Badanie trwało dwa lata Stwierdzono porównywalną skuteczność lec

Badanie trwało dwa lata. Stwierdzono porównywalną skuteczność leczenia w obydwu grupach. Na podstawie przeprowadzonego badania można stwierdzić brak przewagi leczenia skojarzonego nad monoterapią w trakcie leczenia podtrzymującego. Ten wniosek pozostaje w sprzeczności z

innymi przedstawionymi powyżej badaniami. Wydaje się, że skuteczność terapii skojarzonej zależy od doboru populacji chorych. Dodatkowo w przebiegu badania zaobserwowano różnice pomiędzy wyjściowymi i końcowymi wartościami stężenia białka C-reaktywnego dla grupy otrzymujących jedynie infliximab (przy porównywalnych wartościach wyjściowych dla obu grup). Jednocześnie stwierdzono niższe stężenia infliximabu w grupie leczonych monoterapią w porównaniu z grupą leczonych obydwoma www.selleckchem.com/products/sd-208.html lekami w momencie zakończenia badania (wyjściowe stężenia infliximabu były porównywalne). Te wyniki rzucają inne światło na główny wniosek badania o braku różnic pomiędzy skutecznością stosowanych terapii. www.selleckchem.com/products/Adriamycin.html Możliwe, że dłuższy czas obserwacji mógłby wpłynąć na otrzymane

wyniki. Wymienione powyżej badania odnoszą się do skuteczności jednoczesnego stosowania infliximabu z lekiem immunomodulującymi (azatiopryną lub metotreksatem). W ostatnim czasie opublikowano jednak retrospektywne badanie porównujące skuteczność stosowania adalimumabu i leku immunosupresyjnego z samym adalimumabem [60]. Zaobserwowano większą skuteczność stosowania leczenia skojarzonego zarówno w czasie indukcji, jak i podtrzymaniu remisji. Podsumowując, wybór najlepszego sposobu leczenia nie jest jednoznaczny. Konieczne są dalsze badania w innych grupach pacjentów – również z większym ryzykiem wystąpienia ciężkiej postaci choroby – jak w grupie dzieci z CD. Terapia biologiczna ma ogromne znaczenie w leczeniu choroby Leśniowskiego i Crohna u dzieci. Dużo jednak kwestii pozostaje w sferze badań. Pomimo wieloletniej praktyki stosowania infliximabu u

dzieci z CD nadal brak jest jasnych all wytycznych dotyczących momentu zastosowania leczenia biologicznego. Obecnie infliximab jest stosowany zgodnie ze strategią step up, która polega na intensyfikacji leczenia zależnie od stadium choroby. Jest stosowany u pacjentów, którzy utracili odpowiedź na steroidoterapię lub są steroidozależni. Jednak coraz częściej uważa się, że infliximab może mieć lepszy efekt działania we wczesnym etapie choroby ze względu na większą możliwość zmiany przebiegu choroby, czyli w modelu top down [61]. Nie znamy odpowiedzi na pytanie, jak długo można stosować terapię biologiczną i kiedy można ją bezpiecznie zakończyć. Dodatkowo niewiadome pozostają skuteczność i bezpieczeństwo terapii skojarzonej w porównaniu z monoterapią w grupie dzieci z chorobą Leśniowskiego i Crohna. Konieczne jest przeprowadzenie badań, które umożliwią ustalenie optymalnego standardu postępowania w tej grupie pacjentów.

A growing body of evidence has implicated on the role of environm

A growing body of evidence has implicated on the role of environmental exposures, particularly in early development, in the induction of epigenetic changes that may be transmitted to subsequent generations or may Daporinad mouse serve as a basis of diseases

developed later in life. Furthermore, it has become so likely that epigenetics contribute to the causes or transmission of chronic disorders from one generation to another (Weinhold, 2006) (Fig. 2). Several evidence collected from animal studies during the past decade suggested that exposure to pesticides can induce epigenetic changes. Heritable alterations of DNA methylation in male germline along with testis and ovarian dysfunction have been reported after exposure to some pesticides like vinclozolin and methoxychlor (Anway and Skinner, 2006, Anway et al., 2005, Guerrero-Bosagna et al., 2010 and Zama and Uzumcu, 2009). Exposure to dichloroacetic acid and trichloroacetic acid has been associated with decreased methylation in promoter regions of c-jun and c-myc in liver of mice ( Tao et al., 2000a and Tao et al., 2000b). Global

