e, three meeting abstracts

were included in the analysis

e., three meeting abstracts

were included in the analysis for China and two in the analysis for Mexico). Seroprevalence using any type of HBsAg assay was allowed (complete criteria are described in Supporting Table 1). Fixed effect (FE) and random effects (RE) meta-analyses of HBsAg seroprevalence rates from studies that met the inclusion criteria were conducted to calculate country-specific pooled CHB prevalence rates. RE analysis, which assumes heterogeneity among surveys, was considered more appropriate based on the nature of the data: HBV was unevenly distributed and we expected different rates from different surveys carried out in different Z-IETD-FMK molecular weight populations in different locations at different times. FE analysis was conducted for comparison. Between-study heterogeneity was assessed for each country dataset using Cochran’s Q test

and the I2 statistic.14, 15 For most countries, data were insufficient for exploration of heterogeneity. Separate pooled rates were calculated for emigrants and for in-country populations for countries for which data were available, and results were compared using a Z test.15 Subgroup analyses were also done by decade of survey and by sex. For the 17 countries with at least 25 surveys, meta-regression analyses, based on the RE models using survey date as the covariate, Selleck Trametinib were done using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software (Biostat, Englewood, NJ). For a few countries with low HBsAg seroprevalence rates (e.g., Etoposide datasheet Japan, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, and northern and western European countries), rates from large, population-based studies were used instead of meta-analysis. Study-quality assessment was done for only a subset of the data (i.e.,

Bangladesh, China, India, Iran, Korea, Pakistan, Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam) to determine whether weighting based on study quality made a difference in the pooled prevalence rates. We developed a three-category scale (Supporting Table 2), scored each study, and calculated the pooled prevalence rates with and without the additional weighting factor, as described by Sutton et al.16 Flow of the systematic review is summarized by world region in Table 1. Results for individual countries are in Supporting Table 3. More than 17,500 articles were identified in PubMed searches; full text of 2,859 articles was assessed and data from 3,276 articles were entered into country-specific databases. In all, we found 1,373 articles reporting data meeting criteria for use in the meta-analyses. Many articles report data for more than one survey (e.g., pregnant women and military recruits) and these were entered separately. A total of 2,053 HBsAg seroprevalence surveys involving 18.6 million subjects were used in the meta-analyses (Table 2; Supporting Table 4).

Level C (possibly effective, ineffective, or harmful) rating requ

Level C (possibly effective, ineffective, or harmful) rating requires at least 2 convincing class III studies. Adapted with permission from Brainin et al. Guidance for the preparation of neurological management guidelines by EFNS scientific task forces—revised recommendations 2004. Eur J Neurol 2004;11:577-581. “
“Migraine is a common primary headache disorder occurring predominantly in a young,

relatively healthy population. There is a growing literature on associations between migraine, especially migraine with aura, and ischemic stroke as well as other vascular events. U0126 Migraine as a risk factor for vascular disease and connections between migraine and endothelial, structural, and genetic risk are reviewed. There may be an interaction between endothelial dysfunction and cortical spreading depression affecting risk. Patient education and treatment of modifiable risk factors may decrease future vascular events. “
“(Headache 2011;51:860-868) Migraine is a common, often disabling disorder associated with a significant personal and societal burden. The presence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may increase this disability substantially. Migraine and PTSD are both up to 3 times more common in women than in men. The divergence in prevalence rates of migraine and PTSD that occurs between the sexes after puberty suggests that gonadal hormones play an important role. In addition,

the preponderance of PTSD Belnacasan clinical trial in women may be related to their higher rates of interpersonal trauma, the most common cause of PTSD. However, recent data suggest that although the odds of PTSD are increased in both women and men with episodic migraine, PRKACG this association is stronger in men than women. In this paper, we examine the epidemiology of PTSD and migraine, with an emphasis on the known sex differences. We then discuss the neurobiological changes associated with PTSD, the current hypotheses for the mechanisms relating PTSD and migraine, and the treatment

implications of these findings. “
“Background.— In the absence of biological markers, the diagnosis of primary headache in epidemiological studies rests on clinical findings, as reported through ad-hoc interviews. Objectives.— The aim of this study was to validate a specially designed headache questionnaire to be administered by a physician for the diagnosis of primary headaches or of probable medication overuse headache in the general population according to the 2004 International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd edition (ICHD-II). Methods.— The questionnaire comprises 76 questions based on the ICHD-II diagnostic criteria for migraine (codes 1.1, 1.2.1, 1.2.2, 1.2.3, 1.5.1, and 1.6), tension-type headache (codes 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, and 2.4), primary stabbing headache (code 4.1), and probable medication-overuse headache (code 8.2.

