Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists and the direct renin inhib

Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists and the direct renin inhibitor aliskiren as add-on treatments to standard therapy including the optimal dose of ACEIs or ARBs reduce albuminuria or proteinuria and retard development of renal dysfunction more than placebo. No clinical evidence is available, however, about whether these strategies may influence long-term kidney disease outcomes.

Combined RAAS blockade may be offered only to patients with proteinuric chronic nephropathies who do not achieve full and persistent remission of proteinuria with ACEI or ARB alone. AC220 order They need to be carefully monitored for hyperkalemia and worsening of kidney function. This article reviews an evidence-based approach to use of RAAS-inhibiting agents in kidney diseases, considers combination RAAS blockade treatment strategies and discusses some perspectives related to the implementation of RAAS blockade in renal protection.”

In adults anesthetized with propofol, muscle relaxants may decrease the Bispectral Index (BIS). The aim of this prospective randomized trial was to detect the influence

of a muscle relaxant bolus on the BIS and the Cerebral State Index (CSI) in children under propofol anesthesia.


Forty pediatric patients, age 6.6 +/- 3.3 years, weight 24 +/- 9 kg, scheduled for surgical procedures requiring general anesthesia were enrolled. Two minutes after i.v. injection of 0.3 mcg center dot kg-1 of sufentanil, Anlotinib mouse general anesthesia was induced

by an initial bolus of 3 mg center dot see more kg-1 of propofol, followed by a continuous infusion titrated to achieve a stable BIS value of 50 +/- 5. Patients received either mivacurium 0.25 mg center dot kg-1 (Group Miva) or NaCl 0.9% 0.12 ml center dot kg-1 (Group Control). Mean BIS and CSI values per minute were compared between (Miva vs. Control) and within groups (Baseline vs 5 min. after study drug administration).


The observed changes in BIS and CSI values before and after administration of study drugs revealed no differences between the study groups. Mean baseline BIS and CSI values were lower than 5 min after study drug administration. There were no intergroup differences with respect to BIS and CSI values at any time point.


These data suggest that in pediatric patients anesthetized with propofol, administration of mivacurium has no impact on BIS and CSI values.”
“Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is a rare disease characterized by microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia and acute renal failure. It is usually secondary to infections by strains of Escherichia coil (STEC) that produce Shiga-like toxin. In about 10% of patients, no STEC infections are reported. In these cases of atypical HUS (aHUS), mutations in genes encoding proteins of the complement system have been described.

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