This specie is cultivated in subtropical or warm temperate region

This specie is cultivated in subtropical or warm temperate regions. In countries like Colombia and New Zealand, it is a commercial crop for export. In Brazil, it is found mainly in house gardens or in small crops.

Tamarillo types are distinguished according to their fruit skin colors: solid deep-purple, blood-red, orange or yellow, or red-and-yellow, and may have faint dark, longitudinal stripes. The ripe fruit is ovoid in shape and smooth-skinned. It has a length of 4–10 cm, a diameter of 3–5 cm, see more and contains many small seeds; it elicits a slightly sour and astringent taste with a delicate and characteristic aroma and is generally consumed fresh or used in various culinary preparations such as salads, sauces, soups, jellies, ice creams, juices and liqueurs (Morton, 1987). The exotic fruit is low in fat and calories and has high nutritional value providing significant amounts of micronutrients such as vitamins, minerals and bioactive components such as anthocyanins, carotenoids and

flavonoids (Osorio et al., 2012). The levels of vitamins B6, C and E and the levels of trace elements such as iron, magnesium, copper and potassium present in one tamarillo fruit may supply over 5% of the RDI (recommended daily intake) of these nutrients (Lister, Morrison, Kerkhofs, & Wright, 2005). In folk medicine, the leaves and fruits of tamarillo are used in the treatment of sore throat, inflamed tonsils and gums (Bohs, 1989). However, there are no studies TAM Receptor inhibitor seeking to identify the components of tamarillo responsible for these apparent anti-inflammatory and analgesic actions. With respect to the content of carbohydrates, the fruits of tamarillo contain low levels of sugars (fructose, glucose and sucrose) compared to other SPTLC1 tropical fruits and they contain approximately 3% of fiber (Boyes & Strubi, 1997). However, there are no reports in the literature concerning the structure

of the polysaccharides present in this tropical exotic fruit. In this context, we describe here the chemical structure and an evaluation of the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of a galactoarabinoglucuronoxylan polysaccharide isolated from the edible pulp of tamarillo (S. betaceum) fruits. Ripe fruits of S. betaceum, orange type ( Fig. 1A), were collected in the town of Prudentópolis (25°12′17″ S; 50°59′12″ W), State of Paraná (PR), Brazil. A voucher specimen was deposited in the UPCB (Herbarium of the Federal University of Paraná), registration number 72896. Quantification of total lipid was performed by sequential extraction through Soxhlet apparatus, employing chloroform–methanol (1:1) as solvent. Fractions STK-1000R and PF were carboxy-reduced by the carbodiimide method (Taylor & Conrad, 1972), using NaBH4 as the reducing agent, giving products with the –COOH groups of the uronic acid residues reduced to –CH2OH.

19 It is characterized by a tender mass in the breast, mimicking

19 It is characterized by a tender mass in the breast, mimicking ABT-199 ic50 the clinical and radiological features of carcinoma. In addition to TB, leprous, and bacterial infections such as brucella, fungal infections, and parasitic infections, and foreign substance reactions may also lead to granulomatous mastitis.20, 21 and 22 IGM may be seen in women aged between 17 and 82, with a mean occurrence age of 30–34.20, 21, 22 and 23 Even though some previous studies have claimed that IGM develops within 2 years after childbirth and is associated with nursing, oral contraceptive use, and hyperprolactinemia, these

are not valid for all cases.24 and 25 For the IGM diagnosis to be made, it is imperative that all other granulomatous mastitis reasons, primarily TB, be excluded after the detection of granulomatous inflammation in the histopathological examination.22 Complete resection or corticosteroid therapy can be recommended as the optimal treatment. Since 38% of patients experience recurrence, long-term follow-up is indicated.26 Our case had no history of childbirth, nursing, oral contraceptive use, hyperprolactinemia within 2 years. Breast tissue biopsy revealed noncaseating lobular granulomas with no evidence

of malignancy. Serum tumour marker levels were normal. Tissue, sputum and bronchial lavage samples AFB and TB cultures were negative. All other laboratory PLX3397 concentration findings and abdominal and neck US examinations were normal. PPD was negative. Despite of all eltoprazine examinations, there could not be found any finding related with TB, fungal disease, parasitary disease, and other diseases causing granulomatous lesions. This case was suggested IGM. During 9 months follow-up breast tissue US was normal. In countries with high incidence of TB, TB is considered firstly in differential diagnosis of granulomatous diseases. Detailed anamnesis and physical examinations should be done in differential diagnosis of granulomatous diseases, and TB must be excluded.

