Database searches were performed using BLASTP [27] [GM1 partial

Database searches were performed using BLASTP [27]. [GM1 partial aroA sequence GenBank accession number: EU106602. The TOP and BOT aroA library sequences GenBank accession numbers: FJ151018-FJ151051]. Phylogenetic analysis Sequences were aligned with CLUSTALX 2.0 [28] using default settings and were manually edited. Phylogenetic analyses were performed with PHYLIP 3.67 [29] and trees constructed and edited with TREEVIEW [30]. Nucleotide and protein distance analyses were performed with the F84 and Jones-Taylor-Thornton computations, respectively and the trees constructed using the neighbour-joining

method using a boostrap value of 100. Accession numbers of reference sequences used in AroA phylogenetic analysis are given in parentheses following the organism name: Achromobacter sp. str. SY8 (ABP63660), JAK inhibitor Aeropynum pernix (NP_148692), Agrobacterium tumefaciens str. 5A (ABB51928), ‘Alcaligenes faecalis’ (AAQ19838), Burkholderia multivorans (YP_001585661), Chlorobium limicola (ZP_00512468), Chlorobium phaeobacteroides (ZP_00530522), Chloroflexus aurantiacus (YP_001634827), Herminiimonas arsenicoxydans (YP_001098817), Nitrobacter hamburgensis (YP_571843), NT-26 (AAR05656), Ochrobacterum

tritici (ACK38267), Pseudomonas sp. str. TS44 (ACB05943), Pyrobaculum calidifontis (YP_001056256), Rhodoferax ferrireducens (YP_524325), Roseovarius sp. 217 (ZP_01034989), Thermus thermophilus str. HB8 (YP_145366), Thiomonas sp. 3As (CAM58792), Sulfolobus tokodaii str. 7 (NP_378391) and Xanthobacter autotrophicus MAPK Inhibitor Library chemical structure Py2 (YP_001418831). Rarefaction curves and Chi-squared Rarefaction calculations were C1GALT1 performed to compare the DNA sequence diversity of the TOP and BOT libraries, and to assess whether full coverage of sequence diversity was obtained. This was performed

with the program ANALYTICAL RAREFACTION 1.3 http://​www.​uga.​edu/​~strata/​software/​index.​html which uses the rarefaction calculations given by Hulbert [31] and Tipper [32]. Sequences were clustered with BLASTclust http://​toolkit.​tuebingen.​mpg.​de/​blastclust# based on a 99% identity threshold over 100% of the sequence length to create operating taxonomic units. Acknowledgements JMS would like to acknowledge support from the University of London Central Research fund (Grant AR/CRF/B). THO is supported by a Natural Environment Research Council studentship (14404A). HEJ and SRW acknowledge support from Natural Sciences and Akt inhibitor Engineering Research Council and Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, and from A. Lanzirotti at the National Synchrotron Light Source. DKN acknowledges support from the National Research Program of the US Geological Survey. We would like to thank R. Blaine McCleskey with technical help for biofilm arsenic analyses, James Davy for technical help with the SEM, Anthony Osborn for ICP-OES analysis of culture solutions, and S. Simpson for the underground photograph of the biofilm.

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