N-glycation is a protein modification that occurs more often in,

N-glycation is a protein modification that occurs more often in, for example, antibodies [20]. Alternatively it could represent heterogeneity of VP1 due to N-terminal proteolysis. A 48-kDa VP1-VP2 dimer was observed in strain O1 Manisa but not in strains of other serotypes. This must represent a disulfide-bonded dimer since only O serotype strains contain a disulfide bond between cysteine 134 of VP1 and cysteine 130 of VP2 [14]. This is confirmed by analysis of tryptic digestion fragments. Trypsin treatment of FMDV strain

O1 Kaufbeuren results in cleavage of the VP1 C-terminus after residue 200 and cleavage in an exposed loop of Microbiology inhibitor VP1, known as the GH-loop, after residues 145 and 154 [17]. We observed cleavages at the same Libraries positions in SELDI-TOF-MS experiments of trypsin-treated FMDV O1 Manisa. We also observed a tryptic digestion fragment of 40.0 kDa corresponding to a VP1 degradation product linked to VP2. This confirms the presence of a VP1–VP2 dimer. The spectral peak corresponding to VP2 was predominantly identified based on its mass and because of its specific presence after immunocapture with FMDV specific VHHs. In trypsin digestion experiments we observed two peaks that suggested partial cleavage after VP2 residue 167 both in its single and its VP1 disulfide-bonded form. VP2 cleavage at this position is to our knowledge not observed before. The spectral learn more peak corresponding

to VP3 is more difficult to identify since it is predicted to have a mass intermediate between VP1 and VP2. Occasionally a peak of low height that could represent VP3 is detectable in SELDI-TOF-MS profiles (e.g. Fig. 2c). Furthermore, when the VP1 peaks and are absent due to trypsin treatment a peak at 24.0 kDa that could represent VP3 is visible. However, this peak has a lower height than the VP1 and VP2 peaks. This is unexpected since VP1–VP3 are present in equimolar amounts in FMDV particles [1]. VP3 of all FMDV serotypes is known to form disulfide bonds to other VP3 molecules [1]. Peaks that could

represent multimerized VP3 are readily visible in the spectra of all three FMDV strains, which could explain the low height of the putative VP3 monomer peak. Alternatively, the low height of the putative VP3 peak could be due to less efficient ionization of VP3. We used SELDI-TOF-MS analysis for the characterization of FMDV antigen during various stages of vaccine preparation. In FMDV antigen preparations we could readily detect PEG6000 and BSA as well as many other proteins that presumably originate from the BHK-21 cells used for viral propagation. Especially the ability to detect PEG6000 could be of use since this non-protein compound is more difficult to detect by other methods. We also observed some limited proteolytic degradation of VP1 when FMDV antigen was stored at the elevated temperature of 35 °C, but not when antigens were properly stored at 4 °C.

Activity interference was also recorded in the diaries daily usin

Activity interference was also recorded in the diaries daily using Item 5 from the 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey (Ware et al 1996), a 5-point scale anchored by ‘not at all’ through to ‘extreme interference’. To ensure completeness of follow-up, data from the diaries were collected by telephone interview at weekly intervals for the first four weeks, then monthly or until recovery for the subsequent eight selleck screening library weeks (84 days in total). At

three months, a telephone exit interview was conducted at which the Neck Disability Index (Vernon and Mior 1991) was administered and pain scores were collected. Primary outcome: The primary outcome was the time taken from commencement of treatment to recovery from the episode of neck pain. The day of recovery from the episode of neck pain was defined as the first day of seven consecutive days on which the patient rated the intensity of their average daily neck pain as < 1 on the numerical rating scale from 0 to 10. Secondary outcomes: Secondary outcomes included time to recovery of normal activity as well as pain (numerical rating scale 0–10) and disability check details (Neck Disability Index scale 0–50) scores at

three months. Time to recovery of normal activity was defined as the first day of seven consecutive days in which the participant rated the degree of interference ‘not at all’. We examined 22 putative prognostic factors. Eight demographic variables were examined: age, gender, level of education, employment status, change of employment status due to neck pain, smoking habit, whether a compensation claim for neck pain had been lodged, and self-rated general health. Level of education was determined using items from the Australian Census 2001 (Trewin 2000). Employment status was determined using categories described by

