Proc Nat

Proc Nat Selleck BMN673 Acad Sci USA 104:18555–18560 Beck E, Bendix J, Kottke I, Makeschin F, Mosandl R (eds) (2008) Gradients in a tropical mountain ecosystem

of Ecuador. Ecol Stud 198:1–525 Crist TO, Veech JA, Gering JC, Summerville KS (2003) Partitioning species diversity across landscapes and regions: a hierarchical analysis of a, b, and g diversity. Am Nat 162:734–743CrossRefPubMed Duivenvoorden JF (1994) Vascular plant species counts in the rain forests of the middle Caquetá area, Colombian Amazonia. Biodivers Conserv 3:685–715CrossRef Duivenvoorden JF (1996) Patterns of tree species richness in rain forests of the middle Caquetá area, Colombia, NW Amazonia. Biotropica 28:142–158CrossRef Gabriel R, Bates JW (2005) Bryophyte community composition and habitat specificity in the natural forests of Terceira, Azores. Plant Ecol 177:125–144CrossRef Gradstein SR, Pócs T (1989) Bryophytes. In: Lieth H, Werger MJA (eds) Tropical rain forest ecosystems. Ecosystems of the world 14A. Trametinib nmr Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 311–325 Gradstein SR, Griffin

D, Morales MI, Nadkarni NM (2001) Diversity and habitat differentiation of mosses and liverworts in the cloud forest of Monteverde, Costa Rica. Caldasia 23:203–212 Gradstein SR, Bock C, Mandl N, Nöske N (2007) Bryophyta: hepaticae. In: Liede-Schumann S, Breckle SW (eds) Provisional checklist of flora and fauna of the San Francisco valley and its surroundings (Reserva Biológica San Francisco, Province Zamora-Chinchipe, southern Ecuador). Ecotrop Monogr 4:69–87 Gradstein SR, Kessler M, Lehnert M, Abiy M, Mandl N, Makeschin F, Richter M (2008) Vegetation, climate and soil of the unique Purdiaea forest of southern Ecuador. Ecotropica 14:15–26

Holz I, Gradstein SR (2005) Cryptogamic epiphytes in primary and recovering upper montane oak forests of Costa Rica-species richness, community composition and ecology. Plant PAK5 Ecol 178:89–109CrossRef Johansson D (1974) Ecology of vascular epiphytes in West African rain forest. Acta Phytogeogr 59:1–123 Kelly DL, O′Donovan G, Feehan J, Murphy S, Drangeid SO, Marcano-Berti L (2004) The epiphyte communities of a montane rain forest in the Andes of Venezuela: patterns in the distribution of the flora. J Trop Ecol 20:643–666CrossRef Kessler M (2002) Environmental patterns and ecological correlates of range-size among bromeliad communities of Andean forests in Bolivia. Bot Rev 68:100–127CrossRef Kessler M, Abrahamczyk S, Bos M, Buchori D, Putra DD, Gradstein S.

Supplemental table (DOC 130 KB) References 1 Chopra I, Roberts

Supplemental table. (DOC 130 KB) References 1. Chopra I, Roberts M: Tetracycline antibiotics: mode of action, applications, molecular biology, and epidemiology of bacterial resistance. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 2001, 65:232–260.PubMedCrossRef 2. Ramamurthy T: Antibiotics Resistance in Vibrio cholerae . In Vibrio cholerae: Genomic and Molecular Biology. Edited by: Shah M, Faruque G, Nair B.

Horizon selleck products Scientific Press. Wiltshire; 2008:195. 3. Lima AA: Tropical diarrhoea: New developments in traveller’s diarrhoea. Curr Opin Infect Dis 2001, 14:547–552.PubMed 4. Bhattacharya SK: An Evaluation of current cholera treatment. Expert Opin Pharmacother 2003, 4:141–146.PubMedCrossRef 5. Chiang

