First, the form of inhibition associated with NMAs clearly occurs late in the motor chain that leads from plan to movement. In particular, inhibition mechanisms remain available even during the execution phase, and after action initiation:
negative motor responses E7080 clinical trial are defined as cessation of ongoing movement. However, the same inhibitory process might also apply to action preparation prior to execution. Any future data on effects of NMA stimulation during action preparation would be extremely valuable. Second, NMAs seem to show a coarse somatotopy, as they are specific to particular muscular actions, rather than general cessations of all motor activity. This may relate to the
finding that there are specific inhibitory mechanisms that may be distinguished from a general inhibitory function ( Aron and Verbruggen, 2008 and Verbruggen and Logan, 2008). Third, the inhibitory function of NMAs resembles an unconscious braking of ongoing action, rather http://www.selleckchem.com/products/Gefitinib.html than a conscious decision to inhibit. Recent cognitive theories have conceptualised inhibition in two quite different ways. First, it may occur by competition between representations of alternative actions at the same representational level. The go/nogo task fits the first model, if we can accept that nogo is a form of action. Computational theories of action selection (Cisek, 2006) hold that action inhibition is the result of the competition between ’go’ and ‘nogo’ processes. On this view there is no need to pose a hierarchical organization of inhibitory control, since response selection and response Pazopanib inhibition are effectively identical (Kenner et al., 2010 and Mostofsky and Simmonds, 2008). An alternative view proposes distinct ‘inhibition centres’, positioned hierarchically upstream of action control, and capable of globally inhibiting several motor outputs (Aron and Verbruggen, 2008). It has been argued (Aron et al., 2004) that the right inferior frontal cortex is the main brain
area responsible for driving action inhibition. The IFC is thought to implement executive control by driving neural activity in subcortical and posterior cortical regions. Other, more recent data suggests that the pre-SMA also contributes to these inhibitory processes, and may play a leading role (Duann et al., 2009 and Swann et al., 2012). We may therefore ask whether evidence from NMAs is more consistent with the hierarchical or the competitive view. The hierarchical view would predict an inhibitory function to be located upstream of action control centres. Given the general anteroposterior hierarchy in the frontal cortex (Koechlin and Summerfield, 2007) this view might predict NMAs to be located anterior to positive motor areas.