First, the form of inhibition associated with NMAs clearly occurs

First, the form of inhibition associated with NMAs clearly occurs late in the motor chain that leads from plan to movement. In particular, inhibition mechanisms remain available even during the execution phase, and after action initiation:

negative motor responses E7080 clinical trial are defined as cessation of ongoing movement. However, the same inhibitory process might also apply to action preparation prior to execution. Any future data on effects of NMA stimulation during action preparation would be extremely valuable. Second, NMAs seem to show a coarse somatotopy, as they are specific to particular muscular actions, rather than general cessations of all motor activity. This may relate to the

finding that there are specific inhibitory mechanisms that may be distinguished from a general inhibitory function ( Aron and Verbruggen, 2008 and Verbruggen and Logan, 2008). Third, the inhibitory function of NMAs resembles an unconscious braking of ongoing action, rather http://www.selleckchem.com/products/Gefitinib.html than a conscious decision to inhibit. Recent cognitive theories have conceptualised inhibition in two quite different ways. First, it may occur by competition between representations of alternative actions at the same representational level. The go/nogo task fits the first model, if we can accept that nogo is a form of action. Computational theories of action selection (Cisek, 2006) hold that action inhibition is the result of the competition between ’go’ and ‘nogo’ processes. On this view there is no need to pose a hierarchical organization of inhibitory control, since response selection and response Pazopanib inhibition are effectively identical (Kenner et al., 2010 and Mostofsky and Simmonds, 2008). An alternative view proposes distinct ‘inhibition centres’, positioned hierarchically upstream of action control, and capable of globally inhibiting several motor outputs (Aron and Verbruggen, 2008). It has been argued (Aron et al., 2004) that the right inferior frontal cortex is the main brain

area responsible for driving action inhibition. The IFC is thought to implement executive control by driving neural activity in subcortical and posterior cortical regions. Other, more recent data suggests that the pre-SMA also contributes to these inhibitory processes, and may play a leading role (Duann et al., 2009 and Swann et al., 2012). We may therefore ask whether evidence from NMAs is more consistent with the hierarchical or the competitive view. The hierarchical view would predict an inhibitory function to be located upstream of action control centres. Given the general anteroposterior hierarchy in the frontal cortex (Koechlin and Summerfield, 2007) this view might predict NMAs to be located anterior to positive motor areas.

Although EUS-guided pancreatic drainage is a minimally invasive a

Although EUS-guided pancreatic drainage is a minimally invasive alternative option to surgery and interventional radiology, owing to its complexity and potential for fulminant complications, it is recommended that these procedures be performed by highly skilled endoscopists. Additional data are needed to define risks and long-term outcomes more accurately via a dedicated prospective registry. Shyam Varadarajulu, 3-MA cell line Surinder S. Rana, and Deepak K.

Bhasin Pancreatitis, whether acute or chronic, can lead to a plethora of complications, such as fluid collections, pseudocysts, fistulas, and necrosis, all of which are secondary to leakage of secretions from the pancreatic ductal system. AC220 Partial and side branch duct disruptions can be managed successfully by transpapillary pancreatic duct stent placement, whereas

patients with disconnected pancreatic duct syndrome require more complex endoscopic interventions or multidisciplinary care for optimal treatment outcomes. This review discusses the current status of endoscopic management of pancreatic duct leaks and emerging concepts for the treatment of disconnected pancreatic duct syndrome. Sung-Hoon Moon and Myung-Hwan Kim This review addresses the role of endoscopy in the diagnosis and treatment of autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) and provides a diagnostic process for patients with suspected AIP. When should AIP be suspected? When can it be diagnosed without endoscopic examination? Which endoscopic approaches are appropriate in suspected AIP, and when? What are the roles of diagnostic endoscopic retrograde pancreatography, endoscopic biopsies, and IgG4 immunostaining? What is the proper use of the

steroid trial in the diagnosis of AIP in patients with indeterminate computed tomography imaging? Should biliary stenting be performed in patients with AIP with obstructive jaundice? Reem Z. Sharaiha, Jessica Widmer, and Michel Kahaleh Pancreatic stenting Liothyronine Sodium for patients with obstructive pain secondary to a malignant pancreatic duct stricture is safe and effective, and should be considered a therapeutic option. Although pancreatic stenting does not seem to be effective for patients with chronic pain, it may be beneficial in those with obstructive type pains, pancreatic duct disruption, or smoldering pancreatitis. Fully covered metal stents may be an option, but data on their use are limited. Further studies, including prospective randomized studies comparing plastic and metal stents in these indications, are needed to further validate and confirm these results. Index 925 “
“Charles J. Lightdale Norio Fukami Chang Beom Ryu Endoscopic resection is now considered a curative procedure for early gastric cancer. In Japan, it has increasingly replaced surgical resection for this indication, although in the West it has not been universally accepted as a first-line treatment.