Six such events have occurred in the Canary Islands but there hav

Six such events have occurred in the Canary Islands but there have been no reported mass strandings in Hawai‘i. We assess the hypothesis that factors that influence the likelihood of strandings occurring and/or being detected differ between the Canary and main Hawaiian Islands, such that beaked whale stranding/detection probabilities will be lower in Hawai‘i. On an archipelago-wide basis, nearshore Vorinostat bathymetric

comparisons indicate that the Canaries have a greater proportion and a total greater amount of appropriate beaked whale habitat closer to shore, with a steeper slope. Hawaiian shorelines are more dominated by steep cliffs, human population density is much lower, and human population per kilometer of shoreline is 53% lower than in the Canaries. All of these factors suggest that there is a higher probability of a carcass washing onshore and being detected in the Canary Islands. It cannot be concluded that the lack of mass strandings in Hawai‘i is evidence of no impact. “
“Walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) otoliths (n= 2,706) recovered check details from stomachs, small intestines, and colons of 43 northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) were evaluated for size and wear by location in the digestive tract. Pollock fork length was regressed on otolith length after correction for erosion, and age

was estimated from the calculated body size. Age-1+ pollock otoliths (≥6.3-mm length) were concentrated in stomachs while age-0 otoliths (≤6.2-mm length) were concentrated in colons. Less than 10% of otoliths were found in the small intestines. Pollock age decreased with progression along seal gastrointestinal tracts. Otolith quality increased along gastrointestinal tracts in numbers ≥20, which was typical of age-0 otoliths recovered from colons. Otolith distribution by age and quality along gastrointestinal tracts suggests that small (≤12 cm) schooling prey are consumed in large volume and passed as a bolus rapidly through the digestive tract before significant erosion of bony remains

Celecoxib occurs; while larger prey are eaten in smaller volume and subjected to otolith erosion due to longer retention in the stomach. Our results illustrate the importance of multiple sampling strategies to comprehensively represent prey size in pinniped diet. “
“Stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotopes are used frequently to describe the trophic ecology of top marine mammal predators. Australian sea lions (Neophoca cinerea) are one of the world’s rarest otariid seals and exhibit the highest levels of natal site philopatry of any seal. We report the development of a screening technique to identify different foraging ecotypes and assess their relative frequencies in Australian sea lion breeding colonies using stable isotope ratios in pups.

The study was conducted in accordance with local Institutional Re

The study was conducted in accordance with local Institutional Review Board regulations. We studied the following complications of ALI/ALF: hepatic encephalopathy, infection, systemic inflammatory response, renal failure, thrombosis, and bleeding. These complications were defined as follows: Hepatic encephalopathy was defined and graded according to West Haven criteria.[19]

Infection was defined as a positive urine culture, presence of a pulmonary FXR agonist infiltrate on chest X-ray consistent with infectious etiology, or a positive blood culture not felt to be a contaminant with a skin organism. More than one positive blood culture was required for bacteremia with commensal organisms. Systematic inflammatory response syndrome was defined according to established criteria[20]: white blood cell count >12 or <4 × 109 cells/L, temperature <36°C or >38°C, respiratory rate >20/minutes, and pulse >90 beats per minute. Renal failure was defined as persistent azotemia or oliguria despite rehydration requiring continuous veno-venous hemofiltration. Thrombosis was defined as occlusion of a native blood vessel or indwelling dialysis catheter. When occlusion of a native blood vessel was suspected on clinical grounds, these were confirmed by ultrasound or CT scanning. Bleeding

was defined as the presence of blood per naso-gastric tube, blood per rectum or endotracheal tube, or bleeding at the site of invasive procedure. Final outcomes of ALI/ALF were transplant-free survival, selleck chemicals llc orthotopic liver transplantation, or death. VWF antigen (VWF:Ag) levels were determined with an in-house

enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) assay using commercially available polyclonal antibodies against VWF (DAKO, Glostrup, Denmark). VWF ristocetin cofactor activity (VWF:RCo) was determined using the BC VWF-reagent (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics) on a Behring Coagulation System (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics). VWF:Ag and VWF:RCo levels of pooled normal plasma were set at 100% Casein kinase 1 and the values obtained in patient samples were expressed as a percentage of pooled normal plasma. VWF collagen binding activity was determined with an in-house ELISA assay as described.[8] The collagen-binding activity of pooled normal plasma was set at 100% and the activity measured in patient samples was expressed as a percentage of pooled normal plasma. VWF multimer analysis was performed by sodium dodecyl sulfate agarose gel electrophoresis followed by western blotting. The blots were incubated with rabbit anti-VWF antibody (DAKO) and goat anti-rabbit IRDye 800 CW (LI-COR Biosciences, Lincoln, NE). The first five bands were considered as low-molecular weight multimers, whereas other bands were considered as high molecular weight (HMW) multimers. The blots were scanned by the Odyssey Imager (Westburg, Leusden, The Netherlands) and were quantified by morphometric analysis using the ImageScope software package (Aperio, Vista, CA).

[6] Patients with HCV infection who undergo HSCT or systematic ch

[6] Patients with HCV infection who undergo HSCT or systematic chemotherapy including corticosteroids can experience severe hepatic dysfunction and fulminant hepatic failure (summarized in Table 2). 21 6 2 1 Corticosteroids have traditionally been associated with cases of HCV reactivation.[27, 36] HCV reactivation has been associated with several immunosuppressive and chemotherapeutic agents, including rituximab, alemtuzumab, bleomycin, busulfan, cisplatin, cyclophosphamide, cyclosporin, cytarabine, dacarbazine, doxorubicin, etoposide, gemcitabine, methotrexate, vinblastine and vincristine;[27, 37-44] however, many patients with HCV reactivation during

treatment with one of these drugs were simultaneously treated with corticosteroids.[38, 41, 42, 44, 45] In a study by Zuckerman et al.,[46] 18 of 33 (54%) patients had mild to moderate Adriamycin datasheet increases of ALT, which occurred 2–3 weeks after the withdrawal of chemotherapy. HCV positive patients did not demonstrate a higher incidence of severe hepatic dysfunction during chemotherapy for malignancies than HCV negative patients; however, liver test abnormalities during therapy are very GSI-IX in vivo common and are

seen in 54% HCV positive patients and in 36% HCV negative patients. Whether corticosteroid therapy alone or in combination with other agents leads to reactivation of HCV infection and acute exacerbation of chronic HCV infection remains to be determined. A Casein kinase 1 possible relationship between rituximab and HCV reactivation in patients with cancer has been reported.[41, 44, 45] Only the administration of rituximab-containing chemotherapy was associated with both acute exacerbation and reactivation of chronic HCV infection.[24] Ennishi et al. also showed that the incidence of severe hepatic toxicity in

HCV positive patients was significantly higher than in HCV negative patients, and HCV infection was determined to be a strong risk factor for this adverse effect in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) in the rituximab era.[44] These hepatic toxicities led to modification and discontinuation of immunochemotherapy, resulting in lymphoma progression. The study described that careful monitoring of hepatic function should be recommended for HCV positive patients, particularly those with high levels of pretreatment transaminase. More importantly, monitoring of HCV viral load demonstrated a marked enhancement of HCV replication, and it is suggested that increased HCV results in severe hepatic toxicity. Thus, HCV viral load should be carefully monitored in HCV positive patients who receive immunochemotherapy. The health consensus regarding HCV reactivation seems to be less severe than that of HBV reactivation (summarized in Table 3).