DNA hypomethylation has also been reported in people who had an elevated blood level of pesticides and persistent organic pollutants in two surveys ( Kim et al., 2010 and Rusiecki et al., 2008). Furthermore, increased acetylation of core histones H3 and H4 has been reported by dieldrin, an organochlorine pesticide, in mouse models ( Song et al., 2010). On the other hand, growing progress has been made in the recognition of epigenetic modifications in human chronic diseases, particularly this website cancer. Cancer is now considered as an epigenetic disease the same as a genetic disease. There is tremendous evidence on the contribution of epigenetic events in the initiation, promotion

and progression of different types of cancers, Thiamet G mainly through silencing of tumor suppressor genes and/or activation of proto-oncogenes. These modifications have allocated such a fundamental role in cancer development that epigenetic therapy of cancer is rapidly growing in medical sciences (Jones and Baylin, 2002). In addition, epigenetic changes currently have been a powerful tool for studying the carcinogenesis mechanisms of occupational and environmental exposures (Ziech et al., 2010). The first note on pesticide-induced carcinogenesis through epigenetic mechanisms was from a study carried out by Maslansky and colleagues in 1981. They reported hepatocarcinogenesis of organochlorine pesticides with no genotoxic effects in hepatocytes and suspected to epigenetic modifications disrupting intracellular communications (Maslansky and Williams, 1981). Later, reports presented about epigenetic actions of vinclozolin, a fungicide known to be an environmental endocrine disruptor, in association with adult-onset diseases, particularly tumor development (Skinner and Anway, 2007).

Computations based on statistical distributions are routinely pro

Computations based on statistical distributions are routinely proposed in Bayesian theories of perception (Miyazaki et al., 2006; Yamamoto et al., 2012), while functions similar to averaging over such distributions have been considered in theories of population coding (Roach et al., 2011). Assuming similar mechanisms in principle, we performed a simple simulation, in which we plotted values sampled from two random variables (‘clocks’), after subtracting each from the

average across a population of clocks. We found that this simple renormalisation model could accurately simulate the negative Cobimetinib correlation observed (see Supplementary Methods S2 and Supplementary Figure 2 for further details). This serves to demonstrate how the observed negative correlation phenomenon might emerge simply as a consequence of renormalisation, and not due to any explicit antagonism between mechanisms. Neuroscientists and philosophers have long pondered the relationship between subjective

and neural timing (Dennett and Kinsbourne, 1995; Harris et al., 2008; Spence and Squire, 2003; Zeki and Bartels, 1998). Our observations with PH and with neurologically healthy participants confirm that perception is characterised fundamentally by asynchrony and disunity: different aspects of the same pair of multisensory stimuli may be perceived with different asynchronies, and these discrepancies cannot be fully minimised. But an apparent antagonism between complementary measures of subjective timing reveals a superordinate Ketotifen principle, by which discrepant Ibrutinib clinical trial timings in the brain may nevertheless be renormalised to their average neural timing. By relating subjective timing to average neural timing, temporal renormalisation explains (1) why after a lesion PH experiences auditory leading in one task but

the opposite auditory lead in another, (2) why different timing measures are negatively correlated across normal individuals, and (3) how the brain might tell the time from multiple clocks, with near-veridical accuracy, without needing resynchronising mechanisms. We thank P.H. for participating, and S. Khan, A. Alsius, R. Kanai and T. Schofield for technical assistance; and M. Cappelletti, D. Bueti, S. Gaigg, C. Haenschel, G. Rees, and C. Price, for critical discussions. J.D. was funded by a Royal Society Leverhulme Trust Senior Research Fellowship. Imaging at the Wellcome Trust Centre for Neuroimaging, UCL, and open access publication, were supported by Wellcome Centre grant091593/Z/10/Z. “
“Asymmetries in cognitive maturation throughout the lifespan demonstrate that ageing does not simply reflect development in reverse (Craik & Bialystok, 2006). As we transition through different phases of life external changes to our bodies follow a relatively symmetrical pattern; weakness in infancy is followed by strength in adolescence and middle age and finally frailty again in old age.