[156], [157], [158], [159], [160] and [161] Some of these mutatio

[156], [157], [158], [159], [160] and [161] Some of these mutations (P317R, H374R) likely affect iron-chelation at the catalytic center, which is critical for PHD enzymatic activity. Furthermore, H374R was associated with paraganglioma development, indicating that PHD2 may function as a tumor suppressor. [157] and [160] Chronic mountain sickness (CMS), also known as Monge’s disease, affects long-term high-altitude (> 2500 m) residents or natives, and is associated with excessive erythrocytosis (females, Hgb ≥ 19 g/dL; males, Hgb ≥ 21 g/dL), hypoxemia, pulmonary hypertension, right-sided heart failure and neurologic

symptoms, such as headache, fatigue, tinnitus, insomnia, EPZ015666 in vitro paresthesia and loss of memory.[162], [163] and [164] The disease was fist described in high altitude dwellers on the South American Altiplano, where it affects ~ 5–15% of the population.[162] and [164] CMS is usually alleviated by descent to low altitude or by phlebotomy.[162] and [163] While the disease is prevalent in the Andean population, it is less common in native Tibetans, who live at comparable altitude. In contrast, Tibetan residents of Han Chinese descent are much

more frequently affected by CMS, which represents a major public INK 128 nmr health burden.[164], [165], [166] and [167] Prevalence of CMS is higher in men than in women, increases with altitude and age, and is more likely to develop in the presence of lung diseases, smoking and environmental pollution.164 The pathogenesis of CMS is thought to result, at least partly, from an abnormal, i.e. blunted, ventilatory response.164 Aside from differences in susceptibility to CMS, native Tibetans and Andeans differ in their baseline physiologic responses to high altitude. Native Tibetans have higher resting ventilation and hypoxic ventilatory response

at comparable altitudes, lower oxygen saturation of arterial Methane monooxygenase hemoglobin and lower hemoglobin concentrations (15.6 g/dL versus 19.2 g/dL in males)[168] and [169] There is also less intrauterine growth retardation and better neonatal oxygenation among native Tibetans compared to native Andeans or Han Chinese.[166] and [170] Furthermore, differences in energy metabolism have been described, which need further characterization.171 These differences in physiologic phenotypes reflect divergence in genetic adaptation and selection, which result from differences in length of high-altitude habitation (~ between 25,000 and 50,000 years for native residents on the Tibetan plateau, compared to ~ 10,000 years for the Andean Altiplano and ~ 60 years for Tibetan residents of Han Chinese descent), the degree of geographical isolation (Tibetan plateau > South American Altiplano) and gene pool stability.

Seedlings of each cultivar were then

exposed to different

Seedlings of each cultivar were then

exposed to different N deficiency stress treatments at the five-leaf stage. Hoagland’s solution without N [Ca(NO3)2·4H2O] was then added to maintain various N deficiency treatments [20], including mild stress [N2: 1.5 mmol L− 1 Ca(NO3)2·4H2O], moderate stress (N1: 0.15 mmol L− 1), extreme stress (N0: 0 mmol L− 1) EPZ015666 price and a stress-free control (full strength Hoagland’s nutrient solution, modified). The solutions were refreshed twice a week and the pH of the nutrient solutions was adjusted to 5.5–6.5 every 2 days. An air pump was used for ventilation 24 h per day. Agronomic and physiological traits were evaluated 60 days after treatment. Sixty days after treatments, the tiller number, height (from the pot surface to the end of the longest leaf on the tallest tiller), aboveground biomass, leaf area, and root area were measured. Aboveground biomass was cut at the pot surface and separated into shoots and leaves, the leaf area was determined Roscovitine datasheet with a LI-COR 3100 leaf area meter (Li-Cor, Lincoln, NE) and the root surface area was determined with a root scanner (Epson Expression 1000XL, Japan). Roots and rhizomes were washed free of growth media and all plant samples were treated at 105 °C for 30 min

