The day before adoptive transfer, recipient mice were treated whe

The day before adoptive transfer, recipient mice were treated where indicated with 25 mg/kg CTLA-4-Ig. Five hours after adoptive transfer the recipient groups were challenged with DNFB by the standard procedure and ear swelling measured 24, 48 and 72 h post-challenge. A second adoptive transfer experiment was conducted where biopsies were taken from the inflamed ear 48 h post-challenge. These were analysed for their content of different cytokines

and chemokines, as described previously, in order to investigate whether the changed cytokine and chemokine expression after CTLA-4-Ig treatment is due to a direct suppressive effect on the keratinocytes or if it can be explained by a decreased infiltration click here of effector cells after CTLA-4-Ig treatment. To investigate binding of CTLA-4-Ig on lymph node cells in the inguinal lymph node after sensitization, groups of mice (n = 5) were treated with CTLA-4-Ig or isotype control (25 mg/kg). The next day all mice were sensitized with 0·5% DNFB, as described above. Subsequently, mice were killed 3, Selleck RXDX-106 4 and 5 days after sensitization and single cells

from the inguinal lymph node were prepared for flow cytometric analysis as described above and the cell suspensions were blocked with anti-CD32/CD16 (Fc block; BDBiosciences) for 10 min and stained with the following anti-mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAb): anti-human IgG1-APC (Jackson Immunoresearch, West Grove, PA, USA), CD45-Efluor605 (eBiosciences), TCR-β-Qdot655 (Invitrogen), CD19-V450 (BDBiosciences), CD11c-PECy7 (BDBiosciences), I-A/E-FITC (eBiosciences) and CD86-PE (eBiosciences) for 30 min. Flow cytometric analysis of samples was analysed on a BD LSRII flow cytometer equipped with a blue, red and violet laser and data were analysed in BD fluorescence activated cell

sorter (FACS) Diva software, version 6·1.3. DCs were gated as CD45+TCR-β–CD19−, MHCII+ and CD11c+, while B cells were gated as CD45+CD19+ cells, and the level of human IgG1+ DCs and B cells together with CD86+ DCs and B cells were investigated. To investigate whether CTLA-4-Ig is able to suppress hapten-induced inflammation in vivo, two mouse models of contact hypersensitivity Thalidomide were analysed: the DNFB- and oxazolone-induced CHS models, respectively. BALB/c mice were treated with CTLA-4-Ig or control proteins (hIgG1Fc) and subsequently sensitized on day 0. Five (DNFB) or 6 (oxazolone) days later, mice were challenged with hapten, and ear thickness measured 24, 48 and 72 h later. Control groups included mice which were sensitized with acetone/olive oil but challenged with DNFB or oxazolone, and mice which were treated with only acetone/olive oil in both the sensitization and challenge phases. Figure 1 shows the ear-swelling response after 24 h (Fig. 1a,c) and summarized as area under the curve (AUC) from 0–72 h (Fig. 1b,d); the data confirm that CTLA-4-Ig mediates a dose-dependent suppression of the ear-swelling response in both models.

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