NRF scores and mean national food prices were calculated per calorie and per US Food and Drug Administration-defined serving.
Results: Each of the 9 USDA
food groups offered foods of diverse nutritive value and cost. Eggs, dry beans and legumes, and meat and milk products were the lowest-cost sources of protein. Milk and milk products were the lowest-cost sources of calcium, whereas vegetables and fruit were the lowest-cost sources of vitamin C. Milk, potatoes, selleck compound citrus juices, cereals, and beans had more favorable overall nutrient-to-price ratios than did many vegetables and fruit. Energy-dense grains, sweets, and fats provided most of the calories but fewer nutrients per dollar.
Conclusion: One important application of nutrient profile models is to help consumers identify foods that provide optimal nutrition at an affordable cost. Am J Clin Nutr 2010;91(suppl):1095S-101S.”
“Study Design. An in vitro and in vivo experimental study.
Objective. This study was undertaken to evaluate differences
in the capability of inducing an implant-centered infection between Staphylococcus aureus and Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Summary of Background Data. Bacterial infection is still one of the most serious and devastating complications after orthopedic implant surgery despite the advent of new antibiotics and treatment methods.
Methods. S. aureus and M. tuberculosis were separately cultured with titanium plates. The bacteria colonized on the plates were isolated and cultured on culture medium. They were evaluated and compared by colony-forming units enumeration. Scanning electron microscopy was used to evaluate selleck kinase inhibitor the difference in the colonization features of the
2 pathogens. In the in vivo experiment, 22 dogs were used to assess the susceptibility to infection after a local bacterial challenge with either S. aureus or M. tuberculosis.
Results. Momelotinib manufacturer S. aureus showed heavy adhesion and multiplication on the surface of titanium plates in vitro, whereas M. tuberculosis rarely adhered to the surface of the plates. Under scanning electron microscopy, S. aureus colonization was observed: the coccoid was widespread on the surface of the plates but only a few M. tuberculosis cells scattered on the surface of the plates. In in vivo test, the infection rateforthe S. aureus inoculation was higher than that for the M. tuberculosis challenge. The infection rate for the entire test population (n = 44 sites) was 39.58% (19/48). The infection rates were 54.17% (13/24) for the S. aureus challenge and 25% (6/24) for the M. tuberculosis challenge, respectively (P < 0.05).
Conclusion. It is less likely for M. tuberculosis to adhere and form a biofilm on an implant surface than S. aureus. Under otherwise identical conditions, M. tuberculosis contamination following instrumented spine surgery might lead to less occurrence of infection than S. aureus contamination.