00001 < p < 0 004) had worse

00001 < p < 0.004) had worse selleck screening library HRQOL than AHAs in all domains within the physical sphere. This was not so for the spiritual sphere. Consistently, stroke severity correlated significantly with all domains in the physical sphere unlike the spiritual sphere. In diverse cultures, the correlation coefficients between HRQOL and all indices of stroke severity revealed a decremental trend from the physical domain (rho = 0.77, p < 0.00001) to the spiritual domain (rho = 0.01, p = 0.893).


Consistently, stroke elicited a decremental response across domains, with domains in the spiritual sphere being relatively stroke-resilient. The potential utility of the relatively preserved spiritual sphere in facilitating stroke rehabilitation requires evaluation

in diverse cultures.”
“In this work, we have evaluated the curing process of a natural-based plasticizer, epoxidized linseed oil, as a possible alternative to phthalate substitution for polyvinyl chloride. Several curing times ranging from 6 to 14 min at BAY 73-4506 different isothermal curing temperatures in the 140-220 degrees C range have been selected. The effects of the curing process (in terms of time and temperature) have been determined by mechanical tests, color measurements, and microstructure characterization. The obtained results show that optimum overall properties are obtained for curing times of 1012 min at 200 degrees C or 8 min at 220 degrees C, which are typical values of industrial processing of vinyl plastisols. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2012″
“Reconstituted parenteral solutions of three surface-active anti-infective small-molecule drugs and solutions of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS, a model surfactant) were studied to quantify the impact of sample preparation and handling on particle counts. Turbidimetry and light obscuration profiles were recorded

as a function of agitation and shearing with and without the introduction of foam into Small molecule library the solutions. SDS solutions at concentrations above the critical micelle concentration (CMC) show significantly greater sensitivity to shear and foam presence than SDS solution below the CMC: Values of > 10 mu m particles increased 8 fold over control (an unsheared sample) in the micellar solution vs. 4 fold particle count increase over control at a sub-micellar concentration. An even more significant increase in the ratio of particle count in sheared/unsheared solution is seen for > 25 mu m unit counts, due to the increased interference of foam with the measurement. Two commercial products, injection formulations of teicoplanin and cefotaxime sodium, as well as an investigational compound 1, showed an increase in scattering as a function of foam production. The impact of foaming was significant, resulting in an increase of turbidity and light obscuration measurements in all solutions.

“Simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND) was

“Simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND) was realized by means of a novel air-lift internal loop biofilm reactor, in which aeration was set in middle of the reactor. During operation, the

aeration was adjusted to get appropriate Screening Library purchase dissolve oxygen (DO) in bulk solution and let aerobic and anoxic zone coexist in one reactor. When aeration was at 0.6 and 0.2 L/min, corresponding to DO of 5.8 and 2.5 mg/L in bulk solution, ammonia nitrogen removal percentage reached about 80 and 90 %, but total nitrogen removal percentage was lower than 25 %. While the aeration was reduced to 0.1 L/min, aerobic and anoxic zones existed simultaneously in one reactor to get 75 % of ammonia nitrogen and 50 % of total nitrogen removal percentage. Biofilms were, respectively, taken from aerobic and anoxic zone to verify their function of nitrification and denitrification in two flasks, in which ammonia nitrogen was transferred into nitrate completely by aerobic biofilm, and nitrate was removed more than 80 % by anoxic biofilm. Microelectrode selleck was used to measure the DO distribution inside biofilms

in anoxic zone corresponding to different aerations. When aeration was at 0.6 and 0.2 L/min, DO inside biofilm was more than 1.5 mg/L, but the DO inside biofilm decreased to anoxic status with depth of biofilm increasing corresponding to aeration of 0.1 L/min. The

experimental results indicated that SND could be realized because of simultaneous existence of aerobic and anoxic biofilms in one reactor.”
“Objective: To estimate the prevalence of 25(OH) vitamin D deficiency in children undergoing (adeno)tonsillectomy.

Methods: From 1st November 2008 to 20th December 2008,33 children aged from 4 to 16 and resident in Auckland, New Zealand (latitude 36 degrees 52` S) undergoing (adeno)tonsillectomy for difficulty breathing/sleep apnoea and/or recurrent tonsillitis had 25(OH) vitamin D, PRIMA-1MET molecular weight iron and zinc levels measured.

