roup was observed as compared selleck chem Tofacitinib with that of the S ODNs treated group, but no embryo abnormality in the A ODNs treated animals was observed. Discussion The Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries results of the present study indicate that time depend ent e pression of Hsp105 in the uterine luminal, glandu lar epithelium and stromal cells during periimplantation period might be essential for regulation of embryo implantation. Our data also show that the presence of embryo in uterus as a stimulus may be important for increasing Hsp105 e pression. If Hsp105 is involved in regulation of endometrial differentiation for embryo implantation, one may e pect that a reduction of its e pression could prevent acquisition of receptive state of the endometrium leading to a failure of implantation.
Therefore, we designed an e periment with Hsp105 anti sense oligodeo ynucleotides directly injecting into preg nant rat uterus at early pregnancy, which allowed us to investigate a function of this protein in the process of implantation. Technically, Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries it would be important to do such an e periment to know the transient nature of Hsp105 gene Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries e pression in the uterus. In order to select an appropriate time window of ODNs administration for blockage of Hsp105 e pression, we reasoned that the time window should be immediately preceding that of Hsp105 induction, Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries i. e, between days 3 and 6 of gestation. The pre cise half life of the Hsp105 mRNA or its protein in uterus has not yet been determined, nevertheless, the modified Hsp105 ODNs are known to have a half life of 24 48 hours in certain tissues.
Therefore, ODNs were designed for injection in the afternoon of day 3 of preg nancy, one may e pect the tissue on observation Dacomitinib to survive for the subsequent 3 4 days of gestation, for an effective suppression of the surge of Hsp105 e pression. Because rat embryos were observed to be also capable of e press ing Hsp105, we e amined a potential effect of ODNs on embryonic development by observing its normality. Therefore we selected a much later time point to count and e amine the embryos. The sta tistical analysis of the difference of the numbers of implanted embryo between the antisense and the sense ODNs treated groups indicated that embryo implantation was indeed prohibited by the antisense ODNs.
These results together with the other observations suggest that treatment with antisense Hsp105 ODNs, but not with complementary sense ODNs, could severely impair the process of embryo implantation, but no effect on the nor mality of implanted embryos was observed on day 9 of pregnancy. However, Nakamura apply for it et al. just recently gener ated the Hsp105 knockout mice which did not appear a problem with reproduction, implying that Hsp105 may be not the necessary gene required for implantation in mouse. However, the authors did not specifically pay attention to e amine if the animals had any implantation defect present. Hsp105 family has another two members, APG1 and APG which have shown a similar function with Hsp105, and may rescue it