Since we controlled for names of relatives and friends, in the ac

Since we controlled for names of relatives and friends, in the active condition only stimuli of comparable familiarity Talazoparib chemical structure were involved and hence familiarity cannot account for the differences between targets and non-targets. The presentation of strictly unfamiliar names in the active condition in the current study allowed for a better differentiation of top-down attention, (i.e. instruction following and counting) from automatic attention which may be grabbed automatically by the presentation of the own name (Wood and Cowan, 1995). The increased theta ERS for targets on the left side is, therefore, most likely related to top-down attention and the active counting

of the target name. Attending to a target name and inhibiting irrelevant name stimuli engages selective attention mechanisms and challenges working memory resources. Higher theta ERS in the left hemisphere probably reflects attention to the processing of the new information or enhanced verbal working memory engagement (Chein et al., 2003, Smith and Jonides, 1997 and Smith et al., 1996). In the active condition we also found a significant effect in the delta range (1–4 Hz), with delta showing higher synchronization for target than for non-target stimuli. Previous studies reported that in tasks where internal concentration

is required in order to focus attention on a specific stimulus delta increases (Fernández et al., 1995 and Harmony et al., 1996). In addition a reciprocal relationship between alpha and delta activity has been shown, Selleckchem Lumacaftor in the sense that both frequencies together may contribute to inhibitory control (Knyazev, 2007). Therefore, in our study, delta increase during counting, together with alpha desynchronization, might reflect inhibition of irrelevant information (other names) and disinhibition of relevant information Alanine-glyoxylate transaminase in order

to focus attention exclusively on the target name. The active condition, as proposed in the present study might be a promising method to assess DOC and allow refinement of their diagnosis. However, it has to be mentioned that active paradigms of that kind will only be able to distinguish DOC patients at the higher end of the DOC spectrum as they require the integrity of several sensory and cognitive processes at the same time. For a future application in DOC, it would be important, however, to further examine slow oscillatory (delta–theta) band involvement, since the EEG of DOC patients is usually characterized by a predominance of slow frequencies (mainly in the delta range). With the passive condition, we investigated differences between the processing of the subject’s own name as compared to unfamiliar names and additionally, we were interested in the differential activation in response to familiar and unfamiliar voices. In fact, in the right hemispheric parietal alpha desynchronization was higher in response to the SON as well as in response to familiar voices.

0–Section F The goal was to interview newly admitted residents w

0–Section F. The goal was to interview newly admitted residents within 24 hours of admission.

This would enable staff to address preferences from the beginning of the resident’s stay. Sites were asked to interview long stay residents shortly before the individual’s care planning conference. The next step was to conduct the Preference Satisfaction portion of the interview, ideally within 5 to 7 days after the initial preference interview for short stay residents. Long stay resident preference and satisfaction interviews could be selleck compound conducted on the same day, or 5 to 7 days apart. Providers were given several options for the choice of interviewer for the preference and satisfaction portions of the interview. Guidelines recommended that the staff member who actually delivers the care should conduct the preference interview; however, to encourage residents to share forthright opinions, a different staff member could be assigned to ask preference satisfaction questions. Among the possible options, communities could (1) use a volunteer or personnel other than a certified nursing assistant (CNA) or activity therapist

to Natural Product Library mw conduct preference satisfaction interviews; (2) have the CNA and activity therapist switch interview categories (ie, CNA asks questions about activity preferences, and activity therapist asks about personal care); or (3) deploy licensed nurses or social workers from a neighboring unit or floor to conduct preference satisfaction interviews.23 Staff from pilot sites entered responses from resident preference Acyl CoA dehydrogenase and satisfaction interviews into the revised Excel spreadsheet that automatically calculates a preference congruence percentage for each resident. Reports can be generated for each individual resident (for an example, Figure 1), or in aggregate for a household

of residents (Figure 2). As care planning conferences took place, staff members also noted whether the resident, family members or close friends and direct care staff, such as CNAs, attended the meetings and entered this data into the spreadsheet, which calculated participation rates. Pilot sites were asked to fax their NH’s 4 aggregate quality indicator results to the research team (for an example, Figure 3). Individual resident-level information was not shared with researchers. Project coordinators identified by each site were asked to complete a questionnaire (93 items) regarding staff experiences using the new toolkit. The evaluation form asked about the PCC spreadsheet’s functionality and content, the webinar training experience, the resident interview process, challenges in implementing PCC, and overall satisfaction with the toolkit. Responses for most questions used a 5-point Likert scale, with a range from “completely agree” to “completely disagree.” Also, several open-ended questions provided a qualitative perspective on these topics.