Kenny et al (2000). Self-rated general health was measured using Item 1 of the 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12). The 14 inhibitors clinical variables examined were: pain intensity on the 0–10 numerical rating scale, duration of neck pain, disability measured by the Neck Disability Index from 0 (none) to 50 (worst), the physical (PCS) and mental health (MCS) component summary scales of the SF-12, presence of concomitant symptoms (upper limb pain, headache, upper back pain, lower back pain, dizziness and nausea), past history of neck pain, previous sick leave for Levetiracetam neck pain, and use of analgesics. The clinical course of the episode of neck pain was described using Kaplan-Meier survival curves and using descriptive statistics. Prognostic factors were evaluated using separate prognostic models for recovery from the episode of neck pain and disability at 3 months. The first stage involved examination of the univariate relationship between the outcome and each prognostic variable, using Cox regression (for time to recovery), and linear regression (for disability at 3 months). Variables with significant associations (p < 0.

2b) All subjects responded against all antigens, except one who

2b). All subjects responded against all antigens, except one who only had FHA- and PRN-specific responses. Between days 28 and 150–180 after vaccination the numbers of antigen-specific BVD 523 memory B cells had declined. Some subjects

were back to background levels, whereas others had maintained higher levels of antigen-specific memory B cells compared to day 0. One subject had maintained the level of FHA-specific memory B cells between days 28 and 150–180. No vaccine-responders were seen in the culture-negative group ( Fig. 2b) or against the Libraries control antigen TTd (data not shown). For an in-depth evaluation of the memory B-cell response two panels were included in the flow cytometric analysis. Panel I identified different memory B-cell subpopulations (activated, resting and tissue-like) and panel II identified IgG-switched memory B cells. Detection and analysis were performed for 12 subjects (4 culture positives, 4 culture negatives and 4 placebos). Not all subjects had samples available for all time points. No differences were found between the culture positives, culture negatives or placebo when antibody isotype-switch was evaluated

(IgD+/− and IgG+/−), data not shown. However, there was an increase in the culture-positive group at days 7 and 14 of the activated memory B cells, as well as the tissue-like memory B cells (fig. 3). This was not seen in the naïve and resting memory B-cell subpopulations, nor did the FcLR4 staining differ between the groups (data not shown). The number of responding subjects was insufficient crotamiton for a thorough correlation analysis. Therefore, a more general comparison of the B-cell responses detected was made. The Ixazomib order serological response (as detected by ELISA, reported in detail in Ref. [16]), the plasma blast response and the memory B-cell response were compared in all seven culture-positive subjects (Fig. 4). As expected, the cellular response had declined in blood at day 150–180, whereas the serological response was maintained. There were minor exceptions where subjects differed between their cellular and humoral responses, but in general the subjects

responded similarly in the antigen-specific responses detected by both ELISpot and ELISA. The novel, live attenuated pertussis vaccine candidate, BPZE1, was tested for the first time in man and showed to be safe and able to induce serological responses [16]. In this study, we evaluated the B-cell responses evoked by BPZE1 during the same trial. In total 48 subjects were recruited to the study. Out of the 36 subjects that received the vaccine 7 were colonized by BPZE1 and mounted a response against the vaccine-related antigens. Since it was a first-in-man study, the dosages used in this study were based on studies in mice [19]. An optimization of the doses may perhaps lead to a better vaccine take. The results obtained in this study are considered exploratory due to the novelty of the vaccine.

Animal experiments were approved by the Ethical committee of Utre

Animal experiments were approved by the Ethical committee of Utrecht University, and performed according to its regulations. The following antigens were used for vaccination and determination of specificity of monoclonal antibodies (mAb):

recombinant MAP Hsp 65 kD (rMAP Hsp60) and Hsp 70 kD (rMAP Hsp70). These antigens were produced as described earlier [6] and [17]. A recombinant C-terminal deletion mutant protein of the Hsp70 molecule was constructed, comprising the receptor binding part. It consisted of N-terminal amino acids 1–359 of wildtype Hsp70, had a molecular weight of approximately 45 kD and was designated RBS70. RBS70 was constructed by restriction endonuclease digestion of the original Selleck AZD8055 recombinant MAP Hsp70 pTrcHis expression vector with AflII (NE Biolabs, USA) and HindIII (Gibco-Invitrogen, the Netherlands) using 5 units of each enzyme selleckchem per μg DNA. The digested fragment was separated from the vector DNA by agarose gel (1%) electroforesis and isolated from the gel using a QIAEXII

