ATP and other nucleotides can induce an array of intercellular si

ATP and other nucleotides can induce an array of intercellular signals, depending on the receptor subtype and pathways involved [20]. In damaged tissues, ATP is released in high concentrations, and functions as chemoattractant, generating a broad spectrum of pro-inflammatory responses [21]. ATP can also trigger mycobacterial killing in infected macrophages [22-24], can stimulate

phagosome–lysosome fusion through P2X7 receptor activation [25], and can drive Th-17 cell differentiation in the murine lamina selleck compound propria [26]. In a study focusing on the novel M. tuberculosis vaccine MVA85A, a drop in extracellular ATP consumption by PBMCs from subjects 2 weeks after vaccination corresponded with a decrease in CD4+CD39+ Treg cells and a concomitant increase in the co-production of IL-17 and IFN-γ by CD4+ T cells [27]. Further hydrolysis of adenosine monophosphate by ecto-5′-nucleotidase (CD73) generates extracellular adenosine

[20], which modulates inflammatory tissue damage, among others by inhibiting T-cell activation and multiple T-cell effector functions through A2A receptor-mediated signaling [28]. BCG, the only currently available vaccine for TB, fails to protect adults adequately and consistently from pulmonary TB [29], and part of this deficiency may be explained by induction of Treg cells by the BCG vaccine [7, 30, 31]. In this study, we have used live BCG to activate CD8+ Treg cells, and demonstrate that these CD8+ T cells express CD39, and co-express the well-known Treg markers CD25, Foxp3, LAG-3, and CCL4. Finally, we describe involvement of CD39 in suppression by CD8+ T cells. We isolated PBMCs from Decitabine order healthy human donors and stimulated

these PBMCs with live BCG [8]. Flow cytometric analysis was performed after 6 days (the full gating strategy is shown in Supporting Information Fig. 1, in compliance with the most recent MIATA guidelines [32]). CD39 was expressed on T cells of donors that responded to purified protein derivative (PPD) in vitro, but not on T cells from PPD nonresponsive donors or on unstimulated cell lines (Fig. 1). CD39 and CD25 were co-expressed on both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from PPD-responsive donors after stimulation with live BCG (Fig. 1). CD8+CD39+ T cells co-expressed the Treg-cell markers CD25, LAG-3, CCL4, and Foxp3 (Fig. 2A). There was no co-expression of CD39 with CD73, consistent with other studies on human Treg cells [33] (data not shown). Gating CD8+ T cells on Foxp3 and LAG-3 [8] demonstrated that the majority of these cells also expressed CD39 as well as CD25 (Fig. 2B). Boolean gating was used to analyze expression of multiple markers on single cells (Fig. 2C). A significantly higher percentage of CD3+CD8+CD4− T cells from PPD responders expressed CD39 as compared with nonresponders (p = 0.03; Mann–Whitney test).

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