Therefore, the possible differences regarding CYP1A1 MspI polymorphism between the two age groups should be noted in further investigations. However, the data indicated that the potential difference was not evident in the present meta-analysis. The overall data were not stratified BKM120 by source of controls because all studies concerned the population-based controls, except for one study with limited sample sizes . Hospital-based controls might not be always truly representative of the general population. In addition, the population-based controls in several studies were
not strictly matched to the cases. Thus, any selection bias might exist. Future studies using proper control participants with strict matching criteria and large sample sizes are important for reducing such selection bias. In the present meta-analysis, evident
between-study heterogeneities for the overall data were observed for the three comparisons, respectively, and thus, the random-effect models were utilized. In the subgroup analyses, loss of heterogeneities was also found in the subgroups regarding Caucasian and childhood AML, respectively. Though we tried to minimize the possibility of encountering heterogeneity problems by conducting a careful search of the literature and using rigorous criteria for data pooling, evident heterogeneities still existed in some of the comparisons. Therefore, heterogeneities might be multifactoral. In addition to ethnicity and age groups, other factors such as gender, source of controls, histological types and prevalence of lifestyle factors might also yield the heterogeneities. Several limitations selleck chemicals should be concerned in the present aminophylline meta-analysis. First, the primary articles only provided data about Caucasians, Asians and mixed races. Detailed information regarding other ethnicities such as African should be concerned. Second, subgroup analyses regarding gender and other factors such as smoking, drinking and radiation exposure have not been conducted in the present study because
relevant information was insufficient in the primary articles. Third, only studies written in English and Chinese were included in this meta-analysis. Any selection bias should be noted. Furthermore, although the meta-analysis in this study is suggestive, high heterogeneity and lack of significant association in any genetic model among Caucasian and Mixed subgroups or age subgroups observed in this study could also originate from the nature of AML as a genetically heterogeneous disease and further assessment on the relationship between CYP1A1 MspI polymorphism and risk of AML subtypes might provide more instructive information. Additionally, gene-gene and gene-environment interactions should also be considered in the further investigations. In summary, the results of the present meta-analysis suggest that variant C allele of CYP1A1 MspI polymorphism might have an association with increased AML risk among Asians.