for fixation and then oven dried at 65 °C until a constant weight was reached. The presence of rhizomes was recorded and the root to shoot weight ratio (R:S) was calculated. Gas exchange measurements were performed two weeks after treatment initiation using a portable open gas exchange system (LI-6400, LI-COR) calibrated to deliver a photosynthetic Liothyronine Sodium photon flux density of 2000 μmol m− 2 s− 1 and an ambient CO2 of 400 μmol mol− 1 (supplied by a LI-COR CO2 injector) and a leaf temperature of (30 ± 1) °C. Data were collected for 2 min at 5-s intervals for three randomly chosen plants from each treatment listed above (eight replications per treatment) on the youngest fully expanded leaf on the longest tiller, as described by Barney et

al. [12]. Net CO2 assimilation (A), transpiration (E), and stomatal conductance (gs) were recorded, and photosynthetic water use efficiency (WUE) was calculated (WUE = net photosynthesis/transpiration). Chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b were extracted with 80% acetone from the same leaf as used for gas exchange measurements. Absorbance was measured at 663 nm and 645 nm for chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b, respectively, using a UV spectrophotometer (UV-2550, Shimadzu). Total chlorophyll content was calculated according to the procedure described by Lichtenthaler and Wellburn [21]. To avoid the negative influence of different cultivars on the evaluation of tolerance, the Low-N tolerance index (LNT) was calculated. This is the ratio of the index under treatment to that of the control (LNT = (value of tested traits under treatments/value of same tested traits under control) × 100%).

The peak systolic velocity value averaged from both ICA and VA wa

The peak systolic velocity value averaged from both ICA and VA was used, as well. Intima-media thickness was measured on the far wall of the right and left common carotid artery, the carotid bulb,

and the ICA [13]. The carotid intima-media thickness was defined as the mean of intima-media thickness measurements at these six sites. Quality of life was estimated from The ‘Minnesota – Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire’ [14]. The Tei index is defined as the sum of isovolumic contraction and relaxation time divided by the ejection time. This index is a sensitive indicator of overall cardiac dysfunction in patients with mild-to-moderate CHF [15]. Descriptive ALK inhibitor review statistics were presented as mean values with standard deviation or median with interquartile range for numeric variables, or as absolute numbers with percentages for categorical variables. Evaluation of normality was performed with Kolmogorov–Smirnov test. Student t-test was used to calculate differences between

mean values. Mann–Whitney see more U-test was used to determine differences between median values. The Pearson coefficient was used for measuring linear correlation between variables. Partial correlation analysis was performed to adjust for age and body mass index. Finally, since variables are inter-related, multivariate regression analysis, backward method, was performed to assess the independent variables that may explain CBF. A p value 50.05 was considered to indicate statistical significance. Statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS software for Windows, version 15 (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL). The basic clinical and biohumoral parameters of studied subjects are shown in Table 1. Atrial Cell press fibrillation was noted in 31%, left bundle branch block in 25%, while

pacemaker was implanted in 9% of patients with CHF. History of myocardial infarction was presented in 63% of patients. Angiotensinconverting enzyme inhibitors were presented in 80% of patients, 75% were on b-blockers, 80% of patients were on loop diuretics, 55% were on spironolactone, 65% were on aspirin and 27% on statins. No differences in age, waist/hip ratio, body mass index and lipid profile were found between patients with CHF and healthy subjects. Color duplex sonography of neck arteries and echocardiogaphic measurements in studied subjects are presented in Table 1. CBF was decreased in patients with CHF, while there was no difference in resistance index between studied groups. CBF decreased according to NYHA class (p < 0.0001), with those in NYHA class III having level of CBF 542 ± 104 ml/min that was 25% lower than CBF in NYHA class II patients (719 ± 166 ml/min). Carotid intima-media thickness was significantly greater in patients with CHF compared to healthy controls. Echocardiographic variables of systolic and diastolic function were impaired in patients with CHF. CBF in patients with CHF was positively correlated with decreased LVEF ( Fig. 1).

