This work was funded jointly by British Council (UK) and the Indian Government under the UK-India Education and research initiative (UK-IERI) postgraduate funding scheme. “
“Citation Mason KL, Aronoff DM. Postpartum group A Streptococcus sepsis and maternal immunology. https://www.selleckchem.com/products/cx-5461.html Am J Reprod Immunol 2012; 67: 91–100 Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is an historically important agent of puerperal infections and sepsis. The inception of hand-washing and improved hospital
hygiene drastically reduced the incidence of puerperal sepsis, but recently the incidence and severity of postpartum GAS infections has been rising for uncertain reasons. Several epidemiological, host, and microbial factors contribute to the risk for GAS infection and mortality in postpartum women. These include the mode of delivery (vaginal versus cesarean section), the location where labor and delivery occurred, exposure to GAS carriers, the altered immune status associated with pregnancy, the genetic background of the host, the virulence of the infecting GAS strain, and highly specialized immune responses associated with female reproductive tract tissues
and organs. This review will discuss the RAD001 chemical structure complicated factors that contribute to the increased susceptibility to GAS after delivery and potential reasons for the recent increase observed in morbidity and mortality. “
“Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) inhibit T-cell activation and proliferation but their effects on individual T-cell-effector pathways and on memory versus naïve T cells remain unclear. MSC influence
on the differentiation of naïve and memory CD4+ T cells toward the Th17 phenotype was examined. CD4+ T cells exposed to Th17-skewing conditions exhibited reduced CD25 and IL-17A expression following SPTLC1 MSC co-culture. Inhibition of IL-17A production persisted upon re-stimulation in the absence of MSCs. These effects were attenuated when cell–cell contact was prevented. Th17 cultures from highly purified naïve- and memory-phenotype responders were similarly inhibited. Th17 inhibition by MSCs was reversed by indomethacin and a selective COX-2 inhibitor. Media from MSC/Th17 co-cultures contained increased prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels and potently suppressed Th17 differentiation in fresh cultures. MSC-mediated Th17 inhibition was reversed by a selective EP4 antagonist and was mimicked by synthetic PGE2 and a selective EP4 agonist. Activation-induced IL-17A secretion by naturally occurring, effector-memory Th17 cells from a urinary obstruction model was also inhibited by MSC co-culture in a COX-dependent manner. Overall, MSCs potently inhibit Th17 differentiation from naïve and memory T-cell precursors and inhibit naturally-occurring Th17 cells derived from a site of inflammation. Suppression entails cell-contact-dependent COX-2 induction resulting in direct Th17 inhibition by PGE2 via EP4.