We screened the electronic medical records of patients who had IC

We screened the electronic medical records of patients who had ICD-9-codes for one of the target diagnoses and recruited them through the primary care, geriatrics, and subspecialty clinics (cardiology, pulmonary, gastrointestinal, and oncology) at MEDVAMC with permission of their respective physicians.

Patients’ physicians were not involved PD0332991 ic50 in the recruitment or consenting process at all other than allowing the research team access to screen their patients’ electronic charts for eligibility. Patients with a diagnosis of dementia (per chart review) were excluded. Potentially eligible patients received a postcard asking for participation in a group interview session on decision-making for advance care planning that included a phone number to opt out. If they did not opt out, patients were called by trained research assistants to explain the study, and to obtain preliminary consent to participate. Screen-eligible patients were separated in 3 lists: patients Lumacaftor in vivo likely to be White, African-American, and Hispanic (per chart review); race/ethnicity was ultimately determined by self-identification. We aimed to achieve equal participation of all major racial/ethnic groups represented at our VA through purposive sampling and oversampling of minority patients. Approximately 30% of patients listed as White, 50% of patients listed as African-American,

and 80% of patients listed as Hispanic who had been screened as study-eligible were randomly called and asked to participate. Fig. 1 shows how the focus groups, each homogenous by race/ethnicity, were organized. Female, trained, race/ethnicity-concordant moderators with experience in qualitative research conducted the groups. Two of the non-clinician investigators (DE (project coordinator) and MEF) moderated the groups for the Hispanic and African American participants, respectively. The investigators developed Thalidomide guiding questions after extensive literature review and pilot-testing of the script through two patient interviews (Table 2). Moderators made clear at the

beginning of the group session that no one was obliged to answer any of the questions if they felt uncomfortable. The moderators made it clear to the participants that they were interested in the responses of the group, rather than in individual members’ responses. Patients knew they were primarily chosen to participate in the focus groups because of their individual experiences as a community of patients. Moderators prompted participants to elaborate on responses. Comments of other group members also served as prompts for obtaining additional information about participants’ experiences [16]. After obtaining informed consent, focus groups, lasting 65–90 min, were conducted and audio-taped at MEDVAMC and then transcribed for qualitative analysis. To ensure confidentiality only codes (no names) were used in the transcripts and the transcribers were blinded to participants’ race/ethnicity.

e Δ dependent) progression of molecular displacements [52] As Δ

e. Δ dependent) progression of molecular displacements [52]. As Δ becomes longer, dispersion averages Rapamycin price the radial dependence of the coherent displacements and results in velocity profiles as displayed in Fig. 4c and d. Therefore, special care needs to be taken in choosing NMR parameters during flow experiments to account for these averaging effects. Nonetheless flow and dispersion can still be probed at a wide range of temporal and spatial scales [51] leading to valuable information in many applications. A novel example is the measurement of gas flow within a flame using a continuous flow of a CH4–hp 129Xe fuel mixture. MRI of the entire flame region is possible due to the combustion resistance

of the 129Xe hyperpolarized state [37]. Velocimetric measurements in lungs are also feasible but are experimentally demanding since they cannot be performed in a continuous flow mode. However, some examples using ventilation synchronized measurements have been reported with hp 3He [53]. PI3K Inhibitor Library As detailed in the velocimetry section, the results of gas phase pulsed field gradient (PFG) flow measurements may display a dependence upon Δ (i.e. the time between gradient pulses used for displacement encoding). This Δ dependence is due to the interplay of flow and

diffusion driven dispersion. Even in the absence of flow, pure diffusion measurements can display a Δ dependence if the gas is contained in a porous medium. For sufficiently short Δ times, the result of the PFG experiments will measure unrestricted diffusion and therefore the same diffusion constant Do as in the free gas. As Δ becomes longer, the mean displacement of the gas will be hindered by the pore walls, resulting in a reduced apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). Diffusion of hp gases in lungs is restricted by alveolar walls and ADC measurements can therefore provide valuable

