Enzyme activities were analyzed from the extracellular media centrifuged previously (12 000 g, 5 min). At least two parallel analyses were performed from the same sample. Laccase activity was determined spectrophotometrically as described by Niku-Paavola et al. (1990) with ABTS selleck screening library (2,2′-azino-di-[3-ethyl-benzo-thiazolin-sulfonate]) as a substrate. One activity unit was defined as the amount of enzyme that oxidized 1 μmol ABTS min−1. The activities
were expressed in U L−1. For T. versicolor, C. unicolor and P. ostreatus, catalase (20 U mL−1; final concentration in the reaction mixture) was added to the reaction mixture to remove hydrogen peroxide in order to prevent oxidation of ABTS by peroxidases. Total dry matter was determined at the end of the cultivation. The culture medium was filtered through a Whatman no. 1 filter paper and the biomass collected (fungus plus wheat bran) was dried at 80 °C to a constant weight. Dried wheat bran samples with mycelium were mounted on aluminum stubs and examined using a Jeol 6400 scanning electron microscope (E-SEM) at 20 kV and 0.676 mmHg, belonging to SRCiT (Scientific and Technical Services) from the Rovira i Virgili University (Tarragona, Spain). Samples from the different cultures were taken and processed on the last day of cultivation (day
16). E-SEM images were analyzed using ELEIMAG™ (Rovira i Virgili University, Spain). The relief of the E-SEM Metformin cost images was obtained by a cross-section analysis of the gray-scale information. Discrete Fourier transformation (DFT) was applied to the cross lines of E-SEM images in order to obtain the frequency information according to the following equation: (1) As shown in Fig. 2, laccase production by T. pubescens first appeared on the third day (330 U L−1) and from there onwards it slightly increased, showing values of about 400 U L−1 until ninth day. Afterwards, it abruptly increased, reaching an activity value of 2135 U L−1 Thalidomide on the 10th day, and then decreased until the end of the cultivation. Trametes versicolor began to produce
laccase on the third day (523 U L−1), and then laccase activities remained more or less constant (around 400–500 U L−1) and from 10th day onwards, they sharply increased, peaking on the 13th day (2637 U L−1) (Fig. 2). It is remarkable that from the 11th day to the end of cultivation, activities higher than 2000 U L−1 were produced. Cerrena unicolor started to produce laccase on the third day (101 U L−1). Laccase activities increased from the fifth day onwards, peaking on the 13th day (1397 U L−1), and showing values higher than 1000 U L−1 until the end of the cultivation (Fig. 2). Laccase from P. ostreatus started on the third day (181 U L−1) and afterwards it increased, peaking on the 12th day (2778 U L−1), and showing values higher than 2000 U L−1 until the end of the cultivation (Fig. 2), as it occurred in T. versicolor cultures. As observed in Fig. 2, P. ostreatus and T.