So unnecessary drug use and treatment costs, drug side affect can be prevented. All authors have read and approved the final manuscript and also that the manuscript has not been published and is not being considered for publication elsewhere. We did not take any financial support or supplies in this study. We did not have any commercial or proprietary interest in any drug, device, or equipment. We did not have any financial interest. “
“Researchers have presented article on differences between NSIP and UIP (Unspecific Interstitial Pneumonia) in this Journal’s number 3 issue 4 of year 2008 that were contributed probably to more severe inflammatory condition in NSIP compared to UIP. In this article also, more significant difference in HRCT findings between NSIP and UIP were discussed which can differentiate these two cases from each other. Review by ATS/ERS on interstitial lung diseases, distinguishes NSIP and HP as separate entities.

Strawberry fruit (Fragaria

Strawberry fruit (Fragaria AT13387 research buy x ananassa Duch.), cv. Camarosa, were harvested from a commercial plantation located in Pelotas (Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil), at five developmental stages based on fruit colour and weight: 1 (green, 3.0 g ± 0.9), 2 (white, 8.6 g ± 0.5), 3 (50% red, 14.2 g ± 0.7), 4 (75% red, 16.6 g ± 1.0) and 5 (red, 16.2 g ± 1.2). From each developmental stage three experimental units of approximately

60 strawberries were collected. Half of an experimental unit was immediately utilised for firmness determination and the remaining was frozen and stored at −80 °C for further analysis. Firmness was measured using a texture analyser (Texture Analyzer, TA.XT plus, Stable Micro Systems Texture Technologies) fitted with a 2 mm (diameter) flat probe.

Each fruit was penetrated 50% at a speed of 1.0 mm s−1 and the maximum force developed during the test was recorded. Three measurements were taken per fruit at different points of the equatorial zone and 30 berries at each stage were assayed. Results were expressed in Newtons (N). Total anthocyanin content was determined according to the method described by Lees and Francis (1972). One gram of strawberry ground to screening assay a powder in liquid nitrogen was suspended in 25 ml of acidic ethanol (0.01% HCl), for 1 h in the dark. Absorbance readings were performed in a spectrophotometer at 520 nm. Anthocyanin content was expressed Loperamide as mg of cyanidin-3-glucoside per 100 g of fruit fresh weight (fw). Total phenolic compounds were determined using the Folin–Ciocalteau reagent. One gram of ground flesh

was suspended in 60 ml of deionized water and 5 ml of Folin–Ciocalteau reagent. After eight minutes, the solution was neutralised with 20 ml of a saturated sodium carbonate solution and kept in the dark for 2 h. Absorbance was measured at 725 nm and results were expressed as mg of gallic acid equivalents per 100 g of fruit fw (mg GAE 100 g−1 fw). Ascorbic acid was measured using a reverse-phase HPLC (high-performance liquid chromatography), according to Vinci, Botre, Mele, and Ruggieri (1995). Total AA was extracted with metaphosphoric acid (1% w/v) and analysed in a Shimadzu HPLC system, using a Shim-Pak CLC-ODS column (3.9 cm × 150 mm × 4 μm), coupled to a UV SPD-10AV detector. The mobile phase consisted of 0.1% acetic acid in water (A), and methanol (B). An elution gradient started at 100% A, then linearly reduced to 98% of A and 2% B after five minutes; then held for two minutes and returned to the initial conditions at ten minutes. Flow rate was 0.8 ml min−1 and the detector was set at 254 nm. Quantification was based on an external standard calibration curve using l-(+)-ascorbic acid (Sigma–Aldrich).

