In contrast, in HSV-1-infected cells, RPA is not phosphorylated, and endogenous phosphorylated RPA is excluded from stage II microfoci; in addition, the recruitment of ATR/ATRIP is independent of RPA and the kinase activity of ATR. Furthermore, we show that ATR/ATRIP play a beneficial role in viral gene expression and virus production.
Although ICP0 has been shown to be important for partial inactivation of other cellular DNA repair pathways, we show that ICP0 is not responsible for the inactivation PF299804 of ATR signaling and, furthermore, that neither ATR nor ATRIP is a target of ICP0 degradation. Thus, ATR and ATRIP may function outside the context of the canonical ATR damage signaling pathway during HSV-1 infection to participate in the viral life cycle.”
“Female songbirds respond behaviorally to differences in male song structure. Past data suggest a complex role for norepinephrine in female responses to song. Here, we examined the effects of central infusions R406 molecular weight of
the alpha(1)-noradrenergic receptor antagonist prazosin on female European starling (Sturnus vulgaris) responses to nest boxes broadcasting male song. Prazosin disrupted female preferential responses to male starling song over the less biologically relevant purple martin (Progne subis)song. Prazosin decreased female responses to male starling song in a linear dose-response fashion; whereas, it affected responses to purple martin song in a U-shaped dose-response fashion. Results suggest that the role of norepinephrine in female responses to male song differs depending upon drug dose and the biological relevance of the song stimulus. (C) 2011 Elsevier
Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The Lettuce infectious yellows virus (LIYV) RNA 2 mutant p1-5b was previously isolated from Bemisia tabaci-transmitted virus maintained in Chenopodium murale plants. p1-5b RNA 2 contains a single-nucleotide deletion in the minor coat protein (CPm) open reading frame (ORF) that is predicted to result in a frameshift and premature termination of the protein. Using the recently PDK4 developed agroinoculation system for LIYV, we tested RNA 2 containing the p1-5b CPm mutant genotype (agro-pR6-5b) in Nicotiana benthamiana plants. We showed that plant infection triggered by agro-pR6-5b spread systemically and resulted in the formation of virions similar to those produced in p1-5b-inoculated protoplasts. However, virions derived from these mutant CPm genotypes were not transmitted by whiteflies, even though virion concentrations were above the typical transmission thresholds. In contrast, and as demonstrated for the first time, an engineered restoration mutant (agro-pR6-5bM1) was capable of both systemic movement in plants and whitefly transmission.