rhamnosus GG 98% – 5e-34 YP_003171844 1 _ _ 211 AT/AT 240 5S ribo

rhamnosus GG 98% – 5e-34 YP_003171844.1 _ _ 211 AT/AT 240 5S ribosomal RNA L. rhamnosus GG 98% – 2e-11 NR_103302.1 _ _ 212 AT/AT 234 5S ribosomal RNA L. rhamnosus

GG 98% – 4e-09 NR_103302.1 _ _ aWhen available, EC numbers assigned to the putative enzymatic reactions are provided. bThe column indicates the microorganism of the best hit from BLASTX search. cMax identity and E-value from the best hit of BLASTX search are provided. dPathway assignment was performed according to COG functional categories and KEGG pathway database. eE, Amino acid transport and metabolism; F, Nucleotide transport and metabolism; G, Carbohydrate transport and metabolism; M, Cell wall/membrane/envelope biogenesis; R, General function prediction only. It is known that plasmids often carry genes that might be essential for survival under harsh AC220 order conditions, encoding important traits, such as enzymes involved in secondary selleck screening library metabolic pathways [33]. Plasmids are known to be a source of LAB genetic and phenotypic diversity which occasionally confers adaptive advantages to host strains [34]. However, Selleckchem H 89 further studies are clearly needed to better explore the role of plasmid sequences in the L. rhamnosus adaptation to the cheese ripening environment. To validate the cDNA-AFLP expression profiles, 3 genes, encoding pyruvate oxidase (spxB), L-xylulose 5-phosphate 3-epimerase (ulaE), and xylulose-5-phosphate

phosphoketolase (xfp) were selected for qPCR. The relative mRNA abundances were normalized Ponatinib cost by that of the commonly used reference gene 16S

rDNA, and expressed as a ratio of CB to MRS levels. Amplification efficiency for all assays ranged between 85 and 105%. Confirming the reliability of cDNA-AFLP results, all transcripts were more abundant in CB, with expression ratios over 5-fold (Table 2). To investigate a possible role for these genes in allowing L. rhamnosus growth in cheese during ripening, in silico analyses were carried out. SpxB In silico analysis of TDF no. 93 (305 bp), encoding 101 amino acid residues, revealed the highest identity in amino acid sequence (93%) with a pyruvate oxidase (SpxB) from L. rhamnosus GG (Table 3). Lower levels of identity were observed for SpxB of other members of L. casei group (L. casei, 79%; L. paracasei subsp. paracasei, 79%; L. zeae, 75%). BLASTX search also returned a number of pyruvate oxidases of other NSLAB, such as L. curvatus (55%), L. buchneri (46%), L. brevis (46%), L. plantarum (41%) and L. pentosus (41%), as well as of non-Lactobacillus bacteria. SpxB is an enzyme involved in the pyruvate metabolism pathway. LAB can metabolize pyruvate into lactate by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) or into acetate via pyruvate formate lyase (PFL), phosphotransacetylase (PTA) and acetate kinase (ACK), or via pyruvate oxidase (POX) pathway [35]. In the latter, pyruvate is oxidized with the production of hydrogen peroxide and acetyl phosphate, followed by acetate production and ATP generation via ACK (Figure 2).

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