The autoclave is then sealed and put in to a preheated oven at 15

The autoclave is then sealed and put in to a preheated oven at 150°C for reaction times of 0.5, 1, 2, and 3 h. The nanofibers and hierarchical structures are sensitized with D358 dye (indoline dye, Mitsubishi Paper Mills Limited, Sumida, Tokyo, Japan) by immersing them in the dye solution [0.5 mM, 50% acetonitrile (ACN, Merck & Co, Inc, Whitehouse Station, NJ, USA), 50% tertiary butanol (Sigma Aldrich) and 0.1 M cheno

(Sigma)] for BTK assay 4 h, followed by rinsing in ACN. An organic hole conductor namely spiro-OMeTAD [2,2′,7,7′-tetrakis(N,N-di-p-methoxyphenylamine) 9,9′-spirobifluorene] (Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany) is dissolved in chlorobenzene (Sigma Aldrich) and spin-coated on these substrates. Additives like Li(CF3SO2)2 N (Sigma Aldrich), tert-butylpyridine (Sigma Aldrich), and FK102 dopant are added to the above solution [16]. The masked substrates are placed in a thermal evaporator for gold (Au) deposition via shadow masking. The thickness

of the Au electrode is about 80 nm, and the active area is defined by the overlapping of TiO2 and Au measuring 0.64 cm2. Cross-sectional images are recorded by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM, JEOL, JSM-7600 F, 5 kV; JEOL Ltd, Akishima, Tokyo, Japan). The film’s thickness is measured using Alpha Step IQ Surface Profiler (KLA Tencor, Milpitas, CA, USA). The phase and crystallographic structure of the nanostructures are characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD) using a Bruker D8 Advance with Cu Kα radiation (Bruker Corporation, Billerica,

MA, USA). The structural morphology, phase, and crystallinity Temsirolimus clinical trial are analyzed through selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and high-resolution transmission electron micrographs (HRTEM) using JEOL 2100 F operating at 200 keV. For dye loading experiments, the dye molecules are desorbed by using TMAH (0.1 M, Sigma Aldrich) solution and the resultant solutions are inspected via UV–vis-NIR spectrophotometer (UV3600, Shimadzu Co Ltd, Beijing, China) with 282-nm wavelength light source. Photocurrent-voltage measurements are taken using San-EI Electric, XEC-301S (San-EI Electric Co, Ltd, Higashi-Yodogawa, Osaka, Erastin Japan) under AM 1.5 G. Incident photon to current conversion efficiency (IPCE) is determined using PVE300 (Bentham Instruments Ltd, Reading, Berkshire, UK), with dual xenon/quartz halogen light source, measured in DC mode and no bias light is used. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements are recorded using AutoLab PGSTAT302N (Metrohm Autolab BV, Utrecht, The Netherlands) under illumination condition, and different bias potentials are applied ranging from 0.5 V to open circuit voltage. An alternating sinusoidal signal of 10 mV and frequency ranging from 100 KHz to 0.1 Hz are used. Results and discussion Figure  1a shows the FESEM image of the nanofibers after sintering at 450°C, a step necessary to remove polymer and other organic solvents and to yield the anatase phase of the nanofibers.

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