Results: Of the 32 patients who had 25(OH) vitamin D levels measured, 15.6% were vitamin D deficient (25(OH) vitamin D < 50 nmol/L), and 78% had levels, < 75 nmol/L 25(OH) vitamin D level was inversely correlated with Fitzpatrick skin type (Spearman’s rho = -0.713, p < 0.01), body mass index (BMI) (Spearman’s rho = -0.434, p = 0.013) and tonsil size (Spearman’s rho = -0.417, p 0.017). However regression modeling demonstrated that only Fitzpatrick skin type (beta = -0.687, p = 0.001) and BMI (beta = -0.256, p = 0.044) were significant predictors of vitamin D levels (R(2) = 0.572).

PD may play an important role in decreasing the level of halitosi

PD may play an important role in decreasing the level of halitosis in ESRD patients. Perit Dial Int 2011; 31: 168- 172 selleck compound www. PDIConnect.com epub ahead of print: 25 Mar 2010 doi:10.3747/pdi. 2009.00089″
“BACKGROUND: The global target for tuberculosis (TB) control set by the Millennium Development Goals is a decrease in TB incidence by 2015. Direct measurement

of country-level TB incidence using population-based methods is impractical, emphasising the need for well-performing surveillance systems and, where these are not available, accurate quantification of incidence and under-reporting of TB.

OBJECTIVE: To estimate TB incidence and TB under-reporting in Iraq in 2011.

METHODS: Prospective longitudinal surveillance was established among all eligible public and private non-National TB Programme (NTP) providers in a random sample of eight of the 18 Iraqi governorates from May to July 2011. Record linkage with the NTP and three-source capture-recapture analysis of data were then conducted using log-linear modelling.

RESULTS: A total of 1985 TB cases were identified after record linkage. The NTP registered 1677 patients (observed completeness 84%). The DMXAA concentration estimated total number of TB cases was 2460 (95%CI 2381-2553), with identified TB cases representing 81% (95%CI

69-89) after adjusting for sampling design. The estimated ratio of notified to incident cases was 69% (95%CI 58-76).

CONCLUSIONS: We estimate 14 500 TB cases in Iraq in 2011, of which 31% (95%CI 24-42) were unreported. TB surveillance needs to be strengthened to reduce under-reporting.”
“ZnO film, with urea as nitrogen source to dope its p-type, is deposited by pulsed laser on n-type (100) Si substrate to selleck kinase inhibitor fabricate p-ZnO/n-Si heterojunctions. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of the heterojunction have been studied in the temperature range 140-300 K. The turn on voltage decreased with increasing temperature while the breakdown voltage is increased slightly. The forward current is greatly increased with increasing temperature, while the reverse

current is increased nominally. Both the decrease in barrier height and the increase in ideality factor with decrease in temperature are indicative of deviation from the pure thermionic emission-diffusion mechanism. The ln(I-0) versus 1/kT plot exhibits the linear portion corresponding to an activation energy of 0.07 eV. Temperature-dependent forward current measurements suggest that trap-assisted multistep tunneling is the dominant carrier transport mechanism in this heterojunction. C-V analysis indicates an abrupt interface and band bending of 0.96 V in silicon. Heterojunction band diagram for p-ZnO/n-Si is proposed. The hysteresis in the high frequency capacitance voltage (C-V) curve indicates the presence of trapped charges at the interface.

Results A minimum of 12-month follow-up was achieved in 50 patie

Results. A minimum of 12-month follow-up was achieved in 50 patients. The average operative time was 90 minutes (range, 50-160 minutes). The mean bone graft volume was 4.8 cm(3) (range, 3.2-10.6 cm3). The intraoperative mean blood loss was 100 mL (range, 50-180 mL). Forty-two patients all had at least one American Spine Injury Association grade neurologic improvement

on final follow-up observation; there were no surgery-related complications. The mean anterior height of vertebral body was 53.2% (range 25%-78%) before surgery, 93.6% (range 78%-104%) after surgery, and 94% (range 79%-103%) at final follow-up. The preoperative Cobb angle of the primary curve averaged 30.7 degrees (range 8 degrees-67 degrees), and

corrected to 4.5 degrees (range 0 degrees-12.0 degrees) immediately after surgery, There were statistically significant (P < 0.01) among them before and after operation. There CX 5461 was no instrumentation failure or measurable loss of sagittal curve and vertebral height correction in any cases.

