Efficient optimisation of expression and solubilisation conditions using a variety of detergents, membrane mimetics and lipids has yielded structurally and functionally intact membrane proteins, with yields several fold above the levels possible from cell-based systems. Here we review recently developed techniques available to produce functional membrane proteins, and discuss amphipols, nanodisc and styrene maleic
acid lipid particle (SMALP) technologies that can be exploited alongside cell-free expression of membrane proteins.”
“Objective: We previously showed that matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) contribute to tremendous blood flow-induced venous wall thickening during the maturation of an Pexidartinib chemical structure arteriovenous fistula (AVF). However, how veins in the fistula sense a dramatic change in the blood flow remains unknown. Because mechanosensitive transient receptor potential vanilloid channels (TRPVs) are present in
the endothelium, we examined whether the Ca2+-permeable TRPVs play a role in remodeling of fistula veins.
Methods: The fistula veins were generated at femoral AVF of Wistar rats. click here Changes in the hemodynamics and the width and internal radius of the iliac vein were studied at 3, 7, 14, and 28 days, then the iliac vein was removed and examined for changes in wall thickness and protein or mRNA expression by immunofluorecent stain, Western blot, or real time PCR. Changes in MMP2 activity was examined by gelatin zymography. Two ligatures were performed in iliac vein
to prevent venodilatation to confirm the effect of dramatic changes in hemodynamics on TRPV expression. The specific role of TRPV was studied in another group of fistula veins given with capsazepine via a subcutaneous mini-osmotic pump for 28 days.
Results: The fistula veins demonstrated high flow/wall shear stress (WSS), wall thickening, and venodilatation compared with control veins. The WSS increase was positively correlated with upregulation of TRPV1, but not TRPV4. Narrowing fistula veins prevented TRPV1 upregulation, indicating that high flow directly upregulates Ribose-5-phosphate isomerase TRPV1. We examined the underlying signaling components and found that enhanced Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMK II) activity upregulated endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and downregulated arginase I in the fistula veins. These changes were reversed by a CaMK II inhibitor. The relative levels of eNOS and arginase I activity consequently augmented NO formation, which coincided with an increase in MMP2 activity. Chronic inhibition of TRPV1 in the fistula veins by capsazepine showed no effect on high flow and TRPV1 expression, but markedly attenuated WSS, which was concomitantly associated with attenuation of CaMK II activity, NO-dependent MMP2 activation, and remodeling.