This could be due to the inhibitory effect exerted by the high IL-4 and IFN-γ levels induced by D-LL + Lc (N) [44,46]. Although the combination of LL + Lc (O) was effective in protection against infectious challenge, the safety implied by the use of a dead recombinant strain makes D-LL + Lc
(O) the strategy of choice for potential use in humans. Nasal vaccination with the buy Vemurafenib inactivated strain associated with L. casei administered by the oral route would favour the induction of not only protective specific antibodies, but also of specific CD4+ T cells. The full protection exerted by D-LL + Lc (O) would be the result of a balanced humoral and cellular immune response between the protective antibodies and the CD4+ Th1, Th17 and Th2 cells specific for the PppA antigen. Oral administration of the probiotic strain associated with both the live and inactivated vaccines induced an evident improvement in the host’s defences because it prevented lung colonization with the even more virulent serotype. At present, further studies at both the lung and nasopharyngeal levels are being carried
out in order to establish the scientific bases that will permit the application of D-LL + Lc (O) to human health. As far as we know, this is the first report that demonstrates the efficacy of the use of a probiotic and an inactivated recombinant strain as a vaccination strategy that is effective, relatively inexpensive and with high application feasibility in Argentina. The authors are grateful to U0126 in vitro Ms Mabel Taljuk for her cooperation in bibliography search. This work was supported by grants from CONICET: Res. 1257/4, PIP 6248, FONCyT: PICT 33754 and CIUNT: D/403. All authors report no conflicts of interests. “
“The naive T-cell pool in peripheral lymphoid tissues is fairly stable in terms of number, diversity and functional capabilities in spite of the absence of prominent
stimuli. This stability is attributed to continuous tuning of the composition of the T-cell pool by various homeostatic Florfenicol signals. Despite extensive research into the link between signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) and T-cell survival, little is known about how Stat3 regulates homeostasis by maintaining the required naive T-cell population in peripheral lymphoid organs. We assessed whether the elimination of Stat3 in T cells limits T-cell survival. We demonstrated that the proportion and number of single-positive thymocytes as well as T cells in the spleen and lymph nodes were significantly decreased in the Stat3-deficient group as a result of the enhanced susceptibility of Stat3-deleted T lymphocytes to apoptosis.