[6] Patients with HCV infection who undergo HSCT or systematic ch

[6] Patients with HCV infection who undergo HSCT or systematic chemotherapy including corticosteroids can experience severe hepatic dysfunction and fulminant hepatic failure (summarized in Table 2). 21 6 2 1 Corticosteroids have traditionally been associated with cases of HCV reactivation.[27, 36] HCV reactivation has been associated with several immunosuppressive and chemotherapeutic agents, including rituximab, alemtuzumab, bleomycin, busulfan, cisplatin, cyclophosphamide, cyclosporin, cytarabine, dacarbazine, doxorubicin, etoposide, gemcitabine, methotrexate, vinblastine and vincristine;[27, 37-44] however, many patients with HCV reactivation during

treatment with one of these drugs were simultaneously treated with corticosteroids.[38, 41, 42, 44, 45] In a study by Zuckerman et al.,[46] 18 of 33 (54%) patients had mild to moderate Selumetinib in vitro increases of ALT, which occurred 2–3 weeks after the withdrawal of chemotherapy. HCV positive patients did not demonstrate a higher incidence of severe hepatic dysfunction during chemotherapy for malignancies than HCV negative patients; however, liver test abnormalities during therapy are very Small Molecule Compound Library common and are

seen in 54% HCV positive patients and in 36% HCV negative patients. Whether corticosteroid therapy alone or in combination with other agents leads to reactivation of HCV infection and acute exacerbation of chronic HCV infection remains to be determined. A ID-8 possible relationship between rituximab and HCV reactivation in patients with cancer has been reported.[41, 44, 45] Only the administration of rituximab-containing chemotherapy was associated with both acute exacerbation and reactivation of chronic HCV infection.[24] Ennishi et al. also showed that the incidence of severe hepatic toxicity in

HCV positive patients was significantly higher than in HCV negative patients, and HCV infection was determined to be a strong risk factor for this adverse effect in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) in the rituximab era.[44] These hepatic toxicities led to modification and discontinuation of immunochemotherapy, resulting in lymphoma progression. The study described that careful monitoring of hepatic function should be recommended for HCV positive patients, particularly those with high levels of pretreatment transaminase. More importantly, monitoring of HCV viral load demonstrated a marked enhancement of HCV replication, and it is suggested that increased HCV results in severe hepatic toxicity. Thus, HCV viral load should be carefully monitored in HCV positive patients who receive immunochemotherapy. The health consensus regarding HCV reactivation seems to be less severe than that of HBV reactivation (summarized in Table 3).

However, little else is known about the initial signaling events

However, little else is known about the initial signaling events that facilitate the transduction of mechanical stimuli. In

the present study using the red tide dinoflagellate Lingulodinium polyedrum (Stein) Dodge, two forms of dinoflagellate bioluminescence, mechanically stimulated and spontaneous flashes, were used as reporter systems to pharmacological treatments that targeted various predicted signaling events at the plasma membrane level of the signaling pathway. Pretreatment with 200 μM Gadolinium III (Gd3+), a nonspecific blocker of stretch-activated and some selleck inhibitor voltage-gated ion channels, resulted in strong inhibition of both forms of bioluminescence. Pretreatment with 50 μM nifedipine, an inhibitor of L-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channels that inhibits mechanically stimulated bioluminescence, did not inhibit spontaneous bioluminescence. Treatment with 1 mM benzyl alcohol, a membrane fluidizer, was very effective in stimulating Nutlin-3a manufacturer bioluminescence. Benzyl alcohol-stimulated bioluminescence was inhibited by Gd3+ but not by nifedipine, suggesting that its role is through stretch activation via a change in plasma membrane fluidity. These results are consistent with the presence of stretch-activated and voltage-gated

ion channels in the bioluminescence mechanotransduction signaling pathway, with spontaneous flashing associated with a stretch-activated component at the plasma membrane. “
“Molecular studies have shown that

New Zealand’s rocky shores are a habitat for >30 species of Porphyra, but little is known of their seasonal and zonal distribution. The spatial and temporal distribution of bladed Porphyra gametophytes at Brighton Beach, southeast New Zealand, were monitored for 32 months. Molecular markers were used for species identification, and Bay 11-7085 a total of nine species was observed as being present during this time. Two species, P. cinnamomea and Porphyra sp. “ROS 54,” were the most common, and both were present for most months, while the remaining seven species were present sporadically, for only a few weeks at a time. P. cinnamomea W. A. Nelson and Porphyra sp. “ROS 54” were most common in the midintertidal, and both showed a similar seasonality with the highest presence during spring. They also showed a similar trend of seasonal dieback resulting in at least 1 month (May) in two consecutive years when they were both absent. This is one of the few studies investigating spatial and temporal distribution within a genus and over a 3-year period. Our results show no distinct intertidal zonation patterns within the genus, and we conclude that morphologically similar species in a similar habitat rely on physiological mechanisms for survival. “
“Molecular analyses of bacteria associated with photosynthetic organisms are often confounded by coamplification of the chloroplastidial 16S rDNA with the targeted bacterial 16S rDNA.