EC could develop a subset of potential decision rules and test th

EC could develop a subset of potential decision rules and test their potential using the database tool developed for this project. It is important Osimertinib manufacturer to note that this work assumes that the sediments analyzed in this US-based database are representative of what might be encountered in the Canadian DaS program. Also, this

work considered potential outcomes using chemical data, but did not consider outcomes in the context of a full decision framework that would employ multiple, weighted lines of evidence before yielding a decision. As EC progresses in updating its sediment characterization processes, and considers the management, under permit, of ‘contaminated’ DM, it will have to integrate as much science as possible and make a number of policy decisions that reflect the level of uncertainty that is tolerable and the level of certainty that is affordable. To assist with these endeavors, future work to test alternative decision rules, validate the effectiveness of current toxicity test methods in a regulatory context and to examine potential roles for other biological lines of evidence will be completed. Also, efforts to integrate as much Canadian click here data as possible, including provincial data,

into the dataset, will be made. As this work proceeds, specific outcomes may differ, but this review suggests that the efficiency and degree of protectiveness of the EC DM DaS framework could be significantly improved by expanding the list of chemical analytes and adding a chemical UAL. This paper does not necessarily represent the views of the Environment

Canada or any affiliations represented by the authors. References to brand names and trademarks in this document are for information purposes only and do not constitute endorsements by Environment Canada, or the authors. It is not the intention of the authors to suggest conclusions on the potential ecological risk or regulatory status of the sediments from which the database was drawn; these samples were 6-phosphogluconolactonase not collected for the assessment of ocean disposal and this review represents an analysis of only a small fraction of the data available. These data are only used to provide a dataset that might realistically represent the range of sediment types that might be encountered by the Canadian DaS program, in order to evaluate the potential performance of a range of DM DaS decision rules. This work was funded by Environment Canada, Marine Protection Programs. The Coastal and Oceanographic Assessment, Status and Trends (COAST) Branch, part of NOAA’s National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science in the Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment (CCMA) is gratefully acknowledged for making its extensive datasets available online. We thank Gunnar Lauenstein and his associates for their support in resolving questions on the datasets.

[N440del];[R152C]) compared to their father (heterozygous p N440d

[N440del];[R152C]) compared to their father (heterozygous p.N440del). Therefore, we propose that the molecular basis of INCB018424 molecular weight odonto-HPP phenotype described here is associated with both p.N440del and

p.R152C heterozygous compound mutations. The following are the supplementary data related to this article. Supplementary Fig. 1.  Identification of mutations in ALPL in odontohypophosphatasia kindred. Sequencing data and PCR analysis for 1318_20ACC deletion (p.N440del) in the ALPL gene. Electropherogram representative of DNA sequencing analysis of exon 12 in (A) the mother (control sequence), and (B) probands, revealing a three base pair in-frame deletion (AAC) at 1318-20-nt position, corresponding to codon 440 of protein that encodes asparagine (N440). Arrow indicates the initial position of the 1318_20ACC deletion

corresponding to the point where the sequence became truncated. (C) Differential amplification by PCR of native TNAP (TNAP) and mutant (1318_20delAAC) alleles. Products Selleckchem ABT 263 of differential amplification of native TNAP and mutant alleles from Mother (M), Father (F) and probands (PA and PB) were visualized by ethidium bromide staining after 1.5% agarose gel electrophoresis. The mother was normal homozygous, while the father and the probands were heterozygous for 1318_20delAAC (p.N440del) genotype, exhibiting both alleles. The authors declare no conflict of interest related to this study. This research was supported in part by the Intramural Research Program of the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases of the National Institutes of Health. A portion of this research was performed while MJS and BLF were affiliated with the University of Washington School of Dentistry, Seattle, WA, USA. The present study was

supported by the São Paulo State Research Foundation (FAPESP, Brazil, grant #07/08192-5 and 08/00534-7), Coordination for the Improvement of the Higher Level Personnel (CAPES): 02426/09-9, National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq): 553386/2008-5, National Institutes of Health (NIH)/National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR)DE15109, and NIH Fogarty International Research Collaboration Award (FIRCA) grant 5R03TW007590-03. this website
“Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) remains the most widely used technique to identify patients at risk for fracture and assess response to osteoporosis therapy in the clinical setting. However, DXA is a 2-dimensional measurement of areal bone mineral density (aBMD) and is therefore limited in the assessment of bone geometry, and is not able to fully distinguish the trabecular and cortical bone compartments. Recent imaging and technical developments allow improved in vivo evaluations of skeletal sites of clinical relevance in subjects at risk for fracture.