information about lung morphometry [54] and [55]. Work with 3He (binary diffusion coefficient of dilute 3He in air ( D3He-Air=0.86cm2/s) [56]) has shown that in cases of alveolar destruction such as in emphysematous disease the ADC becomes elevated [57] and [58]. The ADC measurements for 129Xe ( D129Xe-Air=0.14cm2/s[56]) correlate with those filipin for 3He [59] with ADC values elevated in human COPD phenotypes [60]. Recently, it has been found that 129Xe ADC values may actually correlate better than 3He ADC with other lung function testing methods. This may be possibly due to the lower rate of diffusion of xenon leading to less contamination through collateral ventilation from neighboring alveoli [61]. Note, that the 129Xe self-diffusion coefficient is six times smaller than that of 3He therefore larger field gradients are required to perform the ADC measurements on similar 3He time scales. This puts a strain on the hardware safety requirements, however experimental strategies have been proposed to circumvent this problem [62].

Manipulation of this pathway is therefore a good target for the s

Manipulation of this pathway is therefore a good target for the stimulation of bone growth in humans [11] and [12]. It is of interest that in the absence of the one molecule necessary for both these processes during embryogenesis, Indian hedgehog,

neither part of the endochondral ossification Romidepsin cost occurs [7]. This process represents bone formation in trans – one cell type induces the formation of another (cartilage inducing bone) – the cells that give rise to the inducing signals (and extra-cellular matrix) do not themselves produce the bone. Previously, purmorphamine (Pur) that selectively induces osteogenesis in multipotent mesenchymal progenitor cells was identified [13]. Purmorphamine has been shown to increase alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in both cell lines C3H10T1/2 and MC3T3-E1 and enhances osteoblastic differentiation of human bone marrow mesenchymal cells in culture

and also when grown on titanium [14] and [15]. Further, it also seems to inhibit adipocyte Cabozantinib datasheet maturation [16] and [17]. Purmorphamine induces osteogenesis by activation of the hedgehog signaling pathway. The transmembranic protein smoothened (Smo) is normally suppressed by another transmembranic protein patched (Ptch); this suppression is inhibited by sonic hedgehog protein in the developmental stage. It has been shown that Smo can be artificially targeted by Pur and the suppression by Ptch on Smo is stopped, leading to an activation of Pyruvate dehydrogenase lipoamide kinase isozyme 1 Smo and thereby the hedgehog signaling pathway leading to stimulation of bone formation. In this way Pur can replace the function of sonic hedgehog (Fig. 1a) [18]. When the Smo inhibition is blocked by a hedgehog protein, Smo can activate members of the Gli-family. Genetic studies have shown that mutations in Gli2 and/or Gli3 result in severe defects

in skeletal development in mice and humans [19], [20], [21] and [22]. Ablating the hedgehog genes in postnatal chondrocytes leads to dwarfism, showing that the hedgehog is essential for maintaining the growth plate and articular surface and is required for sustaining trabecular bone and skeletal growth [23]. It has been shown that Gli2 is a powerful transactivator of the BMP-2 gene in vitro and in vivo and that overexpression of Gli2 in osteoblast precursor cells induces osteoblast differentiation [24]. This and the combined effect of BMP-2 [25], explain the osteogenic induction by the hedgehog pathway activation [26], [27] and [28]. The mode of delivery of Pur is as important as the biology of its effect as diffusion makes a simple injection ineffective. Delivering sonic hedgehog or purmorphamine by binding it to a calcium phosphate layer should stimulate differentiation and proliferation locally and spread in a controlled manner by the release of calcium phosphate. This delivery system avoids the immediate burst-release of the active molecule and allowing the osteogenesis of the surrounding precursor cells.

Under catch shares, fishermen and fleets recover economically Ov

Under catch shares, fishermen and fleets recover economically. Overall revenues increase dramatically under catch shares (Fig. 8). Combined with rationalization, this results in

revenues per vessel nearly doubling [3], [17], [19], [29], [41], [48], [52], [53], [67], [68], [74], [75] and [76]. Overall revenues increase for numerous reasons. Decreasing discards and more efficient fishing practices (such as decreased trawl time) increase efficiency, while the longer seasons eliminate the need for vessels to sustain a grueling pace while at sea. Slowing the fishery often results in higher prices from year-round availability of fresh fish, increasing quality from better handling, and increasing processing product recovery (the percentage of fish used in the finished product) [personal communication] [105]. In addition, many catch shares selleck products CYC202 mouse fisheries achieve certification from the Marine Stewardship Council (MSC), which can increase demand and raise prices. MSC certification is awarded to 58% of US catch share fisheries, versus fewer than 5% of traditionally managed fisheries [106]. In addition to benefitting from vessel and fleet level efficiencies, catch shares can allow for