In order to use the mink as a sentinel, it is important that it h

In order to use the mink as a sentinel, it is important that it has the ability to accumulate pollutants. In the literature, data on mink exposure to pollutants Selleck Pembrolizumab such as chlorinated chemicals is quite extensive, especially from North America as reviewed by Basu et al. (2007). However, only a handful of studies have been made regarding exposure of PFAAs to wild mink (Giesy and Kannan, 2001, Kannan et al., 2002b, Kannan et al., 2005 and Martin et al., 2004a), and among those, only Martin and co-workers (Martin et al., 2004a) analyzed long-chain PFCAs. There is no study on mink addressing the exposure of PFBS. In order to evaluate the mink as a suitable

sentinel specifically for PFAAs in the environment, more information is needed regarding the pattern of PFAA contamination in mink. Environmental and biological factors are important to consider when assessing contamination related effects, temporal and spatial trends and trophic transfer. Taking such factors into account is important in exposure assessment and in study designs. For example, we have shown earlier that, in wild male mink from Sweden, almost half of the variation in the concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls PI3K inhibitor in fat could be explained by age, sampling area, sampling season and body condition (Persson et al., 2013). Taking such factors into account is therefore needed in any assessment of the exposure, and it could also have implications on sampling regime.

Therefore, this study aims to quantify the concentrations of PFBS, perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), PFOS, PFOA, perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluoroundecanoic

acid (PFUnDA), perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoDA) and perfluorotridecanoic acid (PFTrA) in wild male mink from Sweden, and SSR128129E investigate relationships between the concentrations and age, body condition, body weight, sampling area and sampling season. Mink were collected by local hunters in Sweden each year between 2004 and 2009, from August to the end of April. One hundred and one male mink were sampled in four different areas: two inland areas and two coastal areas. A map of sample area locations can be found in Supplementary data. The Gävle Baltic coast (G; n = 25) is a brackish water environment nearby two towns (70,000 and 12,000 inhabitants), fairly large industries and the mouths of the Dalälven and Ljusnan rivers. The Koster Islands in Skagerrak (K; n = 26) is a sea water environment (partly a national park) about 8 km off the Swedish coast in the North sea, close to the Norwegian border. The Märsta inland region (M; n = 25) with high anthropogenic impact by industrial and agricultural activities located next to a town with 25,000 inhabitants, a large international airport and the former training camp of the Swedish Rescue Services Agency. The inland of Northern Sweden (N; n = 25) is a sparsely populated inland environment with few industries and low agricultural activity.

Pretzsch and Dursky (2001), for example, found a temporal trend w

Pretzsch and Dursky (2001), for example, found a temporal trend with an overestimation in the first half of the century and an underestimation in the last half of the century. Also, hypothesized climate change recommends a test for temporal bias (Sterba and Monserud, 1997). Ideally, Selleckchem KPT330 models should be based on data that can be regarded as the climatic mean for the evaluation period. Previous studies

showed that temporal bias is smallest in the period that overlaps with the parameterization period (Sterba and Monserud, 1997). Temporal bias can be exceedingly high if the evaluation period is shorter than 10–15 years (Pretzsch, 2002). Inferring from the data used for model fitting, temporal bias should be very small for the growth models Silva and BWIN, which were fit from long term research plots. Growth rates in

these models can be interpreted as the long term climatic mean. In contrast, Prognaus was fit from a relatively short period, and temporal bias could be prevalent. The evaluation period of this study of 15–30 years should be sufficiently long to avoid excessive temporal bias. Spatial bias also frequently occurs (Sterba and Monserud, 1997, Schmid et al., 2006 and Froese and Robinson, 2007). Deviations are caused by site-specific variation not captured in the model (Sterba and Monserud, 1997). For example, this can be due to regionally variable trends between elevation and prediction accuracy or different ownership not accounted for by the model (Froese and Robinson, 2007). Spatial bias is an important problem, where the data used for model fitting are not spatially representative. It is the strength of inventory data to be spatially representative for a study area because national inventories are usually systematic samples covering the full range of conditions. Spatial bias is expected to be high for growth models fit from permanent research plots, because permanent research plots are often clustered

at lower elevations on good sites; they rarely are representative of the site variation across a region. Spatial bias should therefore be relatively small for Prognaus, but higher for BWIN, Moses and Silva. This seems to be confirmed by evaluation results by Schmid et al. (2006). They found that Silva correctly predicted many growth within the range of the parameterization data up to an elevation of about 1000 m, whereas at higher elevations there were notable deviations. In addition to temporal and spatial deviations, other trends can be found in the evaluation data set. Often deviations with respect to size are found. In agreement with our results, most frequently there is an over-prediction for small trees and an under-prediction for larger trees (Sterba et al., 2001, Schmid et al., 2006, Froese and Robinson, 2007 and Mette et al., 2009).

