic, 8.4%; oleic, 25.4%; linoleic, 41.1% and linolenic, 15.3% acids, was exploited for the preparation of lubricant base stocks. The oil was hydrolyzed to obtain fatty acids and these fatty acids were reacted with branched chain alcohol, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol (2-EtH) and polyols namely neopentyl glycol (NPG), trimethylolpropane (TMP), pentaerythritol (PE) at 135-140 degrees C in the presence of para toluene sulfonic acid (p-TSA) as catalyst in xylene medium. The branched and polyol esters were obtained in the range of 91-96.5% yields.

Sweat response was absent in 10 (67 %) patients with


Sweat response was absent in 10 (67 %) patients with

MJD, and the mean amplitude of sweat response was significantly lower (p < 0.0001) in patients with MJD than in healthy controls following mental stress (mental arithmetic) and physiological stimuli. Although vasoconstrictive response was absent in three patients with MJD (20 %), there were no significant differences in the mean amplitude of vasoconstrictive response between patients with MJD and healthy controls. These results indicate that patients with MJD have reduced cutaneous sympathetic response, including severely impaired sudomotor functions and mildly affected vasomotor functions.”
“Several models of scoliosis were developed in the past 10 years. In most of them, deformations are induced in old animals and required long time observation period and a chest Endocrinology & Hormones inhibitor wall ligation +/- A resection. The purpose of the study was to create a scoliosis

model with a size similar to an early onset scoliosis and an important growth potential without chest wall injuring. An original offset implant was fixed posteriorly and connected with a cable in seven (6 + 1 control) Nutlin-3 molecular weight one-month-old Landrace pigs. The mean initial spinal length (T1-S1) was 25 cm and the mean weight was 9 kg. After 2 months observation, spinal deformities were assessed with a three dimension stereographic analysis. In four animals, the cable was sectioned and the deformities followed-up see more for next 2 months. No post-operative complication was observed. Mean weight growth was 10 kg/month and mean spine lengthening (T1-S1) was 7 cm/month. In 2 months, we obtained structural scoliotic curves with vertebral and disk wedging which were maximal at the apex of the curve. Mean frontal and sagittal Cobb angles was 45A degrees. Chest wall associated deformities were similar to those observed in scoliotic deformities and were correlated to spinal deformities (p = 0.03). The cable section resulted in a partial curve

regression influenced by disk elasticity and could probably be influenced by gravity loads (Decrease of the Cobb angle of 30% in the sagittal plane and 45% in the frontal plane). According to the results, the model creates a structural scoliosis and chest wall deformity that is similar to an early onset scoliosis. The spinal deformities were obtained quickly, and were consistent between animals in term of amount and characteristic.”
“The International Collaboration of Incident HIV and Hepatitis C in Injecting Cohorts (InC3) Study is an international multi-cohort project of pooled biological and behavioural data from nine prospective cohorts of people who inject drugs (PWID).

“Pseudogenes are significant components of eukaryotic geno

“Pseudogenes are significant components of eukaryotic genomes, and some have acquired novel regulatory roles. To date, no study has characterized rice pseudogenes systematically or addressed their impact on the structure and function of the rice genome. In this genome-wide study, we have identified 11,956 non-transposon-related rice pseudogenes, most of which are from gene duplications. About 12% of the rice protein-coding genes, half of which are in singleton families, have a pseudogene paralog. Interestingly,

we found that 145 of these pseudogenes potentially gave rise to antisense Navitoclax Apoptosis inhibitor small RNAs after examining +/- 1.5 million small RNAs from developing rice grains. The majority (> 50%) of these antisense GW786034 Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor RNAs are 24-nucleotides long, a feature often seen in plant repeat-associated small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) produced by RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RDR2) and Dicer-like protein 3 (DCL3), suggesting that some pseudogene-derived siRNAs may be implicated in repressing pseudogene transcription (i.e., cis-acting). Multiple lines of evidence, however, indicate that small RNAs from rice pseudogenes might also function as natural antisense siRNAs either by interacting with the complementary sense RNAs from

functional parental genes (38 cases) or by forming double-strand RNAs with transcripts of adjacent paralogous pseudogenes (2 cases) (i.e., trans-acting). Further examinations of five additional small RNA libraries revealed that pseudogene-derived antisense siRNAs could be produced in specific rice developmental stages or physiological growth conditions, suggesting their potentially important roles in normal rice development. In summary, our results show that pseudogenes derived from protein-coding genes are prevalent in the rice genome, and a subset of them are strong candidates for producing small RNAs with novel regulatory roles. Our findings suggest that pseudogenes