SR, Chuang YC: Vibrio vulnificus infection: Clinical manifestation, pathogenesis and antimicrobial therapy. J Microbiol Infect 2003, 36:81–88. 6. Rowe-Magnus DA, Zouine M, Mazel D: The adaptive Genetic Arsenal of pathogenic Vibrio species: The role of integrons. In the Biology of Vibrios. Edited by: Fabiano LT, Brian A, Swings JG. ASM Press, Washington, DC; 2006:95–111. 7. Ahmed AM, Nakagawa T, Arakawa E, Ramamurthy T, Shinoda S, Shimamoto T: New aminoglycoside acetyltransferase gene, aac(3)-Id , in a class 1 integron from a multiresistant strain of Vibrio fluvialis isolated from an infant aged 6 months. J Antimicrob Chemother 2004, 53:947–951.PubMedCrossRef see more 8. Ceccarelli D, Salvia AM, Sami J, Cappuccinelli P, Maria M: Colombo New Cluster of Plasmid-Located Class Ribonucleotide reductase 1 Integrons in Vibrio cholerae O1 and a dfrA15 Cassette-Containing Integron in Vibrio parahaemolyticus Isolated in

Angola. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2006,50(7):2493–2499.PubMedCrossRef 9. Mukhopadhyay AK, Garg S, Mitra R, Basu A, Rajendran K, Dutta D, Bhattacharya SK, Shimada T, Takeda T, Takeda Y, Nair GB: Temporal shifts in traits of Vibrio cholerae strains isolated from hospitalized patients in Calcutta: a 3 years (1993 to 1995) analysis. J Clin Microbiol 1996, 34:2537–2543.PubMed 10. Dalsgaard A, Forslund A, Serichantalergs O, Sandvang D: Distribution and content of class 1 integrons in different Vibrio cholerae O-serotype strains isolated in Thailand. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2000, 44:1315–1321.PubMedCrossRef 11. Waldor MK, Tschäpe H, Mekalanos JJ: A new type of conjugative transposon encodes resistance to sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, and streptomycin in Vibrio cholerae O139. J Bacteriol 1996, 178:4157–65.PubMed 12. Dalsgaard A, Forslund AN, Tam DX, Vinh DX, Cam PD: Cholera in Vietnam: changes in genotypes and emergence of class 1 integrons containing aminoglycoside resistance gene cassettes in Vibrio cholerae O1 strain isolated from 1979 to 1996. J Clin Microbiol 1999, 37:734–741.PubMed 13.

HA titer represents two-fold serial dilutions of normalized bacte

HA titer represents two-fold serial dilutions of normalized bacterial suspensions. The initial 1, 2 and final 128 dilutions are not presented. In the case of HA assays Cell Cycle inhibitor with bacteria cultivated in media in the presence of pilicide the black triangles mark

the highest dilution which still provides visible agglutination. Pilicide-treated bacteria possess a reduced quantity of Dr fimbriae In order to monitor the effect of pilicides on the volume of Dr fimbriae production quantitatively, we used two indirect assays; an ELISA, with anti-Dr antibodies, and a densitometry analysis of fimbrial fractions resolved by SDS-PAGE. Apart from interacting with DAF, the Dr fimbriae also recognize type IV collagen as a receptor. In the ELISA the wells of the polystyrene microtitre plate were coated with type IV human collagen.

After the blocking step, different dilutions of bacteria were added and the amount of Dr fimbriae was detected using rabbit anti-Dr and anti-rabbit IgG-HRP antibodies. The bacteria E. coli BL21DE3/pBJN406 and BL21DE3/pACYC184 were grown in Luria-Bretani media because the assays performed on bacteria scraped from agar result in a high background during an ELISA test. Pilicide activity was only evaluated for compound 1 at the concentration 0.5, 1.5, 2.5 and 3.5 mM, as pilicide 2 precipitates in LB medium containing 5% DMSO during cultivation. In experiments, the amount of buy Poziotinib Dr fimbriae for strain E. coli BL21DE3/pBBJN406 grown in the presence of 0.5, 1.5, 2.5 and 3.5 mM