Conclusion. The new technique by combination check details of percutaneous external transpedicular fixation and transpedicular bone grafting is a feasible, safe, useful, efficient, and minimally invasive method to treat thoracolumbar fractures. It is a reasonable alternative method to other minimally invasive techniques of surgical management of the thoracolumbar fractures.”
“When used by itself, polyethylene imine (PEI) does not perform well as cement fluid loss additive. Its combination with acetone formaldehyde sulfite (AFS) polycondensate, however, exhibits excellent filtration control. The mechanism underlying this synergistic effect was studied and the conditions producing best results were determined.

For optimum performance, PEI and AFS must be reacted with each other to yield a polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) (d similar to 5-10 mu m), which effectively plugs the pores of the cement filter cake. Composition, size, and effectiveness of the PEC are strongly influenced by the anionic charge EPZ5676 concentration amount of the AFS dispersant. Ionic interactions between cationic imine functionalities of PEI and anionic sulfonate groups existing in AFS were confirmed by conductivity, infrared, zeta potential, and particle size measurements. For AFS samples possessing different degrees of sulfonation, the largest particle size and hence best fluid loss performance of the PEC was found to occur at a PEI: AFS molar ratio, which corresponds to neutral charge. Occurrence of large PEC particles (d similar to 5 mu m) within the cement filter cake pores was visualized by scanning electron microscopy, and their stability in highly alkaline cement pore solution was confirmed by particle size measurement. Other anionic polyelectrolytes may be used to yield such PECs with PEI to provide effective fluid loss control for cement slurries.

Arterial stiffness was assessed by a TensioClinic arteriograph, a

Arterial stiffness was assessed by a TensioClinic arteriograph, a recently validated technique. Brachial arterial FMD and ccIMT were determined

using high-resolution ultrasonography. Autoimmune patients exerted impaired FMD (3.7 +/- 3.8%), increased ccIMT (0.7 +/- 0.2 mm), AIx (1.2 +/- 32.2%), and PWV (9.7 +/- 2.4 m/s) in comparison to control subjects (FMD = 8.4 +/- 4.0%; ccIMT = 0.6 +/- 0.1 mm; Aix = -41.1 +/- 22.5%; PWV = 8.0 +/- 1.5 m/s; p < 0.05). We found a significant negative correlation of FMD with AIx (R = -0.64; p < 0.0001) and PWV (R = -0.37; p = 0.00014). There were significant positive correlations between LY3023414 clinical trial ccIMT and AIx (R = 0.34; p = 0.0009), ccIMT and PWV (R = 0.44; p < 0.0001), as well as AIx and PWV (R = 0.47; p < 0.0001).

AIx, PWV, and ccIMT positively correlated and FMD negatively correlated with the age of the autoimmune patients. Arterial stiffness indicated by increased AIx and PWV may be strongly associated with endothelial dysfunction and overt atherosclerosis in patients with autoimmune diseases. Assessment of arterial stiffness, FMD, and ccIMT are reproducible and reliable noninvasive techniques for the complex assessment of vascular abnormalities in patients at high risk.”
“The AZD1208 solubility dmso effects of Ni dopants and O vacancies on the electronic structure and magnetic properties of Ni-doped SnO2 are studied using the first-principles density functional calculation. Both of generalized

gradient approximation (GGA (and GGA+U calculations show that substitutional Ni atoms at Sn sites cannot induce magnetic moment in Ni-doped SnO2 without O vacancy. O vacancies prefer to locate near Ni atoms and induce the magnetic moments at Ni atom and its nearest O atoms. Moreover, O vacancies in a chain connecting two Ni atoms of large distance can lead to a long-range ferromagnetic (FM (coupling between the two Ni atoms. The strength of coupling calculated by GGA+U is about triple that calculated by GGA. The spin density distribution shows that the long-range eFT-508 cell line FM coupling between two Ni atoms can be explained in terms of the bound magnetic polaron model. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3428473]“
“This work deals with development, characterization, and performance of an electro-conductive fabric prepared by in situ polymerization of thiophene onto polyester. An attempt was made to optimize the polymerization process to achieve highest level of electro-conductivity of this fabric. The essential characteristics of this electro-conductive fabric were examined and its electromagnetic shielding performance was evaluated. Polythiophene powder was also synthesized and analyzed. (C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

“Linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE)/sepiolite nanocom

“Linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE)/sepiolite nanocomposites were prepared by melt blending using unmodified ACP-196 solubility dmso and silane-modified sepiolite. Two methods were used to modify sepiolite: modification before heat mixing (ex situ) and modification during heat mixing (in situ). The X-ray diffraction results showed that the position of the main peak of sepiolite remained unchanged during modification step. Infrared

spectra showed new peaks confirming the development of new bonds in modified sepiolite and nanocomposites. SEM micrographs revealed the presence of sepiolite fibers embedded in polymer matrix. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that nanocomposites exhibited higher onset degradation temperature than LLDPE. In addition, in situ modified sepiolite nanocomposites exhibited higher thermal stability than ex situ modified sepiolite nanocomposites. The ultimate tensile strength and modulus of the nanocomposites were improved; whereas elongation at break was reduced. The higher crystallization temperature of some nanocomposite formulations revealed a heterogeneous nucleation effect of sepiolite. This can be exploited for the shortening of cycle time during processing. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals,

Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 123: 1718-1723, 2012″
“Background: The Anopheles gambiae gSG6 is an anopheline-specific salivary protein which helps female mosquitoes to efficiently feed www.selleckchem.com/products/ly2157299.html on blood. Besides its role in haematophagy, gSG6 is immunogenic and elicits in exposed individuals an IgG response, which may be used as indicator of exposure to the main African malaria vector A. gambiae. However, malaria transmission in tropical Africa is sustained by three main vectors (A. gambiae, Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles funestus) and a general marker, reflecting

exposure to at least these three Cyclopamine purchase species, would be especially valuable. The SG6 protein is highly conserved within the A. gambiae species complex whereas the A. funestus homologue, fSG6, is more divergent (80% identity with gSG6). The aim of this study was to evaluate cross-reactivity of human sera to gSG6 and fSG6.

Methods: The A. funestus SG6 protein was expressed/purified and the humoral response to gSG6, fSG6 and a combination of the two antigens was compared in a population from a malaria hyperendemic area of Burkina Faso where both vectors were present, although with a large A. gambiae prevalence (> 75%). Sera collected at the beginning and at the end of the high transmission/rainy season, as well as during the following low transmission/dry season, were analysed.

Results: According to previous observations, both anti-SG6 IgG level and prevalence decreased during the low transmission/dry season and showed a typical age-dependent pattern. No significant difference in the response to the two antigens was found, although their combined use yielded in most cases higher IgG level.

The study included a selective litrature review based on a PubMed

The study included a selective litrature review based on a PubMed search using the search terms MCTD, Sharp syndrome, uterine rupture and hypothermia, and a detailed report of our case with regard to the MCTD of the patient.

Rupture to the backside of the uterus during delivery,

independent of prior cesarean section, was unpredictable and its cause remains unclear. The clinical outcome of the newborn was surprisingly favorable and there were no signs of neurodevelopmental sequelae in spite of the fact that the newborn was asphyctic and had a large excess of acids in the umbilical cord blood gas analysis. The favorable outcome is due to treatment with whole body hypothermia.

Any type of prior surgery of the uterus puts the patient at risk during delivery. MCTD might be Duvelisib nmr a risk factor during birth. These patients should be followed closely during pregnancy and should deliver at a center, which provides all options for immediate surgical and neonatological intervention.”
“Unsaturated polyesters with maleic acid and different molar ratio of phthalic anhydride see more to adipic acid were produced,

mixed with styrene, and cured. The degree of double bonds conversion, determined by differential scanning calorimetry (alpha(DSC)), indicating the initial curing, increases significantly with the molar ratio of phthalic anhydride. On the other hand, the degree of double

