realize the transient indentation in AFM, we introduce


realize the transient indentation in AFM, we introduced a novel experimental method. Viscoelastic nanoindentation theories were then developed based on the functional equation method [44]. The adhesion between the AFM tip and the sample, which significantly affected the determination of the viscoelastic properties [45], was included in the indentation model [20]. The viscoelastic responses of the sample with respect to different mechanical stimuli, including stress relaxation and strain creep, were further studied. The transition from transient properties to dynamic properties was also addressed. Methods The TMV/Ba2+ superlattice solution was obtained from the mixture of the TMV and BaCl2 solution (molar ratio of Ba2+/TMV = 9.2 × 104:1) as stated GSK872 cost in the reference [13]. It was further diluted with deionized

water (volume ratio 1:1). A 10-μL drop of the diluted solution on a silicon wafer was spun at 800 rpm for 10 s to form a mono-layer dispersion of the sample. The sample was dried for 30 min under ambient conditions (40% R.H., 21°C) for AFM (Dimension 3100, Bruker, Santa Barbara, CA, USA) observation and subsequent indentation tests. The sample was observed with FESEM and AFM. The indentation 17DMAG ic50 D-malate dehydrogenase was performed using the AFM nanoindentation

mode (AFM probe type: Tap150-G, NanoAndMore USA, Lady’s Island, SC, USA). The geometry of the cantilever was precisely measured using FESEM (S-4700, Hitachi, Troy, MI, USA), with a learn more length of 125 μm, width of 25 μm, and thickness of 2.1 μm. To accurately measure the tip radius, the tip was scanned on the standard AFM tip characterizer (SOCS/W2, Bruker) and the scanned data was curve fitted using PSI-Plot (Poly Software International, Orangetown, NY, USA). The tip radius calculated to be 12 nm. For a typical indentation test, the tip was pressed onto the top surface of the sample until a predefined force of ~100 nN. The cantilever end remained unchanged in position during the controlled delay time. A series of indentations of the same predefined indentation force and different delay times were performed to track the viscoelastic responses. A 10-min time interval of the two consecutive indentations was set for the sample to fully recover prior to the next indentation. The sample drift was minimized by turning off the light bulb in the AFM controller during scanning to keep the AFM chamber temperature constant and by shrinking the scan area gradually down to 1 nm × 1 nm on the top surface of the sample to rid the scanner piezo of the hysteresis effect.

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