higher TACs through more strategic management. Overall, TACs increase an average of 13% five years after catch shares implementation, and 19% ten years after catch shares implementation (see Section 4.3.2). The BC halibut, [60] Alaska pollock [7], and Alaska halibut [60] fisheries increased TACs the most, from 30% to 50%. In contrast, the SCOQ [65] and Alaska sablefish [57] decreased TACs between 10% and 40% in response to declining biomass due to general environmental performance [19] and [107]. These data suggest that TACs can be adjusted upward

due to increased biomass. However, they can be restricted by recruitment classes and other species-specific D-malate dehydrogenase population patterns. Social changes accompany these economic and environmental gains. The catch shares programs in this study note shifts in numerous areas of social interest. Safety increases as the pace of fishing decreases and seasons lengthen, benefiting all stakeholders. Ports in Alaska halibut and sablefish fisheries undergo a modest consolidation, with many mid-size ports having increased landings and most of the smaller ports having decreased landings. Processors that were tooled to process large amounts of fish in short periods are forced to adjust as seasons lengthen, although new processing entrants can benefit. The labor market shifts towards full-time crewmember positions, benefitting certain workers with increased hours while resulting in some part-time job losses. Catch shares improve safety by eliminating the race for fish, removing the incentive to sacrifice safety for speed. Fishing safety nearly triples based on an index of relevant safety data across fisheries [6], [77], [78], [81], [108], [109] and [110].

Salienta-se a importância da integração das casuísticas das equip

Salienta-se a importância da integração das casuísticas das equipas pediátricas nacionais dotadas de recursos humanos/ técnicos e de experiência no seguimento destes doentes, em adequada articulação com os Serviços de Gastrenterologia de Adultos. Só assim será possível um verdadeiro conhecimento da expressão clínica e do impacto epidemiológico da DII neste grupo etário,

potenciando-se adicionalmente as sinergias para a realização de estudos multicêntricos, quer por iniciativa dos próprios centros, quer mediada por Sociedades Científicas e Grupos de Trabalho, como a learn more Sociedade Portuguesa de Gastrenterologia Pediátrica e o Grupo de Estudos da Doença Inflamatória (GEDI), entre outros. “
“Segundo dados da International Agency for Research on Cancer, o cancro colorretal (CCR) está entre os cancros mais frequentes a nível mundial, tendo registado 1 235 108 novos casos e 609 051 óbitos, no ano

de 2008 Thiazovivin research buy 1. Em Portugal, a mortalidade por CCR tem aumentado nas últimas décadas. Em 1999, contribuiu com cerca de 13% da mortalidade por cancro, percentagem que determinou, pela primeira vez entre nós, que o CCR fosse a principal causa de morte por cancro 2. O CCR é caracterizado por uma progressão lenta e uma fase benigna precursora longa que é dominada pelo adenoma de remoção fácil por meios endoscópicos3, o que torna o CCR o cancro do aparelho digestivo mais prevenível e um dos cancros mais preveníveis entre todos os outros4. As recomendações de rastrear os indivíduos

de risco padrão e de vigiar diferenciadamente os indivíduos com história familiar Farnesyltransferase da doença são unânimes5, embora ainda não exista um teste de rastreio totalmente aceite pela população e pelos profissionais de saúde6. Entre os portugueses, são válidas as recomendações do Plano Nacional de Prevenção e Controlo das Doenças Oncológicas 2007-2010: pesquisa de sangue oculto nas fezes (PSOF) em homens e mulheres dos 50 aos 74 anos e realização de colonoscopia total na presença de um teste positivo7. O rastreio efetivo do CCR tem como potencial barreira o conhecimento inadequado da doença e das várias opções de exames8. A atitude de rastreio resulta da validação deste conceito, ou seja, de que o cancro não é um acontecimento isolado, mas um longo processo evolutivo desde a célula normal até à célula metastática, possibilitando intervenções de modulação de fatores de risco e de identificação da doença em fases iniciais ou mesmo das suas lesões precursoras2. Neste sentido, o principal objetivo deste estudo foi investigar conhecimentos e atitudes quanto ao CCR e ao seu rastreio, de forma a identificar fatores que pudessem contribuir para as reduzidas taxas de rastreio.