bonds conversion of maleate (alpha(UP,FTIR)) and styrene (alpha(St,FTIR)) Caspase inhibitor units determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy after prolonged curing are considerably higher than alpha(DSC) and increase slightly with the molar ratio of phthalic anhydride. Polyester containing phthalic anhydride without adipic acid (M5P5) has the lowest tetrahydrofuran uptake and diffusion parameter D/alpha(2) due to its more rigid segments, in opposite to polyester containing adipic acid (M5A5) having the highest values. According to dielectric spectroscopy measurements, two different relaxations were determined, one beginning above 130 degrees C (with peak above 180 degrees C) attributed to alpha-relaxation (dielectric glass transition) and a second one at lower temperatures, attributed to beta-relaxation. The peak of beta-relaxation is at around 130, 75-80, and 30 degrees C for the rigid, intermediate rigidity/flexibility, and flexible polyesters, respectively. The alpha-relaxation is determined at low frequencies and the beta-relaxation at intermediate or high frequencies. (c) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 120: 1984-1993, 2011″
“Background: Osteopontin (OPN) is a cytokine associated with a cell-matrix via integrins. Fibroblast specific protein-1 (FSP-1), known as S100A4, has been implicated in cell migration by nonmuscle myosin.

Register data report overall 10-year revision rates of TKA of 6 2

Register data report overall 10-year revision rates of TKA of 6.2% (range: 4.9-7.8%), rates for UKA are 16.5% (range: 9.7-19.6%).

Conclusion: Revision rates of all clinical studies of a given implant do not differ significantly from register data. However, significant differences were found between the revision rates published by developers and register data. Therefore the different data need to be interpreted in the context of the source of the information. (C) 2012 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background 6 mercaptopurine (6 MP) is used for the induction and maintenance

selleck products of remission of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) 6 MP is converted into 6

methylmercaptopurine (6 MMP) or 6 thioguanine nucleotides (6 TGN) intracellularly Treatment response in IBD patients correlates with 6 TGN levels This study prospectively evaluated the effect of allopurinol on 6 MP metabolites in adult and pediatric IBD patients Additionally, click here we quantified the prevalence of preferential metabolism towards 6 MMP through a retrospective analysis of IBD patients

Methods Twenty patients (10 adult, 10 pediatric) with evidence of preferential metabolism towards 6 MMP, (6 TGN <250 pmol/8 x 10(8) RBCs and 6 MMP> 5000 pmol/8 x 10(8) RBCs) were prospectively Selleck Cyclosporin A treated with allopurinol 100 mg daily and up to 100 mg of 6 MP 6 MP dose was adjusted after a 3 week metabolite measurement

Results The median dose of 6 MP for adults decreased from 100 mg daily (range 37 5-150 mg) to 25 mg daily (range 12 5-50 mg) The median dose of 6 MP for pediatric patients decreased

from 50 mg (range 25-50 mg) to 10 7 mg (range 10 7 to 21 4 mg) Mean 6 TGN levels in all subjects increased from 197 4 (+/- 59) to 284 8 (+/- 107) pmol/8 x 10(8) RBCs (p = 0 0005) Mean 6 MMP levels in all subjects decreased from a mean of 7719 8 (+/- 4716) to 404 8 (+/- 332) pmol/8 x 10(8) RBCs (p = 0 0004) There were no complications associated with allopurinol therapy Eighty eight (30 9%) of 285 IBD patients had evidence of preferential metabolism towards 6 MMP The proportion of preferential metabolism was equal in adults and pediatric patients

Conclusion Our results indicate that the addition of allopurinol safely shifts metabolite production in both adult and pediatric IBD patients and that there is a high prevalence of preferential metabolism towards 6 MMP among IBD patients Published by Elsevier B V on behalf of European Crohn s and Colitis Organisation”
“Objective: Increasing evidence points to a strong genetic component to osteoarthritis (OA) and that certain changes that occur in osteoarthritic cartilage recapitulate the developmental process of endochondral ossification.

Therefore, identifying and understanding the mechanistic underpin

Therefore, identifying and understanding the mechanistic underpinnings of viral entry, replication, assembly and budding will be critical in the development of antiviral therapeutic agents. www.selleckchem.com/products/tubastatin-a.html This review focuses on the molecular

mechanisms discovered and the antiviral strategies pursued in recent years for emerging paramyxoviruses, with particular emphasis on viral entry and exit mechanisms.”
“Background: Elevated homocysteine concentrations are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and a decline in cognitive function. Intakes of choline and betaine, as methyl donors, may affect homocysteine concentrations.

Objective: The objective was to examine whether choline and betaine intakes, assessed from food-frequency questionnaires, are associated with total plasma homocysteine concentrations under both fasting and post-methionine-load conditions in both pre- and post folic acid fortification periods in the United States.

