In contrast to other loci, the distribution of ter foci clearly d

In contrast to other loci, the distribution of ter foci clearly differed between the two cell populations (p-value < 10-3; Figure 3). The distribution of foci in cells with a SRT1720 single focus appeared more peripheral than random. Indeed, the distribution was significantly different from the random and central models (p-value < 10-3); the best fitting model was the 90% central 60% peripheral model in which foci are excluded from Ion Channel Ligand Library order the 10% cell periphery and 40%

cell centre regions (p-value = 0.1; Figure 3). Cells with two foci showed a distribution more central than random. It was however different from any simulated distribution (p-value < 0.05). This more central location is not due to local deformation of the membrane during constriction of the division septum since cells with a constricting septum were omitted from our analysis. The ter region is the last to be segregated, and consequently nucleoid segregation is almost completed when ter foci are duplicated [8]. It follows that duplicated ter foci located close to midcell lie at the mid-cell edge of the nucleoid. The distributions of foci of the ter locus in cells harbouring one or two foci thus indicates that the ter region is preferentially located at the periphery of the nucleoid, either close to the parietal membrane (in single foci cells) or close to a cell pole (after ter duplication) throughout

cell cycle progression. To rule out a specific behaviour of Tipifarnib the ter locus used, we analysed a second ter locus located at 1490 kb (trg). The results reported in Additional file1 Figure S5 clearly show that the trg locus also preferentially

localises at the nucleoid periphery in the cell population harbouring a single fluorescent focus. This strongly suggests that the peripheral location C-X-C chemokine receptor type 7 (CXCR-7) is a general property of the terminal region of the chromosome. Loci positioning after nucleoid disruption We tested whether the same approach could detect a change in chromosome organisation. We used production of the Ndd (Nucleoid Disruption Determinant) protein from the T4 bacteriophage. Ndd disrupts the central and compacted structure of the nucleoid in E. coli and causes chromosomal DNA to delocalise to the cell periphery [22–24]. A plasmid carrying a T7p- ndd2 Ts fusion was transferred into the strains carrying parS insertions, which express the T7 RNA polymerase (Methods). Strains containing the pT7- ndd2 Ts plasmid had a doubling time similar to the parental strains in the absence of Ndd production (45 min. at 42°C in M9 medium). Ndd2Ts production was induced by a rapid temperature shift down to 30°C in the presence of IPTG (Methods). Ndd2Ts-producing cells (hereafter called Ndd-treated cells) stopped dividing almost immediately and did not elongate more than 1 μm (not shown; [25]). The DNA was stained with DAPI and the cells examined by microscopy.

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