pilicide 1 was reduced by 3%, 45% 74% and 81%, respectively in relation to the same bacteria grown without pilicide (Figure 3D). Decreasing of Dr fimbriae amount caused only by 0.5 mM pilicide dilution was not statistically significant (p = 0.625), higher concentrations provided p-value much below 0.05. Also increasing concentration of pilicides was statistically significant for Dr fimbriae amount reduction (p < 0.05). Figure 3 Relative determination of Dr fimbriae amount on bacteria treated with pilicides. (A) SDS-PAGE analysis of the fimbrial fractions isolated from the following bacterial cultures: lanes 1,5 - BL21DE3/pBJN406, grown on TSA plates without the pilicide, fully-fimbriated strain; 2,6 - BL21DE3/pACYC184, Farnesyltransferase non-fimbriated strain; 3,7 and 4,8 – BL21DE3/pBJN406, grown in the presence of 3.5 mM of agents 1 and 2, respectively. Before electrophoresis, the samples from 1 to 4 and from 5 to 8 were incubated for 60 min at 100°C and 25°C, respectively. M – the SDS-PAGE LMW Calibration Kit weight standard. Arrow denoted monomeric DraE protein. (B) Western blotting analysis of the fimbrial fractions, performed to confirm the complete depolymerization of Dr fimbriae during sample denaturation. 1,2,3 – the same samples as in lanes 2,1 and 5 in panel B, respectively. (C) SDS-PAGE analysis of fimbrial fractions isolated from E. coli BL21DE3/pBJN406 grown on TSA plates supplemented with different concentrations of pilicide 1 (Pil1) and pilicide 2 (Pil2).

The first methodology

The first methodology selleck inhibitor is the ISS which is based on a first step of

thin film fabrication, and then a second step where the synthesis of silver nanoparticles into the films is performed. The second methodology is the LbL-E deposition technique which follows a different order because firstly silver nanoparticles of a specific shape are synthesized, and then their incorporation into thin films using the LbL assembly is performed. Although both processes use the same reagents, remarkable differences related to the size, distribution, or maximal wavelength position of the LSPR band have been observed. Additionally, a thermal post-treatment was performed to fabricate stable hydrogel films with a better chemical stability via cross-link of the polymeric chains. This comparative study can be useful to the further design of advanced hybrid coatings based on metallic nanoparticles and

polymeric materials. Methods Materials Poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (Mw 56,000), poly(acrylic acid, sodium salt) 35 wt.% solution in water (PAA) (Mw 15,000), silver nitrate solution (> 99% titration, 0.1 N AgNO3), and dimethylamine borane complex (DMAB) were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich (St. Louis, MO, USA) and used without any further purification. Aqueous solutions of 0.01 M of both PAH and PAA were prepared using ultrapure deionized water (18.2 MΩ) and adjusted to pH values 7.0 and 9.0 by the addition of a few drops of HCl or NaOH 1 M. Fabrication of the Obeticholic Acid datasheet thin films All the thin films have been fabricated using a 3-axis

Cartesian robot from Nadetech Innovations SL (Sarriguren, Spain). The LbL assembly was performed by sequentially exposing the glass slides to cationic and anionic polyelectrolytes with an immersion time of 2 min. A rinsing step in deionized water was performed between Methane monooxygenase the two polyelectrolyte baths. The combination of a cationic monolayer with an anionic monolayer is called bilayer. More details of the LbL assembly can be found elsewhere [37]. In situ synthesis of the silver nanoparticles This process starts with a first step of a multilayer coating fabrication using the LbL assembly of cationic (PAH) and anionic (PAA) polyelectrolytes. A second step is where the ISS of the AgNPs into the polymeric coating was carried out. The polymeric thin films are firstly immersed in an aqueous solution of silver nitrate (AgNO3 0.01 N) at room temperature for 5 min, removed, and rinsed with ultrapure water. Then, once the silver ions have been incorporated into films via ion exchange, a further in situ chemical reduction of the silver cations (Ag+) to silver nanoparticles (Ag0) was performed at room temperature. The films are immersed in an aqueous solution of dimethylamine borane complex (DMAB 0.01 N) for 5 min, removed, and rinsed with ultrapure water.

