Patients received 80 mg of valsartan daily, followed by 160 mg/da

Patients received 80 mg of valsartan daily, followed by 160 mg/day after 6 weeks. The follow-up period was 18 months. The status of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) insertion/deletion, angiotensinogen (AGT) M235T, type 1 angiotensin II receptor (ATR1) A1166C, and TGFB1 C509 and T869C polymorphisms was determined in 162 patients. Results:  Valsartan treatment caused a significant reduction in proteinuria from baseline throughout the study in patients with each genotype of the ACE, AGT and TGFB1 genes. However, patients with the ATR1 AC genotype had no significant reduction RAD001 nmr in proteinuria from baseline throughout the study course.

The median reductions in proteinuria after 6 months were 45.7% and 10.8% in the patients with the SCH727965 ATR1 AA and AC genotypes, respectively (P = 0.034). The annual change in the estimated glomerular filtration rate did not differ significantly among the genotypes for each gene. On multiple regression analysis, the change in proteinuria after 6 months of treatment was independently associated with the ATR1 genotype and the change in blood pressure (P = 0.005 and 0.019, respectively). Conclusion:  Valsartan treatment significantly reduced

the blood pressure and urinary protein excretion of patients with chronic non-diabetic proteinuric nephropathies. Interindividual differences in the anti-proteinuric effect of valsartan may be related partly to the ATR1 A1166C polymorphism. “
“Aim:  The use of interleukin-2 receptor antibody (IL-2Ra) induction has been associated with reduced rejection rates in renal transplant recipients. However, the effect of IL-2Ra induction on graft and patient outcomes in renal transplant recipients with differing immunological risk remains unclear. Methods:  Using Australia and New Zealand

Dialysis and Transplant Registry, renal transplant recipients Tenofovir supplier in Australia between 1995 and 2005 were included. Recipients were stratified into low immunological risk (primary grafts with ≤2 human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-mismatches and panel-reactive antibody (PRA) < 10%) or intermediate immunological risk (subsequent grafts or >2 HLA-mismatches or PRA > 25%) recipients. Recipients receiving T-cell depletive induction therapy or steroid and/or calcineurin-free inhibitor regimens were excluded. Outcomes analysed included the presence of rejection at 6 months, estimated glomerular filtration rate at 1 and 5 years, graft and patient survival. Results:  218 of 1220 (18%) low-risk and 883 of 3204 (28%) intermediate-risk recipients received IL-2Ra. In intermediate-risk recipients, IL-2Ra induction was associated with a 26% reduction in the incidence of acute rejection; but this benefit was restricted only to recipients initiated on cyclosporine-based immunosuppressive regimens. In contrast, the use of IL-2Ra in low-risk recipients was not associated with reduced rejection risk.

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