In species where fertility is low, the looping dissimilarities be

In species where fertility is low, the looping dissimilarities between phases cannot be too high favoring simultaneously one phase, as the population structure would be completely dominated by that phase. In the case of ecological similarity between phases (equal looping and growth rates between phases), a ploidy ratio different from one can only be set by strong phase differences in fertility.


“A phycocyanin (PC) and three allophycocyanin (AP) components (designated PC, AP1, AP2, and AP3) were prepared from Myxosarcina concinna Printz phycobilisomes by the native gradient PAGE performed in a neutral buffer system combined with the ion exchange column chromatography on DEAE-DE52 cellulose. PC contained one β subunit () and two α ones ( and ), and it carried two MAPK inhibitor rod linkers ( and ) and one rod-core linker (). AP1 and AP3 were characterized as peripheral core APs, whereas AP2 was DMXAA datasheet an inner-core one. AP2 and AP3 were demonstrated to function as the terminal emitters. Each of the three APs contained two β subunits ( and ), two α subunits ( and ) and an inner-core linker (). AP2 and AP3

had another subunit of the allophycocyanin B (AP-B) type () belonging to the β subunit group, and AP1 and AP3 carried their individual specific core linkers ( and ), respectively. No AP component was shown to associate with Staurosporine in vitro the core-membrane linker LCM. The functions of the linker polypeptides in the phycobilisome (PBS) construction are discussed. “
“To study the effect of different radiation conditions on sporogenesis of Laminaria digitata (Huds.) J. V. Lamour., excised disks were induced to form sporangia under PAR (P), PAR + ultraviolet-A

(UVA) (PA), and PAR + UVA + ultraviolet-B (UVB) (PAB) conditions in the laboratory. Vitality of meiospores, released from sori induced under different radiation conditions in the laboratory and from sori of wild sporophytes acclimated to in situ solar radiation in the presence and absence of ultraviolet radiation (UVR), was measured in terms of their germination capacity. Sorus induction in disks of laboratory-grown sporophytes was not hampered under light supplemented with UVR, and sorus area was not significantly different among P, PA, and PAB. Vitality and germination rate of meiospores released from sori induced under different radiation treatments was comparable. Likewise, screening of UVR of the natural solar radiation did not promote higher germination rates of meiospores released from wild sporophytes. Germination rates were, however, higher in meiospores released from laboratory-induced sori compared to sori of wild sporophytes.

2A) As expected, messenger RNA levels of Ink4a and Arf were 21-

2A). As expected, messenger RNA levels of Ink4a and Arf were 2.1-fold and 8.0-fold higher in freshly purified Bmi1−/− Dlk+ cells than in wild-type Dlk+ cells, respectively. Colonies derived from Bmi1−/− Dlk+ cells also showed increased (5.8-fold greater) expression compared to the wild-type colonies. To determine whether Bmi1 is involved in transcriptional regulation of the Ink4a/Arf locus, we performed chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays using wild-type selleck inhibitor Dlk+ cells. ChIP

assays demonstrated the binding of Bmi1 to the Ink4a/Arf locus and increased levels of monoubiquitinylated histone H2A (H2Aub1) (Fig. 2B). To understand the role of the Ink4a and Arf genes in hepatic stem cells, we next analyzed Ink4a/Arf−/− Dlk+ cells in culture. In clear contrast with Bmi1−/− Dlk+ cells, Ink4a/Arf−/− Dlk+ cells showed pronounced growth activity in culture. The number of large colonies (consisting of more than 100 cells) derived from Ink4a/Arf−/− Dlk+ cells was significantly increased compared to that derived from wild-type Dlk+ cells (Fig. 3A,B). By day 14 of culture, Ink4a/Arf−/− Dlk+ cells gave rise to distinctly abnormal and large colonies compared to wild-type Dlk+ cells (Fig. 3B,C). More learn more than 95% of large colonies from Ink4a/Arf−/−