“Background Thermophilic Campylobacter species, primarily

“Background Thermophilic Campylobacter species, primarily Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli, are curved, Gram-negative organisms, belonging to the ε-Proteobacteria, and are the most SCH 900776 ic50 commonly recognized cause of acute bacterial diarrhea in the Western world [1–3]. Campylobacter lari is a relatively recently discovered thermophilic Campylobacter species that was first isolated from mammalian and avian species, particularly seagulls of the genus Larus [1, 4]. C. lari has also

been shown to be a cause of clinical infection [5–9]. In addition, an atypical group of isolates of urease-positive thermophilic Campylobacter (UPTC) have been isolated from the natural environment in England in 1985 [10]. Thereafter, these organisms were described as a biovar or variant of C. lari [11, 12]. Subsequent reports described four human isolates in France [11, 13]. Some additional isolates of UPTC have also been reported in Northern Ireland [14–16] in The Netherlands [17] and in Japan [18, 19]. Thus, these two representative taxa, namely urease-negative (UN) C. lari and UPTC occur within the species of C. lari [20]. Bacterial pathogens

have the ability to bind to fibronectin (Fn; a component GSK126 in vitro of the extracellular matrix) [21–24]. Konkel et al. identified and cloned a gene encoding a fibronectin-binding protein (Campylobacter adhesin to Fn; CadF) from C. jejuni [22]. In C. jejuni and C. coli, the cadF virulence gene encodes a 37 kDa outer membrane protein that promotes the binding of these pathogens to intestinal epithelial cells [15]. In relation to cadF of thermophilic Campylobacter other than C. jejuni and C. coli described above, cadF and outer membrane protein gene F (OprF) have been identified in C. coli RM2228 (DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank

accession number AAFL01000010 and ZP_00368187), C. lari RM2100 (AAFK01000002 and YP_002574995) and C. upsaliensis RM3195 (AAFJ01000008 and ZP_00371707), following whole genome shotgun sequence analysis [26]. However, no detailed descriptions of the cadF (oprF) gene have yet appeared for these thermophilic Campylobacter strains. In addition, no reports on Dimethyl sulfoxide the cadF (-like) gene in C. lari organisms have yet appeared. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to clone, sequence and analyze the full-length gene encoding the Fn-binding (-like) protein (CadF) and its adjacent genetic loci from several C. lari organisms (UN C. lari and UPTC). We also aimed to confirm the expression of the gene in the C. lari cells. Results TA cloning, sequencing and sequence analyses of the full-length cadF gene and its adjacent genetic loci from the 16 isolates of C. lari The two primer pairs (f-/r-cadF1 and f-/r-cadF2; Figure 1) successfully amplified PCR products of approximately 1.4 and 1.2 [kilo base pairs (kbp)], respectively, with all 16 isolates of C. lari employed (data not shown). Following TA cloning and sequencing, the combined nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence data from the 16 isolates of C.

This is due to the

more efficient ablation and damage of

This is due to the

more efficient ablation and damage of the film with the laser power, as also indicated by the spot area reported in the top x-axis scale. The increase of the laser fluence implies a steeper temperature gradient across the multilayers resulting in a damage of the DMD structure, thus, in an electrical insulation, more and more pronounced. Most interestingly, the measured resistance values across the edge of the laser spot show an excellent insulation this website even at the lowest used beam fluence with an increase, with respect to the as-deposited multilayers, of more than 8 orders of magnitude. Such high separation resistance is maintained also for higher laser fluences and can be attributed to the occurrence of the DMD laceration, as showed in Figure 2b. Similar separation resistance was not observed in the case selleck screening library of a reference thick AZO layer, irradiated under the same condition and included in Figure 4 for comparison. To understand how the separation resistance can be related to the laceration, a further description of the DMD irradiation process is needed. Figure 4 Dependence of the separation resistance on laser fluences. The irradiated spot size enlargement, evaluated through SEM imaging, is reported on the top x-axis.

The cyan dashed area corresponds to the situation of excellent separation resistances (≥10 MΩ). The DMD removal process with nanosecond pulse irradiation occurs in three consecutive steps: absorption