Design: We assessed the association selleckchem between choline and betaine intakes and fasting and post-methionine-load

homocysteine concentrations using the US Department of Agriculture revised food-composition tables and evaluated whether the associations varied by folic acid fortification periods in 1325 male and 1407 female participants in the sixth examination (1995-1998) of the Framingham Offspring Study.

Results: A higher choline-plus-betaine intake was associated with lower concentrations of post-methionine-load homocysteine; the multivariate geometric means were 24.1 mu mol/L (95% CI: 23.4, 24.9 mu mol/L) in the top quintile of intake

and 25.0 mu mol/L (95% https://www.sellecn.cn/products/azd9291.html CI: 24.2, 25.7 mu mol/L) in the bottom quintile (P for trend = 0.01). We found an inverse association between choline-plus-betaine intake and fasting homocysteine concentrations; the multivariate geometric mean fasting homocysteine concentrations were 9.6 mu mol/L (95% CI: 9.3, 9.9 mu mol/L) in the top quintile and 10.1 mu mol/L (95% CI: 9.8, 10.4 mu mol/L) in the bottom quintile (P for trend < 0.001). When we stratified by plasma folate and vitamin B-12 concentrations, the inverse association was limited to participants with low plasma folate or vitamin B-12 concentrations. In the postfortification period, the inverse association between choline-plus-betaine intake and either fasting or post-methionine-load homocysteine was no longer present.

Conclusions: Choline and betaine intakes were associated with both fasting and post-methionine-load total homocysteine concentrations, especially in participants with low folate and vitamin B-12 status. The inverse association between choline and betaine intakes and homocysteine concentrations was no longer present in the postfortification period. Am J Clin Nutr 2010; 91: 1303-10.

NRF scores and mean national food prices were calculated per calo

NRF scores and mean national food prices were calculated per calorie and per US Food and Drug Administration-defined serving.

Results: Each of the 9 USDA

food groups offered foods of diverse nutritive value and cost. Eggs, dry beans and legumes, and meat and milk products were the lowest-cost sources of protein. Milk and milk products were the lowest-cost sources of calcium, whereas vegetables and fruit were the lowest-cost sources of vitamin C. Milk, potatoes, learn more citrus juices, cereals, and beans had more favorable overall nutrient-to-price ratios than did many vegetables and fruit. Energy-dense grains, sweets, and fats provided most of the calories but fewer nutrients per dollar.

Conclusion: One important application of nutrient profile models is to help consumers identify foods that provide optimal nutrition at an affordable cost. Am J Clin Nutr 2010;91(suppl):1095S-101S.”
“Study Design. An in vitro and in vivo experimental study.

Objective. This study was undertaken to evaluate differences

in the capability of inducing an implant-centered infection between Staphylococcus aureus and Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

Summary of Background Data. Bacterial infection is still one of the most serious and devastating complications after orthopedic implant surgery despite the advent of new antibiotics and treatment methods.

Methods. S. aureus and M. tuberculosis were separately cultured with titanium plates. The bacteria colonized on the plates were isolated and cultured on culture medium. They were evaluated and compared by colony-forming units enumeration. Scanning electron microscopy was used to evaluate selleck chemical the difference in the colonization features of the

2 pathogens. In the in vivo experiment, 22 dogs were used to assess the susceptibility to infection after a local bacterial challenge with either S. aureus or M. tuberculosis.

Results. PARP inhibition S. aureus showed heavy adhesion and multiplication on the surface of titanium plates in vitro, whereas M. tuberculosis rarely adhered to the surface of the plates. Under scanning electron microscopy, S. aureus colonization was observed: the coccoid was widespread on the surface of the plates but only a few M. tuberculosis cells scattered on the surface of the plates. In in vivo test, the infection rateforthe S. aureus inoculation was higher than that for the M. tuberculosis challenge. The infection rate for the entire test population (n = 44 sites) was 39.58% (19/48). The infection rates were 54.17% (13/24) for the S. aureus challenge and 25% (6/24) for the M. tuberculosis challenge, respectively (P < 0.05).

Conclusion. It is less likely for M. tuberculosis to adhere and form a biofilm on an implant surface than S. aureus. Under otherwise identical conditions, M. tuberculosis contamination following instrumented spine surgery might lead to less occurrence of infection than S. aureus contamination.