kit (Promega, the Netherlands). The vector DNA was blunted by using T4 DNA polymerase (Fermentas, Germany) subsequently purified using a DNA cleaning kit (Zymo Research, USA), religated using T4 DNA ligase (Quick Ligation kit, NE Biolabs, USA) and purified using the DNA cleaning kit. Finally, chemically competent Top10 bacteria (Invitrogen, the Netherlands) were transformed with the vector DNA using a heat shock protocol provided by the manufacturer. Transformed bacteria were selected and protein expression and purification was performed similar to the procedure described for recombinant MAP Hsp70 [6]. In addition, the following antigens were used: recombinant M. tuberculosis Hsp70 (MTb), recombinant Escherichia coli (E. coli) Hsp70 and bovine Hsc70 purified from bovine brain (generous gifts from Stressgen, Canada). Purified

protein derivatives (PPDs) were produced at CVI (Lelystad, the Netherlands) as previously described [18], from MAP strain 3+5/C (PPDP), M. bovis (MB) strain AN5 (PPDB), and M. avium ssp. avium (MAA) strain D4 (PPDA). MAP strain ADP ribosylation factor 316F was grown at the CVI (generous gifts from D. Bakker). To define peptides for the screening of monoclonal antibodies and sera from cattle and goats the following HSP70 Genbank-derived sequences were used: Q00488 (MAP Hsp70); A0QLZ6 (MAA Hsp70); P0A5C0 (MB Hsp70); Libraries P0A5B9 (MTb Hsp70); P04475 (E. coli Hsp70); NP776975 (Bos taurus Hsp70-1A). A first set of 124 synthetic 14-mer peptides, with an aminoterminal cysteine, a 5 amino acids (aa) shift and an overlap of 9 aa, covering the MAP Hsp70 molecule, was synthesized using the simultaneous multiple peptide synthesis (SMPS) technique described previously [19]. To enable di-sulphate binding of peptides to the solid phase ELISA plate, an amino-terminal cysteine residue was coupled to each peptide during synthesis. For primary screening peptides were pooled in 11 groups of sequential peptides.

com where they viewed the “explanation of research study” documen

com where they viewed the “explanation of research study” document. To qualify for the study, participants were asked if they obtained the international student visa (F1 visa) and were originally from Mainland China. After reading that document those who wanted to continue were directed to the actual survey. An identification number was assigned to each participant to maintain anonymity and confidentially. Participants who decided not to continue could quit the survey at anytime. Data was collected between June and August 2011. Since

all of the scales were 5-point scales, item-mean scores, instead of the item total scores, were calculated as the final score for each scale to make the score of each scale comparable. The range of each scale score was from 1 to 5. Data analysis

comprised two stages: (1) identification of the factors selleck that predicted PA directly, (2) exploration PI3K Inhibitor Library datasheet of the mediation effect of the predictors on PA. Binominal nested regression modeling and mediation analysis were completed in STATA 12.0 (College Station, TX, USA), with α set at p < 0.05 for all analyses. Among those who were retained for analyses (n = 649), 504 participants answered every single question leaving 145 participants (22.3%) missing at least one value. After examining the patterns of missing data, the data appeared to be missing at random (MAR). That is, missing values did not seem to be dependent on other variables. Since using list wise deletion for MAR may significantly reduce the sample size and may cause a biased estimation, the multiple imputation method was used. 30 On average participants were 27.08 ± 4.59 years of age, had a BMI of 21.96 ± 4.10 (range 17.0–32.5), aminophylline and had spent 36.53 ± 33.86 months in the U.S. Internal consistencies of the scales (Cronbach’s α values) ranged from 0.73 to 0.94 ( Table 1). From Table 2, the imputed means for each scale were close to the raw means, which provided additional evidence for the imputation approach employed. Overall, the means ranged from 2.59 to 4.19, with relatively low average scores on self-efficacy to overcome exercise barriers, but relatively high scores on positive exercise

attitude and exercise enjoyment. Though the LTEQ has been successfully used in multiple other studies, it was not used as a primary outcome variable in the current study for several reasons. First, the distribution of scores was very skewed even after imputation (i.e., skewness = 3.82 and kurtosis = 19.10). Second, the standard deviation was larger than the total mean score (i.e., mean = 49.68, SD = 69.87). Although we tried dropping outliers and combining moderate and vigorous scores, neither approach resolved the issues we encountered with this measure in this sample. Therefore, we used the binary variable of MPAR and “does not meet MPAR” as the dependent measure of PA instead. As shown in Table 2, we were not able to normalize the distribution using transformation analysis.