Dlk+ cells further expanded beyond day 21 of culture, although wild-type colonies barely maintained their growth activity (Fig. 3A). Immunocytochemical analyses showed an increase in the proportion and number of Alb+CK7+ bipotent cells in colonies derived from Ink4a/Arf−/− Dlk+ cells, particularly in their central area (Fig. 3C). The absolute number of bipotent cells in large colonies derived from wild-type and Ink4a/Arf−/− Dlk+ cells at day 7 of culture was 8.2 ± 2.3 versus 22.7 ± 4.6 (P < 0.05) (Fig. 3D). Flow cytometric analyses revealed that the percentage of Dlk+ cells in wild-type colonies

was 0.9% ± 0.2% at day 7 and 0.5% ± 0.1% at day 14 of culture, although that 4-Aminobutyrate aminotransferase in Ink4a/Arf−/− colonies was 8.6% ± 0.7% and 4.5% ± 0.3%, respectively (Fig. 3E). These findings indicate the enhanced self-renewal capability of hepatic stem cells on the loss of Ink4a/Arf expression. Of note, messenger RNA expression of Bmi1 was comparable between wild-type and Ink4a/Arf−/− Dlk+ cells (data not shown). As expected, but importantly, the ability of wild-type Dlk+ cells to propagate colonies was extremely compromised by cotransduction with Ink4a and Arf retroviruses. Immunocytochemical analyses and flow cytometric analyses showed that the Dlk+ fraction and bipotent cells were significantly reduced in culture (Supporting Fig. 4). We previously reported that forced expression of Bmi1 enhances the self-renewal capacity of hepatic stem/progenitor cells and eventually induces their transformation.

15-17 Individuals with a C/C genotype were more likely to achieve

15-17 Individuals with a C/C genotype were more likely to achieve an RVR and an SVR than patients who carry the T allele. However, not all patients with a C/C genotype achieve an RVR and an SVR, and not all patients with

a T allele are slow responders. Overall, approximately 50% of patients with a C/C genotype achieved an RVR and, regardless of the on-treatment response, approximately 83% of those with an EoT response achieved an SVR. Among patients with a T allele, approximately 16% achieved an RVR and the overall SVR rate in those with an EoT response was 72%. Although a much higher proportion of patients with a C/C genotype achieved an RVR compared with carriers of a T allele, SVR rates were similar

DAPT nmr Carfilzomib in vivo in patients with an RVR regardless of genotype. Interestingly, among patients with an RVR the majority of those with a C/C genotype (64%) had a baseline HCV RNA level ≥400,000 IU/mL and the majority of those with a T allele (79%) had a baseline HCV RNA level <400,000 IU/mL. This is consistent with previous reports that patients with C/C genotype have higher mean viral loads than patients who carry a T allele.13, 17 These findings confirm that achievement of an RVR at week 4 is the best predictor of SVR in patients receiving pegylated interferon plus ribavirin therapy.24 Although IL28B genotype is the best pretreatment predictor of SVR, the addition of this variable results in, at best, marginal improvement in the positive predictive value of RVR for SVR.24 The IL28B polymorphism explains only part of the response to interferon-based therapies. It has recently been suggested that increased expression of interferon-stimulated genes is a better predictor of nonresponse than IL28B polymorphism alone.25,

26 Thus, there may be scope to further improve the ability to predict response before treatment is initiated. The results suggest that extension of treatment to 72 weeks in HCV genotype 1 and 4 patients with a slow response may decrease relapse rates in patients Methamphetamine who carry a T allele, whereas patients with a C/C genotype derived little benefit from treatment extension. Relapse rate was the primary endpoint of the parent study. Calculation of SVR rates by ITT analysis is difficult because patients not completing the assigned treatment had to be considered treatment failures. As in the parent study, by ITT analysis, lower relapse rates did not result in significantly higher SVR rates. Indeed, when the data were subjected to an ITT analysis the SVR rates were actually lower in patients with a C/C genotype who achieved an EVR but no RVR and were randomized to extended treatment (52.2% versus 70.4% in those randomized to 48 weeks). This suggests that the higher withdrawal rate with extended therapy (with patients being imputed as SVR failures) is not offset by an increased SVR rate in C/C patients.