The whey/casein difference has not been found universally When t

The whey/casein difference has not been found universally. When taken in immediately after resistance exercise, whey and casein resulted in equally

increased protein synthesis despite temporal Talazoparib chemical structure differences in postprandial insulin and amino acid concentrations.197 Milk-derived proteins (whey, casein) were both more efficient for improving muscle protein anabolism than soy proteins.198 Studies are therefore needed to ascertain whether such benefits are characteristic of milk proteins or are more generally related to animal versus plant differences. Taken together, research findings generally suggest that “fast” proteins provide greater benefit to muscle protein accretion than do “slow” proteins. However, evidence

from small experimental trials needs to be LDE225 datasheet confirmed in larger patient populations before precise recommendations can be made on the choice of “fast” versus “slow” proteins.29 and 63 Based on the concept of “rate-limiting” amino acids, the idea was born to enrich the daily diet or specific food with amino acids. Furthermore, branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), including leucine, are now thought to have specific positive effects on signaling pathways for muscle protein synthesis.28 The addition of a mixture of BCAA to the nutritional support of severely ill patients increased muscle protein synthesis in different settings.28, 199 and 200 Although the BCAA leucine has been proposed as a promising pharmaconutrient Montelukast Sodium for prevention and treatment of sarcopenia, results of nutritional intervention studies are not consistent regarding the clinical efficacy of leucine in healthy, active older men.24, 28, 201 and 202 Moreover, no data are available today for older people who are inactive or ill. β-HMB is a metabolite of leucine with multiple modes of action. β-HMB has been widely used by athletes to improve performance.203 Combining exercise training with β-HMB supplementation leads to increased muscle mass and

strength in young persons, but this has not been shown in older persons. A recent review stated that β-HMB may attenuate muscle loss and increase muscle mass and strength in older people and in specific clinical populations (AIDS and cancer).177Although the number of β-HMB studies in older people remains limited, results of a recent study demonstrated that β-HMB supplementation preserved muscle mass during 10 days of bed rest in healthy older adults (age range 60 to 75 years).204 Creatine is a guanidine-derived compound naturally synthesized in the human body using several amino acids (arginine, glycine, methionine) as precursors. Creatine is also sourced from meat in the diet; dietary creatine intake depends on daily food choices. In the body, creatine is mostly stored in skeletal muscle because it is needed to synthesize and maintain adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels for muscle contraction.

A doente realizou colonoscopia total com ileoscopia: a mucosa do

A doente realizou colonoscopia total com ileoscopia: a mucosa do cólon tinha aspeto atrófico, havia uma úlcera no cego com bordos duros e o

íleon terminal tinha edema da mucosa com ulcerações aftoides. As biópsias colhidas Dabrafenib price no cego mostraram alterações inespecíficas e no íleon terminal encontrou-se mucosa com distorção arquitetural, edema e marcada inflamação crónica com atividade ligeira, sem se identificarem abcessos de cripta, granulomas, micro-organismos ou displasia. A pesquisa de citomegalovírus e bacilos álcool-ácido resistentes foi negativa. Os aspetos histológicos eram compatíveis com doença inflamatória intestinal (DII) em fase ativa. Iniciou terapêutica com messalazina 3 g/dia, PO, com franca melhoria da dor abdominal, a qual assumiu um caráter esporádico. Manteve astenia e anorexia, mas com peso estável e sem febre, persistindo desconforto na palpação da FID. No entanto, poucos meses depois, detetou-se, na FID, uma massa dura, móvel, com cerca de 5 cm, dolorosa à palpação. Realizou enterografia por RM que revelou redução da distensibilidade do cego, com espessamento parietal de cerca de 10 mm e envolvimento da última ansa ileal numa extensão de 4 cm, com espessamento concêntrico de 5 mm (fig. 1 A e B). O espessamento parietal tinha moderado hipossinal na sequência ponderada www.selleckchem.com/products/MS-275.html em T2, sem edema submucoso, mas com realce homogéneo após

gadolínio. Havia adenopatias mesentéricas locorregionais, com realce após gadolínio, a maior com 28 × 14 mm. Os achados radiológicos sugeriam doença de mafosfamide Crohn reativada, sem envolvimento patológico de outras ansas ileais. Nos 3 meses seguintes agravaram-se a astenia e a anorexia, agora acompanhadas de náuseas e perda ponderal, tendo ocorrido dois episódios autolimitados de vómitos de conteúdo fecaloide.

