There are no studies and few case reports in the HAART era report

There are no studies and few case reports in the HAART era reporting on chorionic villus sampling or cordocentesis [217]. For evidence relating to choice of ART to reduce transmission risk associated with amniocentesis, see Section 5.4 on late presentation. 7.1.5 ECV can be performed

in women with HIV. Grading: 2D ECV should be offered to women with a VL <50 copies/mL and breech presentation at >36 + 0 weeks in the absence of obstetric contraindications. There is less obstetric risk to the baby and mother when the fetus is head-down at the time of birth. ECV is a procedure by which the fetus, which is lying bottom first, is manipulated through the mother’s abdominal wall to the head-down position. If the fetus is not head down by about 36 weeks of pregnancy, ECV reduces the chance that the fetus selleck chemical will present as breech at the time of birth, and thus reduces the chance of CS. There is no published evidence that helps decision-making regarding ECV in the HIV-positive

pregnant woman. For the general maternity population, ECV is recommended [207]. The question of whether ECV might increase the risk of MTCT of infections such as HIV is important and, in the absence of direct evidence, we have reviewed the relevant biological evidence and concluded that maternofetal transfusion, as a consequence of this procedure, is extremely rare, and unlikely to be precipitated by ECV [218]. It is also reassuring that in a randomized trial of fundal pressure to expel the baby during Y-27632 CS, no evidence of maternofetal transfusion was found [219]. 7.2.1 Vaginal delivery is recommended Temsirolimus for women on HAART with HIV VL <50 HIV RNA copies/mL plasma at gestational week 36.

Grading: 1C For women taking HAART, a decision regarding recommended mode of delivery should be made after review of plasma VL results at 36 weeks. For women with a plasma VL <50 HIV RNA copies/mL at 36 weeks, and in the absence of obstetric contraindications, planned vaginal delivery is recommended. For women with a plasma VL of 50–399 HIV RNA copies/mL at 36 weeks, PLCS should be considered, taking into account the actual VL, trajectory of the VL, length of time on treatment, adherence issues, obstetric factors and the woman’s views. Where the VL is ≥400 HIV RNA copies/mL at 36 weeks, PLCS is recommended. Published cohort data from the UK and other European countries have shown MTCT rates of <0.5% in women with plasma VL <50 HIV RNA copies/mL taking HAART, irrespective of mode of delivery [4],[23],[220],[221]. These studies support the practice of recommending planned vaginal delivery for women on HAART with plasma VL <50 HIV RNA copies/mL. Among HIV-positive women taking HAART in pregnancy and delivering between 2000 and 2006 in the UK and Ireland, there was no difference in MTCT rate whether they delivered by planned CS (0.7%; 17 of 2286) or planned vaginal delivery [0.

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