Furthermore, potential competition between providers may lead to

Furthermore, potential competition between providers may lead to the lowering of access conditions. In the second case, providers may lose benefits as it is often difficult to bilaterally monitor the long processes of R&D and commercialization. As a result, providers may start restricting legal access to genetic

resources in order to minimize the assumed lost benefits (Winter, 2013). To alleviate these concerns, the ‘common pool’ approach has been proposed as more suitable, especially for genetic resources used by the find more agriculture and forestry sectors (e.g., Halewood et al., 2013b and Winter, 2013). Under this concept, genetic resources are provided for common use and the R&D benefits are shared between providers and users. A special feature of common pools is that different stakeholders often act both as providers and users in contributing (resources or results) to the R&D process. Common pools, such as farmers’ seed exchange systems or networks of collections or databases, can operate at local, national or international levels, and they are often regulated by participating actors rather than states (Winter, 2013). The International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (ITPGRFA),

which entered into force in September 2004, is a rare example of a common pool approach that has been given an international legal framework. However, the common Etoposide nmr Masitinib (AB1010) pool approach is also not flawless; some actors may enjoy the common benefits without sharing their genetic resources or the results of their R&D work, if the rules of engagement are unclear or if they are not properly enforced (Halewood et al., 2013b). The provisions of the Nagoya Protocol do not apply for those genetic resources that are covered by a specialized international ABS instrument such as the ITPGRFA, which was designed for major food crops and forages. This has led to discussion on whether the ITPGRFA

could be extended to cover other plant species or, alternatively, whether one or more new sector-specific ABS instruments should be negotiated to cover the genetic resources of aquatic species, farm animals, forest trees and micro-organisms and invertebrates. Article 4 of the Nagoya Protocol allows the Parties to develop and implement specialized ABS agreements, provided that they are supportive of the CBD and the Nagoya Protocol. However, it takes years to develop such specialized ABS agreements. Therefore, once the Nagoya Protocol enters into force, it will set the ABS framework for the genetic resources of non-crop species including forest trees. The direct impacts of the Nagoya Protocol on the forestry sector’s R&D work are likely to be immediate and significant. The first problem is the entry into force of the Protocol before all signatory countries have created a fully functional ABS regulatory system.

Thus, on a per locus basis, sequencing of haplotypes of close SNP

Thus, on a per locus basis, sequencing of haplotypes of close SNPs can yield more information than sequencing a single SNP. The question is whether a sufficient number of appropriate haplotype loci can be identified. The value of a locus for identifying familial MEK inhibitor side effects relationships, i.e., lineage informativeness, is related to the number of alleles in the relevant population [26]. Multiple alleles make it less likely two unrelated individuals share both alleles by chance. The more heterozygous a locus, the greater is the chance that the

relevant alleles are uncommon in general but more likely to be found among close relatives than among random or unrelated individuals. More reliable inferences about the degree of relatedness of two individuals are possible if more markers are used. In their review, Weir et al. [26] concluded “It seems that 50 SNPs are insufficient and that 200 SNPs or more will be needed to characterize relatedness.”

For large datasets containing many hundreds of DNA markers quite sophisticated methods of inferring familial relationships have been developed [27]. However, smaller numbers of loci can be used if the loci are sufficiently Lumacaftor nmr heterozygous with multiple alleles. The standard set of CODIS STRPs can be quite useful in this regard because of their multiple alleles but currently they are most reliably genotyped using capillary electrophoresis (CE) while new technology argues for DNA sequencing as a general platform for all forensically relevant markers. Our objective is to validate the use of sequencing for familial searching (and other forensic questions) by identifying a large number of SNP-based, multi-allelic haplotype loci that can be typed by DNA sequencing. To

be appropriate for determining phase by sequencing, we are currently focusing on microhaplotype loci (microhaps) Teicoplanin with extents of 200 base pairs (bp) or less. The potential value of microhaplotypes [23] and [28] and the new results presented here document our progress to find, select, and validate microhaplotype loci for forensic work. A minimum criterion for a microhaplotype locus is at least three haplotypes (alleles) within a region smaller than 200 bp. We have arbitrarily used 200 bp as a current upper limit; this is within the current read length of “desktop” sequencers such as the Ion Torrent PGM sequencer. Regions with a recombination hot spot within that 200 bp must be excluded but very rare historical recombination events will not detract from the general ability to assume identity by descent within a family.

