Niban decreased in renal cortex of UUO rats and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)-stimulated HK-2 cells. siRNA of Niban increased apoptosis of HK-2 cells. TGF-β1 also increased apoptosis of HK-2 cells. Overexpression of Niban failed to diminish apoptosis of HK-2 cells induced by TGF-β1. Niban decreased in renal tubular cells of patients of obstructive nephropathy, UUO rats and TGF-β1 stimulated HK-2 cells. Suppressing Niban increases apoptosis in HK-2 cells. Niban may be associated with apoptosis of HK-2 cells. “
“Adenoviruses are common pathogens that have the potential to cause opportunistic infections with significant
morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised hosts. The significance of adenoviral infection and disease is incompletely known in the setting of kidney transplantation. Reported adenovirus BVD-523 clinical trial infections in renal transplant recipients have typically manifested as haemorrhagic cystitis and tubulointerstitial nephritis. Pneumonia, hepatitis and enteritis are often seen in other solid organ recipients. However, disseminated or severe adenovirus infections, including fatal cases, have been described in renal transplant recipients. There is uncertainty regarding monitoring and treatment of this virus. Although not supported by randomized clinical trials, cidofovir is used for the treatment of adenovirus
disease not responding to reduction of immunosuppression. We present a case series of 2 patients with disseminated adenovirus infection in our centre who presented at different times from the time of transplantation. The patient is a 70-year-old RXDX-106 concentration female with background of adult polycystic kidney disease (APKD), who received her first kidney transplant from a deceased donor in 2009. She was maintained on prednisolone (10 mg), tacrolimus (1 mg twice daily) and mycophenolate mofetil (500 mg twice daily). She presented to the hospital 27 months after kidney Thalidomide transplant with chills, rigors and fever up to 39.6°C
for the previous 6 days. Subsequently she had loose, watery stool and haematuria. All basic septic screens at initial presentation were unremarkable. She was started on broad spectrum antibiotic with no significant improvement. Subsequently her urine, stool, blood culture and respiratory secretion were positive for adenovirus assessed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). All her immunosuppression was withheld except for prednisolone. She deteriorated clinically requiring ICU admission for haemodynamic instability with new onset atrial fibrillation (AF). Gradually her renal function declined from her baseline creatinine of 115 μmol/L and peaked at 232 μmol/L. She was treated with Cidofovir 3 mg/kg weekly for 3 weeks. Her kidney was subsequently biopsied which showed moderate interstitial infiltrates with moderate to severe tubulitis. No inclusion viral bodies were seen on light or electron microscopy. Immunofluorescence was negative for C4d.