Paul, MN) Then subjects were fitted with a HR monitor (Polar, Po

Paul, MN). Then subjects were fitted with a HR monitor (Polar, Polar Electro Oy, Finland) placed around their chest at the level of the xiphoid process to ensure a quality heart rate signal. Seat and handlebar height were recorded and were replicated for subsequent experimental trials. After warm-up on the bicycle ergometer for 5 minutes at 25 Watts, subjects were asked to complete a progressive resistance exercise test. Subjects

rode at a cadence of 60–90 rpm against an increasing resistance of 50 Watts every 2 minutes until volitional exhaustion. Rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was obtained at the end of each stage using the 10-point Borg category scale [28]. All subjects met at least two of the following criteria to be considered 3-MA in vitro a selleck inhibitor maximal test: 1) increase in VO2 between the last 2 stages of less than half the expected increase, 2) RER ≥ 1.10, or 3) RPE ≥ 9 on the Borg 1–10 scale. Analyzed gas samples were used to determine peak aerobic capacity (VO2 peak) and the ventilatory

threshold (VT) by the Dmax method [29]. Experimental design This study used a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled, crossover design. Subjects were randomized for preexercise intake with the ED or placebo and received the opposite treatment a minimum of 7 days later (see Table 1 for ingredients). Regular version Monster ED was standardized at 2.0 mg per kilogram of body mass (mg · kgBM-1) of caffeine and the placebo was prepared from noncaffeinated diet Mountain Dew and lemon juice by a lab staff member. Both drinks were served in a dark, opaque container and consumed 60 minutes before testing started. The beverage was Glycogen branching enzyme consumed within a 10-minute period from the time it was received. The mean total beverage volume was 467 ± 109 mL (about one 16 oz can). Resting HR data were obtained as explained above followed by exercise. After a minimum of 7 days from preliminary testing, subjects returned to LIHP for their initial energy drink trial. They observed the same pre-testing criteria with respect to fasting, caffeine, and exercise.

All testing was performed in a climate controlled environment between 6:00 to 8:00 am at a minimum of 1 week apart. Participants were informed that they would receive either an energy drink or a taste-matched placebo before experimental testing and a small amount of water (75 mL total) at the 15 minute and 30 minute mark during exercise. Participants were instructed to not discuss the characteristics of the beverages with other participants and were asked at the end of the experimental trial which beverage they received. Table 1 Monster energy drink ingredients Ingredient Amount (per kg body mass) Carbohydrate 0.65 mg kgBM-1 Cafeine 2 mg kgBM-1 Taurine 25 mg kgBM-1 Pana-ginseng 5 mg kgBM-1 Vitamin C 1.5 mg kgBM-1 Ribiflavin 0.04 mg kgBM-1 Niacin 0.50 mg kgBM-1 Vitamin B6 0.

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