of the laser energy at the transparent electrode/glass interface, steep temperature increase of the irradiated area, and fracture and damage of the continuous conductive multilayers. To accurately describe this process, a thermal model was applied [20]. The time-dependent temperature distribution in the irradiated Cediranib (AZD2171) samples is calculated according to the heat conduction equation: (1) where ρ, C p and κ are the mass density, the thermal capacity and the thermal conductivity of the material, respectively. The recession velocity, v rec, is neglected in view of relatively low laser fluences which are insufficient for heating of the considered materials above the melting threshold and, thus, to initiate thermal vaporization [17]. The laser source term is given by (2) where α and R are the absorption and reflection coefficients of the material, respectively. Q(x,y) is the incident laser pulse intensity with a Gaussian spacial profile, and f(t) is the square-shaped pulse in the time domain: (3) Equation 1 is calculated for each layer of the structure using the material properties summarized in Table 1. Table 1 Material properties used in Equation 1[21–23] Parameters Material Value Specific heat, C p (J kg−1 K−1) Glass 703 Ag 240 AZO 494 Density, ρ (g cm−3) Glass 2.2 Ag 10.49 AZO 5.7 Thermal conductivity, κ (W m−1 K−1) Glass 0.80 Ag 429 AZO 20 Absorption coefficient, α (cm−1) (at 1,064 nm) Glass 0.5 Ag 1.

Table 3 Comparison of the growth/survival response to various env

Table 3 Comparison of the growth/survival response to various environmental conditions of S. Typhimurium ST4/74 with the response of single and double mutants Strains Description (deletions) Source Temp: 15, 37, 44°Ca NaCl: 2, 4% pH: 5, 9, 10, 11 H2O2: 15 mM ST4/74 Wild type Wray [62]         JTR.446 osmC This study – - – - JTR.452 yajD This study – - – - JTR.454 dcoC This study – - – - JTR.462 wraB* This study – - – - JTR.463 uspA* This study – - – - JTR.464 cbpA* This study

– - – - JTR.465 ychN* This study – - – - JTR.466 siiF(STM4262)* This study – - – - JTR.472 uspA/ychN This study – - – - JTR.473 uspA/osmC This study – - – - JTR.474 uspA/cbpA This study – - – - JTR.475 uspA/wraB This study – - – - JTR.476 uspA/dcoC This study – - – - JTR.477 uspA/yajD This study – - – - JTR.478 uspA/siiF(STM4262) selleckchem This study – - – + JTR.479 wraB/yajD This study – - – - JTR.481 wraB/ychN This study – - -

+ JTR.482 wraB/osmC This study – - – + JTR.483 wraB/dcoC This study – - – + JTR.484 wraB/ siiF(STM4262) This study – - – - JTR.485 wraB/cbpA This study – - – + JTR.486 ychN/cbpA This study – - – - JTR.487 ychN/yajD This study – - – + JTR.489 ychN/siiF(STM4262) This study – - – - JTR.490 ychN/dcoC This study – - – - JTR.496 cbpA/yajD FK228 This study – - – + JTR.498 cbpA/osmC This study – - – + JTR.499 cbpA/dcoC This study – - – - JTR.501 siiF(STM4262)/osmC This study – - – - JTR.502 siiF(STM4262)/yajD This study – - – - JTR.503 siiF(STM4262)/cbpA This study – - – - a: List of conditions at which differences were detected. Minus sign denotes no difference between mutant and wild type strain whereas plus sign denotes

that the ability to grow or to survive was significantly decreased in mutants. *Strains used for construction of double mutants. Figure 6 Growth of wild type and selected mutant strains of S. Typhimurium deficient in genes identified as environmental hubs in LB at 37°C. Effect of single deletion of genes forming network hubs on the virulence of S. Typhimurium Virulence characteristics of seven of the eight genes were available from literature and were not repeated Molecular motor in the present investigation. According to literature, strains deficient in ygaU, uspA, cbpA, ychN, siiF (STM4262) and dcoC were not significantly different from the virulence of the wild type strain [4, 17]. The single deletions of wraB or osmC were even reported to increase the virulence of the mutated strains [4]. Thus, none of these seven genes have been reported to be essential for virulence. Challenge assays in mice were conducted with the yajD mutant. The deletion of yajD proved not to have a significant influence on the outcome of the infection (Table 4). Table 4 Virulence of selected mutant strains Strains Description 1CI ± SD JTR.452 yajD 1.2 ± 0.3 JTR.481 wraB & ychN 1.9 ± 0.7* JTR.482 wraB & osmC 0.7 ± 0.2* JTR.490 ychN & dcoC 1.4 ± 0.9 JTR.498 cbpA & osmC 1.4 ± 0.3 JTR.499 cbpA & dcoC 0.4 ± 0.

