45) in the right hemisphere Standardized low-resolution electrom

45) in the right hemisphere. Standardized low-resolution electromagnetic tomography analysis (sLORETA) revealed that children with DD rely more on right temporo-parietal brain areas compared to children without DD. Furthermore, in order to rule out that earlier deficient processes might influence the group differences found in the N300, we analyzed the

N170 for group differences. We did not find significant differences between children without DD and children with DD. In conclusion the results suggest deficient integration of orthographic and GSK872 supplier phonological representations in dyslexia, as indexed by the N300, and further highlight how this activity is relevant for fluent reading. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Altered sialylation of cell surface glycoproteins and glycolipids is closely related to the malignant phenotype of cancer cells, including the metastatic potential and invasiveness. Many cancer-related antigens in clinical use contain sialic acids at the terminal position of sugar chains in the molecules. To elucidate the molecular mechanism, we focused our investigation on sialidase, which catalyzes the removal of sialic acid residues from the glycoconjugates. Four types of human sialidases identified to date behave in different manners during carcinogenesis. One of the sialidases, found in

the lysosomes, showed downregulation in cancers, promoting anchorage-independent growth, and metastatic ability, while another, found in the plasma membrane, GSK126 supplier showed marked upregulation, causing apoptosis suppression. It was found that estimation of the mRNA levels of sialidases by real-time PCR allowed discrimination of cancerous from noncancerous tissues and even determination of the pathological stage in some cancers. Immuno-histochemistry of cancer tissues using the antibody against the plasma membrane sialidase was useful for clinical diagnosis. This paper briefly summarizes our findings of the altered

sialidase expression in Bleomycin research buy cancers and the possibility of their clinical application as cancer markers. Human sialidases are indeed related to malignancy and may be potential targets for cancer diagnosis and therapy.”
“During collective movement, animals display a wide variety of mechanisms to maintain cohesion. In some species, individuals rely mainly on following their direct predecessor, thereby forming spectacular processions of individuals in single file. Despite being the simplest case of following behaviour, it is largely absent from the theoretical literature on collective migrations. The objective of this study is to quantify the efficiency of following the predecessor, in terms of ensuring cohesion. The situation we consider is a sequence of individuals facing a bifurcation. The choice between left and right is influenced by the choice of the predecessor. First, we model this situation with a two-state Markov chain with a symmetric transition matrix.

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