He concluded that “rabbits smell what they expect, not what they

He concluded that “rabbits smell what they expect, not what they sniff.” More recent electrophysiological recordings in rodents have identified prestimulus anticipatory events not only in the bulb, but also in piriform cortex and orbitofrontal cortex (Kay and Freeman, 1998 and Schoenbaum and Eichenbaum, 1995), implying http://www.selleckchem.com/products/AG-014699.html that well before an odor arrives, much of the olfactory system generates a prediction about the upcoming stimulus. Finally, in human piriform cortex, attention to olfactory

content evokes baseline deviations in fMRI activity (Zelano et al., 2005), although it is unclear whether these changes merely reflect a general attentional see more gain or reflect feature-based predictive codes about specific odors. Olfactory studies in humans and other animals increasingly show that cortical representations of odor in piriform cortex are encoded as spatially distributed ensembles (Freeman, 1979, Haberly, 1985, Haberly, 2001, Hasselmo et al., 1990, Howard et al., 2009, Illig and Haberly, 2003, Kay and Stopfer, 2006, Martin et al., 2004, Spors and

Grinvald, 2002, Stettler and Axel, 2009 and Wilson and Stevenson, 2003) evolving over a time span of seconds (Rennaker et al., 2007). Therefore, on the basis of these observations, we combined an olfactory attentional search task with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) techniques and pattern-based multivariate analyses to test three Dipeptidyl peptidase hypotheses following from the predictive coding model: (1) odor-specific predictive codes in the human olfactory brain are established prior to stimulus onset and take the form of spatially distributed templates or “search images”; (2) ensemble activity patterns should evolve in space and time over the course of a trial, such that predictive coding gives way to stimulus coding from pre- to postodor onset; and (3)

a legitimate prestimulus predictive template should be able to predict olfactory behavioral performance in the post-stimulus period. Subjects participated in a simple olfactory fMRI task in which they decided whether a particular predetermined target smell was present on each trial. In target A runs, subjects determined whether odor A was present, and in target B runs, subjects determined whether odor B was present. Stimuli consisted of odor A alone (A), odor B alone (B), or a binary mixture of odors A and B (AB), resulting in six conditions: target A with stimulus A, B, or AB (A|A, A|B, A|AB), and target B with stimulus A, B, or AB (B|A, B|B, B|AB) (Figure 1). Importantly, the physical characteristics of the stimuli were identical across runs, ensuring that the only differing aspect between target A and target B runs was the attentional focus of the subject.

Inaccurate saccades within the deadline had no time out However,

Inaccurate saccades within the deadline had no time out. However, monkeys had difficulty discriminating lack of reward from an inaccurate saccade and lack of reward from slow responding. Hence, the display was removed on 25%–50% of missed-deadline trials. Monkeys quickly learned that reinforcement was only available prior to this time. All patterns of results and conclusions were unchanged by these trials. Monkeys respected the response deadlines (proportion of missed deadlines: Q Accurate: 0.18, Fast: 0.16; S Accurate: 0.19, Fast: 0.13). Some sessions included only the Fast and Selleckchem Dabrafenib Accurate conditions; for that

reason, variability should be expected to be higher in the Neutral condition. We recorded neurons in FEF, located on the anterior bank of the arcuate sulcus, using tungsten microelectrodes (2–4 MΩ, FHC) referenced to a guide tube in contact with the dura. Location was verified by evoking eye movements though low-threshold (<50 μA) microstimulation. The number of electrodes lowered on a given session ranged from one to eight. Single-unit waveforms were isolated online, sampled at 40 kHz, and resorted offline (Offline Sorter; Plexon). All surgical and experimental procedures were in accordance with the National Institutes of Health Guide for the

