Regulatory cells play an important role in the control of autoimmunity. The family of these cells is formed by: Tr1 (CD4+ cells induced by IL10), Th2, Th3 (acting by TGFβ), CD8+ SB203580 cells, NKT (CD4–/CD8–) and ‘natural’ T regulatory cells (Tregs) . The last are defined by the expression of CD4 and CD25
antigens and forhead box p3 transcription factor (FoxP3) and strictly corresponds to lymphocytes with high expression of CD25 antigen: CD25high or CD25bright cells . These cells may be also determined by expression of CD62L, glucocorticoid-induced tumour necrosis factor receptor (GITR) and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen (CTLA4) . CTLA4 is constitutively expressed on Tregs and plays a role in regulating T cell tolerance . Regulatory cells suppress the proliferation and cytokine production by responder cells (CD4+/CD25–), down modulate the response of CD8+, CD4+ and NK cells to self and non-self antigens, thus suppress autoagression. Depletion of T regulatory cells population was observed in autoimmune diseases, e.g.: lupus erythematodes, diabetes mellitus, rheumatoid arthritis . Recently, local changes of this population in the lung of COPD patients were presented in some studies [10, 17, 18]. Their role in systemic inflammation in course of COPD was Hedgehog antagonist of interest. There are some data on role of adiponectin (ACRP30), an adipocyte-derived cytokine in the regulation
of immune reactions and possible modulation of autoimmunity [3, 19, 20]. Elevated concentration of adiponectin was reported in COPD patients in the context of body weigh loss . We aimed to analyse the participation of this cytokine in immune response comparing their concentration with the proportion of inflammatory cells. In this study we continued the investigation of elements of systemic inflammation in COPD. Previously, Bay 11-7085 we reported a significant increase in CD8+ and CD4+ lymphocytes with the expression of Fas receptor in COPD patients . The aim of this study was to analyse the population of CD4+/CD25+
cells and CD4+/CD25high cells, an expression of CTLA4 antigen and adiponectin concentration in the blood of patients with COPD. Twenty-eight patients with stable COPD were investigated. The diagnosis of COPD was established in accordance to the GOLD report . Asthma was excluded on the basis of medical history, allergy exclusion and a negative bronchial reversibility test. None of the subjects had symptoms of infection or exacerbation of the disease nor received glicocorticosteroids for at least 1 month prior to the study onset and in the study period. The mean duration of symptoms of COPD was 3.5 ± 3.6 years. In 40% patients the diagnosis was established at the time of the study. All patients had normal values of arterial blood gases. The control group consisted of 20 healthy volunteers with normal pulmonary function.