O IMC tinha descido para 18,9 kg/m2 e a massa dolorosa, de consistência dura na FID, com limites mal definidos, tinha aumentado para 10 cm, atingindo o hipogastro. Encontrou-se agravamento da anemia (Hb 9,1 g/dL), com VS 37 mm, PCR 1,4 mg/dL, Ca 19.9 5,2 UI/mL (< 37), CEA < 0,6 ng/mL e valores séricos normais de siderémia, folatos e vitamina B12. Repetiu enterografia por RM (fig. 2 A e B) que revelou acentuação do espessamento parietal difuso agora com cerca de 12-14 mm, envolvendo o cego e o cólon ascendente, numa extensão de cerca de 9 cm. Observava-se menor espessamento da última ansa ileal. O realce mucoso do segmento ileal sugeria doença inflamatória em atividade, mas o mesmo não acontecia com o segmento cólico. O cólon transverso apresentava-se ptosado com lesão sólida adjacente ao nível do terço médio, com cerca de 6,7 × 3,2 cm. Identificava-se adenopatia locorregional com 21 × 31 mm. Dada a evolução e exuberância das alterações e pelos aspetos de imagem não serem sugestivos de doença de Crohn foi proposta nova colonoscopia.

Potentially, this strategy would increase the SVR rate and protec

Potentially, this strategy would increase the SVR rate and protect against the emergence of viral resistance.

Avoiding interferon and ribavirin also would improve tolerability, perhaps increasing compliance, resulting in more effective therapy. The study presented here describes outcomes from 12 or 24 weeks of treatment with an interferon-free, CX-5461 in vivo ribavirin-free combination of daclatasvir, asunaprevir, and BMS-791325 in treatment-naive patients with HCV GT 1 infection. This open-label, randomized, phase 2a study recruited patients from 13 centers in the United States and France. Patients were enrolled and completed treatment from November 17, 2011, to March 5, 2013. The study was approved by appropriate institutional review boards and/or independent ethics committees, and was performed in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki and Good Clinical Practice as defined by the International Conference on Harmonization and ethical principles of local regulatory requirements. All patients provided written informed consent. All authors had access to the study data and reviewed and approved the final manuscript. Inclusion criteria PR-171 in vivo were age 18-70 years, chronic HCV GT 1 infection with RNA level of 105 IU/mL or greater, no previous HCV therapy (treatment-naive), and no evidence of cirrhosis (as documented

by markers of cirrhosis, FibroTest [BioPredictive, Paris, France] score <0.72 and aspartate aminotransferase:platelet ratio <2, or liver biopsy). Patients with a FibroTest or aspartate aminotransferase:platelet ratio score exceeding the threshold for study

inclusion were required to have a liver biopsy documenting the absence of cirrhosis. METAVIR category for each patient was derived from the FibroTest result based on the conversion on the manufacturer’s website. Exclusion criteria included see more an alanine aminotransferase level that was 5× or more the upper limit of normal, total bilirubin level of 2 mg/dL or greater, direct bilirubin level greater than the upper limit of normal, international normalized ratio of 1.7 or greater, albumin level of 3.2 g/dL or less, hemoglobin level less than 11 g/dL for women and less than 12 g/dL for men, absolute neutrophil count less than 1.5 × 109 cells/L (or <1.2 × 109 cells/L for African American individuals), platelet count less than 90 × 109 cells/L, creatinine clearance less than 50 mL/min, and ineligibility for peginterferon alfa 2a or ribavirin if needed for treatment intensification (see later). Women of child-bearing potential were required to use at least 2 contraception methods. All randomized patients received daclatasvir (60 mg, orally, once daily), asunaprevir (200 mg, orally, twice daily), and BMS-791325 orally at either 75 or 150 mg twice daily. The dose selection of BMS-791325 was based on phase 1 antiviral activity and safety.