Care and Use of Laboratory Animals and approved by the Vanderbilt Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. BMS-754807 cell line Neurons are categorized into three major types: visual, visuomovement, next and movement. Though classification

operates along a continuum, many observations demonstrate that these populations are functionally distinct (Cohen et al., 2009; Ray et al., 2009; Gregoriou et al., 2012). Visual neurons increase discharge rates significantly immediately after array presentation but have no saccade-related modulation. Movement neurons increase discharge rate significantly before saccade initiation but have no visual response. Visuomovement neurons exhibit both periods of modulation. To classify neurons, we used activity from a memory-guided saccade task. To test for visual responses, we used t tests to compare the average activity in the interval 75–100 ms after target presentation to the activity in the 100 ms interval preceding target presentation. To test for presaccadic activity, we used t tests to compare the average activity in the 100 ms interval before saccade initiation to the activity in the interval 500–400 ms before saccade initiation. To determine when neurons responded differently to two SAT conditions or when the target as compared to distractors appeared in the RF, we computed ms-by-ms Wilcoxon rank-sum tests, evaluating the null hypothesis that target-in-RF activity was significantly different from distractor-in-RF activity. Target selection time (TST) was the first of ten successive time points significant at the p < 0.01 level. Population TST was computed using jackknifing.

The results above suggest that, in order for CRP switch values to

The results above suggest that, in order for CRP switch values to shift adaptively with changes in the strength of the RF stimulus, the strength of inhibition must depend on the relative strengths of the competitor and RF stimuli, rather than just on the strength of the competitor alone. In other words, the term I in Equation 4 must depend on relative-stimulus strength. From a circuit perspective, the simplest modification

to achieve this goal is to have the inhibitory units inhibit each other (reciprocal inhibitory connections; Figure 4A). Indeed, structural support for such a circuit motif in the Imc has been found in an anatomical study (Wang et al., 2004). The study showed that in addition to projecting to the OTid, Imc axonal branches also terminate within the Imc itself (Figure 4B). Such reciprocal connections will cause the inhibitory units representing each location to inhibit the C646 mw inhibitory units representing all other locations. As a result, the activity of each inhibitory unit should depend on the strength of its excitatory drive relative to the excitatory drive to other inhibitory units. To model the reciprocal connectivity, we first modeled each inhibitory unit as being affected by a combination of

input and output divisive inhibition (along with an implicit subtractive MEK inhibitor component; Equation 6). This formulation was general, because it allowed for the inhibition onto inhibitory units to be any arbitrary combination of the commonly observed forms of inhibition in the literature. equation(6) I(t)=(1iout(t)+1)·(miin(t)+1+h(lklk+s50k+(iin(t))k)) Here, I(t) is the inhibitory activity at computational time-step t. iin(t) and iout(t) were the input and output divisive factors at time-step

t, modeled as being proportional to the activity of the inhibitory units at the previous time step (compare to Equation 4): equation(7) iin(t)=rin·I(t−1),iout(t)=rout·I(t−1)iin(t)=rin·I(t−1),iout(t)=rout·I(t−1)rin Tryptophan synthase and rout are proportionality constants. In this formulation, transmission and synaptic delays were assumed to be equal to one computational time step, for simplicity. These equations were applied iteratively until there was no further change in the inhibitory activity, i.e., I(t) = I(t+1). The resulting steady-state activity of the inhibitory units was referred to as Iss. Consequently, at steady state, the input and output divisive factors in Equation 7 reduce to equation(8) iin=rin·Iss,iout=rout·Issiin=rin·Iss,iout=rout·Iss The single-stimulus-response functions of the inhibitory and excitatory units were unchanged from before. Before exploring the effect of reciprocal inhibition on output unit activity, we first analyzed its effect on the steady-state inhibitory activity. We plotted Iss for inhibitory unit 2 during a CRP measurement protocol, with an RF stimulus of strength 8°/s ( Figures S3A and S3B).

, 2010) The first step in the endocytic trafficking

of a

, 2010). The first step in the endocytic trafficking

of a 7TMR is its removal from the plasma membrane by packaging into an endocytic vesicle. Mammalian cells express multiple endocytic mechanisms (McMahon and Boucrot, 2011; Sandvig et al., 2011) that individual 7TMRs can potentially engage (Tsao and von Zastrow, 2001; Wolfe and Trejo, 2007). Many neuromodulatory 7TMRs are internalized by clathrin-coated pits (CCPs), which are complex and highly versatile endocytic machines capable of internalizing a wide variety of membrane cargoes in addition to 7TMRs (McMahon and Boucrot, 2011; Conner and Schmid, 2003). In studies that have carefully examined the endocytic process, 7TMRs primarily undergo activation-induced accumulation in previously formed CCPs and only rarely appear to initiate CCP formation on their own; accordingly, a major determinant of 7TMR endocytic see more rate is the degree to which receptors concentrate

