Spectral modulation attenuates molecular, endocrine, and neurobehavioral disruption induced by nocturnal light exposure. Am J Physiol
Endocrinol SRT2104 ic50 Metab 300: E518-E527, 2011. First published December 21, 2010; doi:10.1152/ajpendo.00597.2010.-The human eye serves distinctly dual roles in image forming (IF) and non-image-forming (NIF) responses when exposed to light. Whereas IF responses mediate vision, the NIF responses affect various molecular, neuroendocrine, and neurobehavioral variables. NIF responses can have acute and circadian phase-shifting effects on physiological variables. Both the acute and phase-shifting effects induced by photic stimuli demonstrate short-wavelength sensitivity peaking approximate to 450-480 nm. In the current study, we examined the molecular, neuroendocrine, and neurobehavioral effects of completely filtering (0% transmission) all short wavelengths < 480 nm and all short wavelengths < 460 nm or partially filtering (similar to 30% transmission) < 480 nm from polychromatic white light exposure between 2000 and 0800 in healthy individuals. Filtering short wavelengths < 480 nm prevented nocturnal light-induced suppression of melatonin secretion, increased cortisol secretion, and disrupted peripheral clock
gene expression. Furthermore, subjective alertness, mood, and errors on an objective vigilance task were significantly less impaired at 0800 by filtering wavelengths < 480 nm compared INCB024360 with unfiltered nocturnal light exposure. These changes were not associated with significantly increased sleepiness or fatigue compared with unfiltered light exposure. The changes in molecular, buy SBE-β-CD endocrine, and neurobehavioral processes were not significantly improved by completely filtering < 460 nm or partially filtering < 480 nm compared with unfiltered nocturnal light exposure. Repeated light-dark cycle
alterations as in rotating nightshifts can disrupt circadian rhythms and induce health disorders. The current data suggest that spectral modulation may provide an effective method of regulating the effects of light on physiological processes.”
“We present an experimental system that allows visualization of conformational changes in membrane proteins at the single-molecule level. The target membrane protein is reconstituted in a giant liposome for independent control of the aqueous environments on the two sides of the membrane. For direct observation of conformational changes, an extra-liposomal site(s) of the target protein is bound to a glass surface, and a probe that is easily visible under a microscope, such as a micron-sized plastic bead, is attached to another site on the intra-liposomal side. A conformational change, or an angular motion in the tiny protein molecule, would manifest as a visible motion of the probe. The attachment of the protein on the glass surface also immobilizes the liposome, greatly facilitating its manipulation such as the probe injection.