of exapted GSK621 mouse functions may be a phenomenon ubiquitous in eukaryotic organisms.”
“The oral pathogen Streptococcus mutans expresses a surface protein, P1, which interacts with the salivary pellicle on the tooth surface or with fluid-phase saliva, resulting in bacterial adhesion or aggregation, respectively. P1 is a target of protective immunity. Its N-terminal region has been associated with adhesion and aggregation functions and contains epitopes recognized by efficacious antibodies. In this study, we used Bacillus subtilis, a gram-positive expression host, to produce a recombinant N-terminal polypeptide of P1 (P1(39-512)) derived from the S. mutans strain UA159. Purified P1(39-512) reacted with an anti-full-length P1 antiserum as well as one raised against intact S. mutans cells, indicating preserved antigenicity. Immunization of mice with soluble and heat-denatured P1(39-512) induced antibodies that reacted specifically with native P1 on the surface of S. mutans cells.

“In this study, mechanical properties such as tensile prop

“In this study, mechanical properties such as tensile properties, flexural properties, and Izod impact strength of poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK) and poly(ether ketone) (PEK) blends at PEK concentration from 0 to 0.42 volume fraction were studied. The blends of PEEK and PEK of different compositions were prepared by extrusion in a

single-screw extruder. With increase in the PEK concentrations, the tensile strength, flexural strength, and modulus increased Nepicastat datasheet whereas the tensile modulus and the impact strength decreased. Homogeneous dispersion and adhesion of PEK in PEEK was shown by the morphological studies. Crystallinity of blends influenced the tensile modulus and the impact strength. Using simple models to relate normalized tensile parameters where the data were divided by the crystallinity of the blends and of the PEEK matrix, respectively, supported the experimental results. (C) 2010 Wiley

Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 1.17: 849-856, 2010″
“PURPOSE: To report wavy horizontal artifacts on optical coherence tomography (OCT) monitor images

SETTING: Tokyo Dental College Suidobashi Hospital, Department of Ophthalmology, Tokyo, Japan

METHODS: The line-scanning ophthalmoscopy images from an OCT device of eyes that had uneventful cataract extraction with implantation of a diffractive multifocal intraocular lens (IOL) were evaluated. The images were compared with those of eyes that had cataract surgery with implantation of a monofocal IOL.

RESULTS: The study evaluated 38 eyes of eFT-508 research buy 19 patients with a diffractive multitocal IOL and 29 eyes of 18 patients with a monofocal IOL. Wavy horizontal artifacts were seen in all eyes with a multifocal

IOL but not in any image of eyes with a monofocal IOL (P<.0001, Fisher exact probability test). The OCT images, fundoscopic photographs, BMS 345541 and scanning-laser ophthalmoscopy images were unaffected by the multifocal IOLs.

CONCLUSION: The aberrations in the images from line-scanning ophthalmoscopy may have been caused by the optical design of the diffractive multifocal IOLs.”
“Nanoscale vertical interconnect structures (vias) made from chemical vapor deposited carbon have been investigated. The vias and wires were created by pyrolytic carbon deposition from acetylene at 950 degrees C followed by electron beam lithography and reactive ion etching. The carbon layer exhibits a resistivity of 4.5 m Omega cm in vias and wires which decreases to 1.5 m cm after annealing at 1000 degrees C. The resistivity does not show any size effect in the vias, as it is independent of the diameter from 85 nm down to 24 nm. The maximum current density in long carbon wires was found to be 6×10(6) A cm(-2), increasing to 3.5×10(8) A cm(-2) for short vias. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.

Conclusion: Our results are consistent with a role of EMT in most

Conclusion: Our results are consistent with a role of EMT in most if not all ovarian cancer metastases and demonstrate that identical morphologies between primary and metastatic cancer samples is insufficient evidence to negate a role of EMT in the metastatic Anlotinib molecular weight process.”
“BACKGROUND: Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 has been used widely as a

model system for the study of photosynthetic organisms and higher plants. The aim of this work was to integrate the genomic information, biochemistry and physiological information available for Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 to reconstruct a metabolic network for system biology investigations.

