We found no differences associated with the other amino acid positions. Amino acid 70 was an independent factor for the responses to the therapy in multivariate analysis. Conclusion: The identity of amino acid 70 of the HCV core region affected the sensitivity to IFN; patients with glutamine at amino acid 70 of HCV showed resistance to IFN. Consequently, it strongly affected the outcome of combination therapy with PEG-IFN and ribavirin in Japanese patients with HCV genotype 1b. “
“Background and Aim: Allopurinol potentiates azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) by increasing 6-thioguanine nucleotide (6-TGN) metabolite concentrations. The outcome Dorsomorphin in vivo might
also be improved by adding allopurinol in individuals who preferentially produce 6-methylmercaptopurine nucleotides (6-MMPN), Ruxolitinib rather than 6-TGN. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of allopurinol on concentrations of 6-MMPN and 6-TGN in individuals with a high ratio of these metabolites
(>20), which is indicative of a poor thiopurine response. Methods: Sixteen individuals were identified who were taking azathioprine or 6-MP, and were commenced on allopurinol to improve a high 6-MMPN : TGN ratio. Metabolite concentrations were compared before and after commencing allopurinol, and markers of disease control were compared. Results: The addition of 100–300 mg allopurinol daily and thiopurine dose reduction (17–50% of the original dose) resulted in a reduction of the median (and range) 6-MMPN concentration, from 11 643 (3 365–27 832) to 221 (55–844) pmol/8 × 108 red blood cells (RBC; P = 0.0005), increased 6-TGN from 162 (125–300) to 332 (135–923) pmol/8 × 108 RBC (P = 0.0005), and reduced the 6-MMPN : 6-TGN ratio from 63 (12–199) to 1 (0.1–4.5)
(P = 0.0005). There was a significant reduction in steroid dose requirements at 12 months (P = 0.04) and trends for improvement in other markers of disease control. One patient developed red cell aplasia that resolved upon stopping azathioprine and allopurinol. Conclusions: In those with a high 6-MMPN : 6-TGN ratio (>20), response to thiopurine treatment might be improved by the addition of allopurinol, together with a reduced thiopurine dose and close hematological monitoring. selleck products “
“Proteins of the karyopherin superfamily including importins and exportins represent an essential part of the nucleocytoplasmic transport machinery. However, the functional relevance and regulation of karyopherins in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is poorly understood. Here we identified cellular apoptosis susceptibility (CAS, exportin-2) and its transport substrate importin-α1 (imp-α1) among significantly up-regulated transport factor genes in HCC. Disruption of the CAS/imp-α1 transport cycle by RNAi in HCC cell lines resulted in decreased tumor cell growth and increased apoptosis.