The number of micronucleated cells was counted in 2,000 reticuloc

The number of micronucleated cells was counted in 2,000 reticulocytes per animal using an Olympus BH-2 microscope at 1,000× magnification [26]. The statistical analyses were made with a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Dunnet test. Differences were considered significant at p value of less than 0.05. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy After treatment with the IC50 (72 h) of parthenolide, axenic amastigotes

were washed in PBS and fixed in 2.5% glutaraldehyde in 0.1 M sodium cacodylate buffer at 4ºC. For scanning electron microscopy, amastigotes were placed on a specimen support with a poly-L-lysine-coated check details coverslip and washed in cacodylate buffer. The cells were dehydrated in an increasing ethanol gradient, critical-point-dried in CO2, sputter-coated with gold, and observed in a Shimadzu SS-550 SEM scanning electron microscope. For transmission electron microscopy, amastigote forms were treated with the IC50 of CP673451 cost parthenolide and the IC50 of amphotericin

B and fixed as described above. The cells were postfixed in a solution that contained 1% osmium tetroxide, 0.8% potassium ferrocyanide, and 10 mM calcium chloride in 0.1 M cacodylate buffer, dehydrated in an increasing acetone gradient, and embedded in Epon resin. Ultrathin sections were stained with uranyl acetate and lead citrate, and the images were examined in a Zeiss 900 transmission electron microscope. Fluorescence of monodansylcadaverine during cell death Axenic amastigotes were treated with IC50 and IC90 equivalents of parthenolide. After 72 h, the cells were washed and resuspended in PBS. To verify the induction of autophagy by parthenolide, the cells were incubated with 0.05 mM monodansylcadaverine (MDC) at 37°C for 10 min. After incubation, the cells were washed three times with PBS to remove excess MDC, immediately analyzed

by fluorescence microscopy at an excitation wavelength of 360–380 nm and emission wavelength of 525 nm, and photographed using a charge-coupled-device camera. This study was qualitative. Flow selleck chemicals cytometry The antileishmanial learn more activity of parthenolide (20 and 40 μM) on the integrity of the plasma membrane and mitochondrial membrane potential of axenic amastigotes (5 × 106 cells/ml) was determined after 3 h treatment. Amphotericin B (5.0 μM) and carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (200 μM) were used as positive controls. Untreated amastigotes were used as a negative control. Each flow-cytometric technique was evaluated by repeating each experiment three times to verify reproducibility. The integrity of the plasma membrane was assessed using L. amazonensis amastigotes at an average density of 5 × 106 cells suspended in 500 μl PBS and stained with 50 μl propidium iodide (2 μg/ml) for 5 min at room temperature. To measure mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), 1 ml of saline that contained 1 × 106 of treated amastigotes was mixed with 1 μl rhodamine 123 (5 mg/mL) for 15 min at 37°C.

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