In a retrospective chart review of patients with HIV infection, P

In a retrospective chart review of patients with HIV infection, Pugliese et al. [83] found the incidence of PAH to be higher in individuals who received HAART compared with those

individuals who only received NRTIs. This result may have arisen from differences in the cohort populations: the HAART cohort may have had more progressed HIV disease as it was defined as individuals selleck screening library with a CD4 count of <300 cells/μL and a viral load of >30 000 copies/mL, whereas the NRTI cohort was defined as individuals with stage C2 (CD4 count between 200 and 499 cells/μL and AIDS-defining illness) or greater disease. The reason that HAART does not favourably impact the prevalence of HIV-related PAH is unclear at the present time. We do know from studies that HIV does not directly infect vascular endothelial cells or smooth muscle cells [24]. Hence, the association between HIV and PAH may not be related to viral load or immune status, partially explaining why HAART does not prevent PAH. The results of the case reports reveal that HIV-related PAH selleck compound is most common in male patients with an average age of 35 years who contracted HIV via injection drug use or male-to-male sexual activity. Although purely speculative, the increased frequency found in individuals who have used intravenous drugs might be related to foreign

body emboli, the use of amphetamine-based drugs, or the presence of portal hypertension, which might be under-diagnosed given the relatively high prevalence of concomitant hepatitis B and C found in this population [92]. The average CD4 count was around 354 cells/μL and 53% Tolmetin of the patients had been diagnosed with AIDS. There was no relationship identified between CD4 cell count and HIV-related PAH, which is corroborated by other studies [8]. The average time from diagnosis of HIV infection to developing PAH was 4.3 years. These results indicate that HIV-related PAH is a chronic disease that occurs gradually. The physical examination, chest X-ray, ECG and echocardiographic findings mentioned above in HIV-related PAH

are similar to those in other causes of PAH. There are no distinct physical or imaging findings that distinguish HIV-related PAH from other causes of PAH. Furthermore, the histopathological examination reveals that HIV-related PAH is characterized by plexogenic pulmonary arteriopathy similar to primary pulmonary vascular disease. The histopathology of primary pulmonary vascular disease is classified as primary pulmonary arteriopathy (plexiform arteriopathy, thrombotic arteriopathy, isolated medial hypertrophy, and medial hypertrophy with intimal fibrosis), pulmonary veno-occlusive disease and pulmonary capillary haemangiomatosis [93]. Plexogenic pulmonary arteriopathy has also been found in other causes of PAH including cirrhosis of the liver, portal hypertension, connective tissue disorders and congenital cardiac disorders [94].

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