The DSM-IV-R classification Pervasive Developmental Disorder – Not otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS) is based on the symptoms for autism and includes a wide variety of phenotypes that do not meet full criteria for autism. As such, PDD-NOS is a broad and poorly defined residual category of the autism spectrum disorders. In order to address the heterogeneity in this residual category it may be helpful to define clinical and neurobiological subtypes. Multiple complex developmental disorder (MCDD) may constitute such a subtype. In order to study the neurobiological specificity of PRT062607 MCDD in comparison with other autism spectrum disorders, we investigated brain morphology in children (age
7-15 years) with MCDD compared to children with autism and typically developing controls.
Method. Structural MRI measures were compared between 22 high-functioning subjects with MCDD and 21 high-functioning subjects with autism, and 21 matched controls.
Results. Subjects with MCDD showed an enlarged cerebellum and a trend towards larger grey-matter volume compared to control subjects. Compared to subjects with autism, subjects with MCDD had smaller intracranial volume.
Conclusions. We report a pattern of volumetric changes in the brains of subjects with MCDD, similar to that seen in autism. However, no enlargement in
head size was found. This suggests that although some of the neurobiological changes associated with MCDD overlap with those in autism, others do not. These neurobiological changes may reflect differences in the developmental trajectories associated with these two subtypes
of autism spectrum disorders.”
“Chronic kidney disease BIBW2992 (CKD) is a major public health problem. The classification of CKD by KDOQI and KDIGO and the routine eGFR reporting Bcl-w have resulted in increased identification of CKD. It is important to be able to identify those at high risk of CKD progression and its associated cardiovascular disease (CVD). Proteinuria is the most sensitive marker of CKD progression in clinical practice, especially when combined with eGFR, but these have limitations. Hence, early, more sensitive, biomarkers are required. Recently, promising biomarkers have been identified for CKD progression and its associated CVD morbidity and mortality. These may be more sensitive biomarkers of kidney function, the underlying pathophysiological processes, and/or cardiovascular risk. Although there are some common pathways to CKD progression, there are many primary causes, each with its own specific pathophysiological mechanism. Hence, a panel measuring multiple biomarkers including disease-specific biomarkers may be required. Large, longitudinal observational studies are needed to validate candidate biomarkers in a broad range of populations prior to implementation into routine CKD management. Recent renal biomarkers discovered include neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, kidney injury molecule-1, and liver-type fatty acid-binding protein.