43 On the basis of survey and anecdotal information, the group co

43 On the basis of survey and anecdotal information, the group considered that the vast majority of laboratory reports in Australia and

New Zealand comply with this recommendation.48 Some key aspects of the recommendations from the Australasian Creatinine Consensus Working Group are summarized below: Pathology Obeticholic Acid datasheet laboratories should automatically report eGFR calculated using the ‘175’ MDRD formula, with every request for serum creatinine. Measurement of serum cystatin C can be also used to estimate GFR. This may be more accurate than creatinine based eGFR methods particularly at normal levels (90–120 mL/min) or above normal levels (>120 mL/min) but the assay is more expensive and is not yet generally available. Serial measurements of cystatin C levels have been shown to estimate progressive decline of GFR more accurately than creatinine based methods in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. As with serum creatinine, the cystatin C is affected by factors other than the GFR and as with creatinine, knowledge of

these factors is required in both estimating the GFR and in the interpretation of eGFR in particular populations. Currently the non GFR factors associated with cystatin C are poorly defined which limits the routine application of serum cystatin C in the estimation of GFR both in people with and without type 2 diabetes.49–51 The recent review by Stevens et al.51 indicated Caspase inhibitor clinical trial many factors other than GFR to be associated with serum cystatin-C, including diabetes, measures of body size, higher C-reactive protein, higher white blood cell and lower serum albumin. The impact of these non GFR factors on serum cystatin C appear to be less than the non GFR influences

on serum creatinine, however, they remain poorly defined and may introduce significant variability within select sub populations. The recent study by Tidman 200852 concluded that the use of cystatin C only as ‘a determinator of eGFR does not yield improved accuracy’ over estimation using the MDRD formula alone, however, a formula that combines both serum most creatinine and cystatin C may provide greater accuracy, consistent with the conclusions made by.51 Databases searched: The search strategies were designed to reduce bias and ensure that most of the relevant data available on type 2 diabetes were included in the present review and were similar to those detailed in the Cochrane Collaboration Reviews Handbook (Higgins JPT et al.). The electronic databases searched were Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, HTA and DARE. The detailed search strategy, research terms and yields are provided in Appendix 3 of the complete guideline document that can be found on the CARI website (http://www.cari.org.au). Date of searches: 28 March 2008.

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