While further investigations are necessary to evaluate the mucosal immunity and the ultimate inhibitors protective efficacy of Ad5.MERS-S and Ad5.MERS-S1 in dromedary camels or the proper animal models, our results demonstrate that recombinant adenoviruses encoding MERS-S antigens may be protective vaccine candidates with a safe profile. Moreover, we have also investigated in the present study the infectivity of adenovirus type 5 of dromedary camel cells and the presence of anti-adenovirus type 5 neutralizing antibodies in a limited
compound screening assay set of dromedary camel sera. Altogether, the presented studies support further exploration of Ad5.MERS vaccines to target the animal reservoir, reducing the risk of human exposure to MERS-CoV. This project utilized the University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute Vector Core Facilities supported by the University of Pittsburgh’s National Institutes of Health Cancer Center KPT-330 chemical structure Support Grant, award P30 CA047904. A.D.M.E.O., V.S.R., and B.L.H. are inventors on a patent application related to this work. “
“Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) causes serious production losses and has an enormous impact on trade. It is costly and difficult to control because of the diversity of the viruses involved, the multiple host species affected (both domestic and over 30 wildlife animal species) and the speed
and different routes of transmission. It is caused by FMD virus (FMDV), a small non-enveloped RNA virus belonging to the genus Aphthovirus in the family Picornaviridae. The virus exists as seven immunologically distinct serotypes: O, A, C, Asia 1, Southern African Territory (SAT)-1, SAT-2 and SAT-3. Each serotype has a spectrum of antigenically distinct subtypes due to a high mutation rate . The viral genome is about 8.3 kb long and enclosed in Dipeptidyl peptidase a protein capsid. The capsid comprises 60 copies each of the four structural proteins (VP1-VP4); the VP1-3
proteins are located on the surface, while VP4 is internal. All FMDV serotypes produce a clinically indistinguishable disease but immunity to one serotype does not confer protection against another due to the antigenic diversity. The role of humoral antibodies as the principal component of FMD vaccine-induced protection is well established . Traditionally, monoclonal antibody (mAb) resistant (mar) mutant studies and sequencing of their capsids have been used to identify critical amino acid (aa) residues for neutralisation , , , ,  and . There are four known neutralising antigenic sites located on the three exposed capsid proteins of serotype A. Site 1 (G-H loop of VP1) is linear and trypsin-sensitive, whereas other sites are conformational and trypsin-resistant . Crystallographic studies have identified that most neutralising epitopes have been found on surface oriented interconnecting loops between structural elements .