dexamethasone on lung mechanics and histology, inflammation, and

dexamethasone on lung mechanics and histology, inflammation, and apoptosis in the lung and distal organs in CLP-induced sepsis. The possible mechanisms

of action of both agents were also investigated, focusing on oxidative stress (nuclear factor E2-related factor 2, GPx, CAT, iNOS, and SOD expression in lung tissue) and levels of interleukin (IL)-6, KC and IL-10 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). This study was approved by the local Animal Care Committee and conducted in compliance with the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC). Seventy-eight male BALB/c mice (20–25 g) were kept under specific pathogen-free conditions and a 12-h light/dark cycle in the Laboratory of Pulmonary Investigation animal care facility. All animals were randomly assigned to two groups. In the

control group (C), mice were subjected to sham surgery, while in the CLP group, cecal ligation and puncture was performed. Briefly, animals were anesthetized with ketamine (65 mg/kg, intraperitoneally [i.p.]) and xylazine (30 mg/kg, i.p.) and a midline laparotomy (2-cm incision) was performed. The cecum was carefully isolated to prevent damage to blood vessels. A 3-0 cotton ligature was placed below the ileocecal valve to prevent bowel obstruction. Finally, the cecum was punctured once with an 18-gauge needle and the animals left to recover from anesthesia (Oliveira et al., 2009 and Chao et al., 2010). In sham surgery, the abdominal cavity was opened and the cecum was isolated without ligation and puncture. The animals received subcutaneous injections of 1 mL of warm (37 °C) saline and Enzalutamide purchase tramadol hydrochloride (20 mg/kg, i.p.). Both groups were further randomized to receive saline solution (SAL, 0.1 mL, i.p.), oleanolic acid (OA, 10 mg/kg, i.p.), or dexamethasone (DEXA, 1 mg/kg, i.p.) 1 h after sham or CLP surgery. Thirty-six mice (n = 6 per group) were selected for assessment of lung mechanics and histology; cell apoptosis in lung, kidney, BCKDHA liver, and intestine samples; and measurement of CAT, GPx, iNOS, Nrf2 and SOD mRNA expression. The remaining

42 animals (n = 7/group) were subjected to the same protocol described above to obtain BALF aliquots for analysis. 24 h after sham or CLP surgery, animals were sedated (diazepam, 1 mg/kg, i.p.), anesthetized (thiopental sodium, 20 mg/kg, i.p.), tracheotomized, paralyzed (vecuronium bromide, 0.005 mg/kg, intravenously), and ventilated with a constant flow ventilator (Samay VR15; Universidad de la Republica, Montevideo, Uruguay) using the following settings: respiratory frequency 100 breaths min−1, tidal volume (VT) 0.2 mL, and fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) 0.21. A positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) of 2 cm H2O was applied and the anterior chest wall was surgically removed. After a 10-min ventilation period, static lung elastance (Est,L) was measured by the end-inflation occlusion method (Bates et al., 1985).

Modern research suggested that herbal medicines could be used as

Modern research suggested that herbal medicines could be used as adjuvants for cancer symptom management and cancer therapeutics [44] and [45]. To explore the potential role of AG in colorectal cancer chemoprevention, it is necessary to integrate existing traditional knowledge of diseases with modern biomedical technologies [46]. Data reported in this study suggested that AG, as a candidate of botanical-based colon cancer chemoprevention, should be further investigated for its potential clinical utility. The authors have no potential conflicts of interest. This work was supported in part by the National Institutes of Health/National

Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NIH/NCCAM) grants P01 AT 004418 and K01 AT005362, the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province (BK2008194), Jiangsu Overseas

