Logistic regression and generalized estimating equations’ analyses were used to examine the role of adolescent-onset cannabis use (<= 15 years of age) on CIP risk,
both controlling GSK2126458 concentration for previously implicated CIP risk factors and familial relationships, and considering potential interactions with COMT Val158Met genotype.
Results: Cocaine-dependent individuals who endorsed CIP had significantly higher rates of adolescent-onset cannabis use than those without CIP (62.2% vs. 50.2%; chi(2) = 15.2, df=1, p < 0.0001), a finding that remained after controlling for sibling correlations and other risk factors. There were no effects of COMT genotype or genotype by early cannabis onset interactions. A modest (OR=1.4) and nearly significant (p=0.053) effect of CIP status in probands on CIP status in siblings was also noted.
Conclusions: Adolescent-onset cannabis use increases the risk of CIP in cocaine-dependent individuals. COMT genotype and its interaction with early cannabis exposure did not emerge as significant predictors of CIP. In addition, trait vulnerability to CIP may also be Selleck Autophagy inhibitor familial in nature. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The state of
absorbed water in polyamide 6 elongated to several levels have been investigated in relation to the polymer microstructure. The absorption behavior of distilled water at 20 degrees C was monitored until the saturation. Both the diffusion coefficient and the equilibrium content of water were increased by plastic elongation. The large elongation caused a reduction PFTα in vivo in the storage modulus and rises in the loss tangents for alpha- and beta-relaxations. The DSC measurements clearly indicated several exothermic peaks showing the presence of freezable bound water in the largely elongated specimen.
These results suggest that some microstructural defects like voids are formed by the collapse of crystals by large elongation, and the water molecules are accumulated in such defects under weaker interaction with the surrounding polymer. Supposing the pore as the structural defect, the pore size distribution was obtained from the DSC curve by the method of thermoporosimetry. Assuming the cylindrical pores, they were characterized to have the total volume of about 13.5 x 10(-4) mm(3) g(-1), the surface area of about 1.1 m(2) g(-1), and the average radius of about 2.5 nm, being appropriately called mesopore. (C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 115: 1272-1277, 2010″
“Rice (Oryza sativa) allelic sugary1 (sug1) mutants defective in isoamylase 1 (ISA1) accumulate varying levels of starch and phytoglycogen in their endosperm, and the activity of a pullulanase-type of a debranching enzyme (PUL) was found to correlate closely with the severity of the sug1 phenotype.