Phylogeographic studies using both ancient and modern DNA should

Phylogeographic studies using both ancient and modern DNA should eventually resolve this puzzle. If the Indochinese

and Sundaic biotas diverged from one another in refugia north and south of today’s transitions it should be possible to find genetic evidence of this history in many extant species. Population genetic models of repeated population expansion and contraction from Plio-Pleistocene refugia BTK inhibitor price lead to predictions regarding the loss of population variability and homogenization of population structure that can be tested in extant populations. Phylogeographic studies of diverse plants and animals in Amazonia and northern temperate regions (regions for which the Pleistocene refugium theory was developed) show, however, that general predictions are hard to make as some species follow habitat shifts and others do not (Hofreiter and Stewart 2009). Such differential species-specific response to the same environmental change makes it difficult but not impossible to reconstruct regional paleoecology. Nevertheless, pioneering regional phylogeographic

studies of forest and savanna associated species coupled with more and better-dated fossil data are helping resolve this biogeographic puzzle; see for example: Chaimanee (2000), Gorog et al. (2004), Harrison et al. (2006), Tougard and Montuire (2006), de Bruyn and Mather (2007), Quek et al. (2007), Earl of Cranbrook (2009), Esselstyn and Brown (2009). On-going biogeographic changes and the future buy Rucaparib evolution of small populations and communities Corlett (2009a) provides a good general introduction to the expected climate changes in Southeast Asia. Since the mid-1970s tropical rainforests have experienced a significant warming at a mean rate of 0.26°C per decade (Malhi and Wright 2005). Climatologists make the following predictions for Southeast Asia before the end of this century: a 2.4–2.7°C rise in mean annual temperature (4°C in subtropical China), a 7% increase in wet season rainfall, and a drier dry season (Christensen et al. 2007; Bickford et al. 2010). Sea levels Tideglusib are expected to

rise 1–2 m by 2150 and 2.5–5 m by 2300 (WBGU 2007; Rahmstorf et al. 2007; Woodruff and Woodruff 2008) (Fig. 3c). Unfortunately, such projections are not global end-points but rather the conditions expected when atmospheric CO2 is double its pre-industrial concentration. Temperatures and sea levels, for example, will continue to rise after this point if emissions of greenhouse gases are not reduced and if tundra methane out-gasses as expected. Most projections therefore understate the real end-point values and threats to biodiversity. In addition, there are significant uncertainties regarding the monsoon’s seasonality and intensity, the probably higher frequency of ENSO events, and fire (see Taylor 2010).

Biodivers Conserv 15:2163–2175CrossRef Lott EJ, Atkinson TH (2006

Biodivers Conserv 15:2163–2175CrossRef Lott EJ, Atkinson TH (2006) Mexican and Central American

seasonally dry tropical forests: Chamela-Cuixmala, Jalisco, as focal point for comparison. In: Pennington RT, click here Lewis GP, Ratter JA (eds) Neotropical savannas and seasonally dry forests: plant diversity, biogeography and conservation. CRC Press, Florida Lozano PE (2002) Los tipos de bosques en el sur de Ecuador. In: Aguirre Z, Madsen JE, Cotton E et al (eds) Botánica Austroecuatoriana: Estudios sobre los recursos vegetales en las provincias de El Oro, Loja y Zamora. Abya Yala, Quito Madsen JE, Mix R, Balslev H (2001) Flora of Puná Island. Plant resources on a neotropical island. Aarhus University Press, Denmark Mittermeier RA, Gil PR, Hoffman M et al (2005) Hotspots revisited: earth’s biologically richest and most threatened terrestrial ecoregions. Conservation International, Washington, DC Myers N, Mittermeier RA, Mittermeier CG et al (2000) Biodiversity hotspots for conservation