in CCPs (Goodman et al., 1998; Puthenveedu and von Zastrow, 2006; Krupnick et al., 1997; Kang et al., 2009). For many neuromodulatory 7TMRs that undergo regulated endocytosis via CCPs, receptor concentration in them is stimulated by activation-induced phosphorylation of receptors followed by phosphorylation-promoted association of receptors with beta-arrestins, as reviewed previously elsewhere (Goodman et al., 1998; Gainetdinov et al., 2004). Beta-arrestins bind both to activated 7TMRs

and to components of the CCP (including clathrin heavy chain, the endocytic adaptor protein AP-2, and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate), Selleck SB203580 thereby functioning as regulated endocytic adaptors (Goodman et al., 1996; Laporte et al., 1999; Gaidarov et al., 1999). Beta-arrestins Ketanserin can associate with CCPs after assembly of major structural components has already occurred (Santini et al., 2000; Puthenveedu and von Zastrow, 2006), explaining how 7TMRs concentrate in CCPs after their formation and in the presence of other endocytic cargoes. While there is presently no evidence for 7TMR packaging into specialized CCPs a priori, 7TMRs can associate with pre-existing CCPs apparently in a cooperative manner, producing a receptor-enriched CCP subset, and their presence can influence the kinetics of subsequent CCP maturation events. This appears to be a means by which some 7TMRs, including beta-adrenergic catecholamine receptors (Puthenveedu and von Zastrow, 2006) and mu opioid neuropeptide receptors (Henry et al., 2012), locally modify the properties of their enclosing CCP after the fact. 7TMR clustering in previously formed CCPs has been directly demonstrated in neurons (Yu et al., 2010) but subsequent “customization” of CCP dynamics by locally accumulated 7TMRs has been shown only in nonneural cell models, and its functional significance remains largely unexplored in any system.

We then calculated the correlation coefficient between the observ

We then calculated the correlation coefficient between the observed

response pattern and the predicted response pattern. Note that the fine-scale orientation maps contain both a spatial response component and an orientation-tuning component. To investigate the contribution of these components, we also considered two reduced versions of the pooling model (see Experimental Procedures; Figure S5C). A space-only version was obtained by averaging across orientation at each BMS-354825 supplier fine-grid location. This model did not have any local orientation tuning. An orientation-only version was obtained by subtracting the space-only response from the measured data at each fine-grid location, leaving only orientation tuning. Thus, this model did not contain any local spatial information. The predicted response maps for two example neurons

(neurons II and III in Figures 2 and 3) are shown in Figure 7A (panels labeled “prediction”). Maps are shown for three different RF locations for each neuron. For the RF location marked “1”, the left panel shows the empirical data, while the other three panels show the predicted buy NVP-AUY922 responses from the full model and the two reduced models. Shown below the predicted response maps are the corresponding sections of the fine-scale orientation map, which were used to generate the predictions. To take the example of RF location 1 in neuron II, we can see clearly that the selectivity for medium-curvature shapes pointing upward arises from the layout of the fine-scale map; the middle location is tuned to horizontal elements, the upper-left location

mafosfamide is tuned to elements tilted 45 degrees counterclockwise, and the upper-right location is tuned to elements tilted 45 degrees clockwise (and also vertical). There is a close correspondence between the data and the predicted patterns both for the full model and the orientation-only model. The space-only model performed less well but still explained significant parts of the response (ρ=0.43ρ=0.43 for the space-only model versus ρ=0.58ρ=0.58 for the orientation-only model). Thus, both spatial and orientation components contribute giving the best correlation (ρ=0.67ρ=0.67) for the full model. Only the predictions of the full model are shown for RF locations “2” and “3”. The model correlations (full model only) at each spatially significant location are shown in the lower left panel of Figure 7A. In the case of example neuron III, the local orientation tuning was highly heterogeneous and most of its curvature selectivity could be explained by local spatial tuning alone. As seen for RF location 1, the largest responses occur for composite shapes whose ends fall in the upper part of the fine-scale grid where the spatial response is higher (i.e., on the RF boundary).