Pifithrin-�� price Research and Training Program for University Prominent Young and Middle-aged Teachers and Presidents, Science and Technology Project of the Department of Traditional Chinese Medicines in Jiangsu Province (LZ11163), China. “
“Glucocorticoids (GCs) are used most extensively as anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive TSA HDAC chemical structure drugs to treat a variety of diseases such as inflammation, cancer, and autoimmune disorders. However, protracted usage or a large dose of GC may be the main reason of osteoporosis. GCs have been reported to exhibit detrimental effects on the proliferation and function of osteoblasts. For example, dexamethasone Leukocyte receptor tyrosine kinase (Dex), a synthetic GC hormone, has been described to inhibit the synthesis of both fibronectin and collagen, as well as stimulating collagenase synthesis [1] and [2]. Evidence has shown that GCs induce apoptosis in both bone and cartilage, causing excessive or premature loss of osteoblast precursors, osteocytes,

and articular and growth plate chondrocytes [3]. The mechanism of GC-induced apoptotic cell death is not elucidated. Weinstein et al [4] demonstrated that prednisone increases the rate of apoptosis in both osteoblasts and osteocytes in adult mice. Gohel et al [5] also reported that corticosterone induces apoptosis in rat and mouse osteoblasts by decreasing the Bcl2/Bax ratio. In addition, Chua et al [6] showed that Dex-induced apoptosis is involved in the activation of several types of caspase genes. All these effects lead to decreased bone formation, ultimately causing bone disease and osteoporosis [7]. For over 2,000 years, ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) has been regarded as the most important herbal medicine traditionally in East Asia. Currently, ginseng is one of the extensively used botanical products in the world [8]. It is associated with intrinsic attributes such as antioxidant, anticancer, antidiabetic, and antiadipogenic activities [9] and [10]. Few studies have investigated the antiosteoporotic activity of ginseng [11].

In the case of Polynesia, the Caribbean, and the Channel Islands,

In the case of Polynesia, the Caribbean, and the Channel Islands, human transformation of island ecosystems began at initial colonization and often accelerated

through time as populations grew and human activities intensified. The maritime agriculturalists that occupied Polynesia and the Caribbean often had a similar pattern of occupation with early records documenting significant anthropogenic burning and landscape clearance, a new suite of intentionally and accidentally introduced plants and animals that were part of transported landscapes, followed by soil erosion and later highly Tanespimycin clinical trial managed anthropogenic landscapes. The pattern identified in these two island regions is similar to the records of islands in the North Atlantic occupied by Neolithic and Viking Age peoples (McGovern et al., 2007 and Perdikaris and McGovern, 2008) and Mediterranean islands (Patton, 1996; Zeder, 2009). Island archeology also reveals important differences in the scale and magnitude

of human environmental impacts. On the Channel Islands and some Caribbean islands, initial human occupations were by maritime hunter-gatherers. The environmental impacts of these early peoples selleckchem is often not as rapid, easy to discern, or as clear as those of pastoralists or agriculturalists. Without domesticated plants and animals (except dogs) or the need to clear land for horticulture, for example, early records of human occupation from California’s Channel Islands generally lack the initial burning, landscape clearing, and soil erosion typical of many Polynesian sequences. Anthropogenic burning is evident on the Channel Islands in the past, but these events are not easy to differentiate from natural fires (Anderson et al., 2010b). Still hunter-gatherers transformed their island ecosystems in major ways, including the translocation of animals, direct and indirect influences on the extinction of mammals and birds, fire and burning, and significant impacts on marine resources. On the Channel Islands, these include translocation of island deer mice, island foxes, and perhaps other organisms

(Rick, 2013), and strong influences on island marine ecosystems and organisms (Erlandson and Rick, 2010). The early record of some Caribbean islands also documents extinction of island sloths and other vertebrates, and translocation of plant resources by hunter-gatherer click here populations (Newsom and Wing, 2004:128; Steadman et al., 2005). These data suggest that there was no single, overarching human influence or impact on island ecosystems in the past—the patterns and processes on islands were complex and related to the subsistence strategies of people occupying the island (i.e., agriculturalists, hunter-gatherers), the population densities of those people, their sociocultural systems and technologies, differences in island physical characteristics (size, age, nutrients, etc.), and the collective decisions made by individual societies.