RESULTS: A genome-scale Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 metabolic network, including 633

genes, 704 metabolites and 831 metabolic reactions, was reconstructed for the study of optimal Synechocystis growth, network capacity and functions. Heterotrophic, photoautotrophic and Elacridar mixotrophic growth conditions were simulated. The Synechocystis model was used for in silico predictions for the insertion of ethanol fermentation pathway, which is a novel approach for bioenergy and biofuels production developed in the authors’ laboratory. Simulations of Synechocystis cell growth and ethanol production were compared with actual metabolic measurements which showed a satisfactory agreement.

CONCLUSION: The Synechocystis metabolic network developed in this study is the first genome-scale mathematical model for photosynthetic organisms. The model may be used not only in global understanding

of cellular metabolism and HM781-36B cell line photosynthesis, but also in designing metabolic engineering strategies for desirable bio-products. (c) 2008 Society of Chemical Industry”
“Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are essential elements of the innate immune response. TLRs induce expression of inflammatory cytokines or interferons after recognition of microbial or viral structures called pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Two different groups of TLRs can be distinguished: TLRs residing in the plasma membrane or in the endosomal compartment. TLRs localized in endosomes act as sensors for nucleic acids. TLR9, which recognizes unmethylated CpG, belongs to endosomal TLRs. The proper ligand detection by TLR9 depends on its specific subcellular localization and maturation. TLR9 delivery to the endosomes is mediated by two distinct proteins, UNC93B1 and AP-2, and post-early endosome distribution is determined by AP-3. TLR9 localized in the endosome is cleaved by at least two classes of proteases, AEP and cathepsins, which generate the mature form of receptor. Functional C-terminal form of TLR9 is capable of recognition of CpG and activation of signal pathways. Ligand binding to TLR9 causes conformational changes in the structure of this receptor which facilitates recruitment of MyD88 adaptor protein and activation of two distinct cytokine-inducing pathways: IRF-7- and NF-kappa B-dependent.

suave, B pilosa, neomycin sulfate

suave, B. pilosa, neomycin sulfate Apoptosis inhibitor or distilled water. The rate of wound contraction, epithelialization, and complete healing were assessed over the experimental

period. Wounds treated with extracts of O. suave, B. pilosa and neomycin sulfate had faster rates of wound contraction (p<0.05) on days 3, 6 and 9 than negative control. Histological examination of wound on day 7 also revealed better collagenation, angiogenesis and organization of the wound tissue. Epithelialisation and total healing time for B. pilosa and O. suave were comparable to neomycin sulfate (p>0.05). In conclusion, extracts of O. suave and B. pilosa show potential for use as alternative to neomycin for treatment of wounds.”
“Lignophenol (LP)-graft-poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) (POZO) was prepared to reuse lignin, an industrial waste material, and to

produce BVD-523 inhibitor novel LP-based polymer blends with poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC), poly(bisphenol A carbonate) (PC), polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), and polystyrene (PSt) as commodity polymers. The resulting graft polymer was soluble in various types of organic solvents such as chloroform, THF, acetone, and methanol, unlike LP. The miscibility of LP-graft-POZO with commodity polymers was measured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to determine the glass transition temperatures (Tg). In the cases of the blends of LP-graft-POZO with PVC, PC, and PVP, the Tg values decreased during the second scan. Moreover, in the cases of the blends with PVC and PVP, the Tg values were not detected during the third scan. Therefore, it was inferred that LP-graft-POZO was miscible with PVC, PC, and PVP while forming single phases; in particular, the blends of LP-graft-POZO with PVC and PVP exhibited a secondary miscibility because the Tg values were not detected. Furthermore, the blend of LP-graft-POZO with PC exhibited better thermostability than LP and LP-graft-POZO. These results indicated that LP blended with POZO could be used as a polymer KU-55933 additive and as an adhesive to combine different polymers, organicinorganic polymers, etc. (c) 2011 Wiley

Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2012″
“Background: The use of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is currently recommended for treating uncomplicated malaria. The objective was to assess the efficacy and safety of repeated administrations of two fixed-dose presentations of ACT – artesunate plus amodiaquine (ASAQ) and artemether-lumefantrine (AL) – in subsequent episodes of Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

Methods: A randomized comparative study was conducted in a rural community of central Senegal from August 2007 to January 2009. Children and adults with uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria were randomized to receive open-label ASAQ once daily or AL twice daily for three days. Drug doses were given according to body weight. Treatments for first episodes were supervised.