priorities. Nature 403:853–858CrossRefPubMed Nuñez T (1997) Inventario florístico y zonificación de la vegetación en la Isla de la Plata, Parque Nacional Machalilla. In: Valencia R, Balslev H (eds) Estudios sobre diversidad y ecología de plantas. Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador, Quito Olson DM, Dinerstein E (2002) The global 200: priority ecoregions for global conservation. Ann Mo Bot Gard 89:199–294CrossRef Olson DM, Dinerstein E, Wikramanayake ED et al (2001) Terrestrial ecoregions of the world: a new map of life on earth. Selleck U0126 BioScience 51:933–938CrossRef Ortlieb L, Macharé J (1993) Former El Niño events: records from western South America. Global Planet Change 7:181–202CrossRef Florfenicol Parker TA, Carr JL (eds) (1992) Status of the forest remnants in the Cordillera de la Costa and Adjacent areas of Southwestern Ecuador. Rapid assessment program working paper 2. Conservation International, Washington, DC Parker TA, Schulenberg TS, Graves GR et al (1985) The avifauna of the Huancabamba region, northern Peru. In: Buckley PA, Foster MS, Morton ES et al (eds) Neotropical ornithology. Ornith Monogr 36:169–197 Pennington RT, Ratter JA, Lewis GP (2006) An overview

of the plant diversity, biogeography and conservation of neotropical savannas and seasonally dry forests. In: Pennington RT, Lewis GP, Ratter JA (eds) Neotropical savannas and seasonally dry forests: plant diversity, biogeography and conservation. CRC Press, Florida Peralvo M, Sierra R, Young KR et al (2007) Identification of biodiversity conservation priorities using predictive modeling: an application for the Equatorial Pacific region of South America. Biodivers Conserv 16:2649–2675CrossRef Queiroz LP (2006) The Brazilian caatinga: phytogeographical patterns inferred from distribution data of the Leguminosae. In: Pennington RT, Lewis GP, Ratter JA (eds) Neotropical savannas and seasonally dry forests: plant diversity, biogeography and conservation.

Putative periplasmic

binding protein CbiK is involved in

Putative periplasmic

binding protein CbiK is involved in the uptake of Ni2+, a cofactor required for urease activity that is important in pathogenesis of pleuropneumonia [44]. The ilv gene of Brucella suis has been identified as a virulence gene[45], and its product, acetohydroxyacid synthase, catalyzes the first common step in the biosynthetic pathway of the branched-amino acids such as leucine, isoleucine, and valine. Iron is essential for bacterial growth, especially for A. pleuropneumoniae in invading and reproducing in porcine respiratory tract where iron is limited. Iron-restriction is an important signal that regulates expression of many genes including some coding for virulence factors[46]. FepB, AfuC and FatB are components of known iron transport pathways, and the immunogenic reactivity of these proteins in this study indicates that these iron-uptake proteins might be potential candidates Neratinib for development of subunit vaccines. Wnt drug D-Galactose/D-glucose binding protein (GGBP) is a bacterial periplasmic protein, an initial component for both chemotaxis towards galactose and glucose and active transport of the two sugars in Escherichia coli[47]. The crystal structure of uroporphyrinogen-III methylase (CysG) from Thermus thermophilus has been reported[48] and the cysG gene of Salmonella typhimurium is involved in synthesis of both cobalamin (B12) and siroheme[49]. The ttg2D gene encodes a periplasmic component of an ABC-type transport system related to

resistance to organic solvents, and Ttg proteins of Pseudomonas putida and N. meningitidis were verified to participate in the uptake of L-glutamate[50]. Novel vaccine candidates need to be highly conserved between strains and so that they induce cross-protection against A. pleuropneumoniae. Recently Goure et al. have identified

A. pleuropneumoniae Dapagliflozin genes that are conserved among all 15 serotypes by comparative genomic hybridization[51]. Of these conserved genes, the genes encoding proteins MomP1 (OMP P5), MomP2 (OMP P5), D15 (OmpD), LppB, PotD, FkbP and FrpB were observed in our results. Besides, NqrA has been demonstrated to be common to all serotypes[15]. Thus these conserved proteins could potentially induce protection against a wide variety of strains and are attractive vaccine candidates. Conclusion In conclusion, the 2DE in combination with Western blot is a specific and powerful method to discover novel antigens from bacterial pathogens. In this study, the identified immunogenic proteins from ECPs and OMPs may be significant for the development of new efficient vaccine against A. pleuropneumoniae. The protective efficacy of the identified immunogenic proteins either by alone or in different combinations remains to be evaluated in further studies. The data of this study are expected to aid in development of novel vaccines against A. pleuropneumoniae. The present study has focused on 2DE analysis coupled with Western blotting. Methods Bacterial strains and culture conditions A.