“Very long chain fatty acids (FAs) are important components of different classes of lipids in all organisms from bacteria to man. They include also, usually as minor components, odd-numbered FAs. These have so far been given little attention because of technical difficulties inherent in their detection and identification. Current modem analytical methods such as GC-MS and/or LC-MS make this detection and identification possible, and should promote a study of their properties. This review brings, in a concise manner, most of the currently available information about these FAs, their GW4869 occurrence in different organisms, their structure and other properties.
It should provide an impetus for further research into these very interesting compounds whose chemical, biochemical and biological
properties are poorly known. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Monoclonal antibodies are attractive therapeutics for treating a wide range of human disorders due to their exquisite binding specificity and high binding affinity. However, a limitation of antibodies is their highly LXH254 purchase variable and difficult-to-predict propensities to aggregate when concentrated during purification and delivery. Despite the large size and complex structure of antibodies, recent findings suggest that antibody solubility can be dramatically improved using rational design methods in addition to conventional selection methods. Here, we review key advances and unmet challenges in engineering the variable and constant regions of antibody fragments and full-length antibodies to resist aggregation without reducing their binding affinity. These experimental and computational
discoveries should accelerate the development of robust algorithms for designing aggregation-resistant antibodies.”
“The mammalian subventricular zone (SVZ) is the largest germinative zone of the adult brain. Progenitor cells generated from the SVZ play important roles during the remyelination process. To determine the functional role of Olig2 in regulating astroglial differentiation in the mouse SVZ, we used the cuprizone mouse model to investigate demyelination. We found that cuprizone administration Torin 1 purchase significantly enhanced the expression of Olig2 and increased astroglial differentiation in the SVZ, as compared with control. Moreover, cytoplasmic translocation of Olig2 occurred after demyelination. In vitro studies further revealed that supplementation of culture media with growth factors enhanced the oligodendroglial differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs), whereas serum alone promoted astroglial differentiation and cytoplasmic translocation of Olig2. Additionally, the expression levels of bone morphogenetic proteins 2 and 4 (BMP2 and BMP4) and inhibitor of DNA binding 2 and 4 (Id2 and Id4) were greatly elevated during astroglial differentiation.