The task was an event-related, within-subject design where partic

The task was an event-related, within-subject design where participants performed 34 trials in each of the four conditions. Trials within sessions #molarity calculator randurls[1|1|,|CHEM1|]# were presented randomly and the order of sessions was counterbalanced. Each trial began with a screen depicting six black and white line drawings (275 msec) (Snodgrass and Vanderwart 1980)1999 (Fig. ​(Fig.1).1). Participants then viewed a screen cueing motivational condition and had up to 5 sec to indicate with a button press using the index finger of one hand whether one of the six pictures depicted an animal. The index finger of the other hand was used to indicate if an animal was

not present. Handedness was counterbalanced across participants. The motivational cue appeared after the stimulus Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical to isolate the effect of motivation on decision behavior and to avoid the confounding effect of motivation mediated increases in perceptual processing through mechanisms such as attention (Engelmann and selleck Volasertib Pessoa 2007; Engelmann Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical et al. 2009; Pessoa 2009). Positive motivation trials were cued by a gold coin with “+10kr” superimposed. Here, 10kr ($1.50) could be won for correct responses (hits and Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical correct negatives) and no money would be lost for incorrect responses (misses and false positives). Negative trials were cued with the same gold coin with an orange tint and “−10kr” superimposed. On these

trials, no money would be won for correct responses, but 10kr would be lost for incorrect responses. The tinting of the coin was counterbalanced across participants. Neutral trials where no money could be won or lost were cued by a white disk the same dimensions as the coin. A jittered delay (3.5 ± 1.5 Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical sec) separated the participants’

decision from a feedback screen (1750 msec) which depicted the amount of money obtained on that particular trial as well as the total amount of money that had been gained so far. As no money could be won or lost on neutral trials, only the total amount of money was displayed on the feedback screen. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Individual trials were separated by a jittered intertrial interval lasting 5 ± 2 sec. Figure 1 Experimental task. Participants viewed six black and white drawings for 275 msec. A decision screen indicating the amount of money at stake on that trial immediately followed. A gold coin with “+10kr” indicated that 10kr could be won for … Participants completed GSK-3 a practice version of the task outside of the scanner to limit learning effects. The practice task was identical to the experimental task except that the target stimuli were modes of transportation instead of animals. The images used in the practice task were not included in the experimental task. Apparatus The paradigm was programmed and controlled using E-Prime software (version 1.2; Psychology Software Tools, Inc.; Pittsburgh, PA, USA). Stimuli were presented to the participants in the scanner using VisualSystem (NordicNeuroLab, Bergen, Norway) and responses were collected using ResponseGrips (NordicNeuroLab).

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