2), and n = 3 (exp 3) mice per group For day 60 p i , cytokine

2), and n = 3 (exp. 3) mice per group. For day 60 p.i., cytokine production and parasite burden in

IL-10FL/FL Cre− and IL-10FL/FL CD4-Cre+ were compared in two independent experiments using n = 3 (exp. 1) and n = 6 (exp. 2) mice per group and IL-10FL/FL Cre− and IL-10FL/FL CD19-Cre+ were compared in two independent experiments using n = 5 (exp. 1) and n = 5 (exp. 2) mice per group. Spleen cells were prepared from naive and infected mice at indicated time points after infection. A total of 5 × 105 spleen cells were cultivated in 96-well round bottom plates for 72 h at 37°C and 5% CO2 in RPMI 1640 medium supplemented with 10% FCS, l-glutamine (2 mg/mL), and gentamycin (50μg/mL). For stimulation, cells were either incubated with medium, 1 μg/mL anti-CD3 (145–2C11) or 12.5 μg/mL L. sigmodontis Ag (LsAg) (prepared as described [20]) in quadruplicates. Supernatants were collected Selleckchem Regorafenib and Vorinostat mw stored at -20°C until analysis. Cytokine concentrations in culture supernatants from spleen cells were quantified by ELISA (R&D Systems, Wiesbaden, Germany) according

to the manufacturer’s instructions. To measure proliferation cell cultures were labeled with 3H thymidine (0.25 μCi/well) and cultured for additional 18–20 h. Plates were frozen until detection of 3H thymidine uptake. The Fc receptors of spleen cells were blocked with Cohn II (Sigma Aldrich) for 10 min on ice. For surface staining, cells were stained with 1:100 dilutions of anti-CD3e-allophycocyanin (clone 145–2C11) and anti-CD49b-PE (clone DX5), with 1:250 dilutions of anti-CD4-allophycocyanin (clone GK1.5), anti-CD4-FITC (clone RM4.5), anti-CD8a-allophycocyanin (clone 53–6.7), anti-CD8a-PerCP cyanine-5.5 (PerCP Cy5.5) (clone 53–6.7), anti-CD11b-allophycocyanin (clone M1/70), anti-CD11c-allophycocyanin (clone N418), and anti-CD19-allophycocyanin (clone 1D3) or with 1:500 dilutions of anti-Gr-1-Alexa Etoposide Fluor 488 (clone RB6–8C5) and CD11b-PerCP Cy5.5 (clone M1/70) purchased from BioLegend (Aachen, Germany), BD Biosciences (Heidelberg, Germany), or eBioscience (San Diego, CA) as indicated for 30 min on ice. Foxp3 expression was determined using

PE–anti-mouse Foxp3 Staining Set (eBioscience) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Samples were analyzed on a FACSCalibur Flow Cytometer (Becton Dickinson, Mountain View, CA) using Cell Quest software. All statistical tests were performed by ANOVA with Bonferroni posttest using Prism software (GraphPad Software, San Diego, CA). p values below 0.05 were considered statistically significant. I.H. is funded by the Werner-Otto-Stiftung. A.H. and S.S. are funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft SFB 704. We thank Matthias Haury and Dinis Calado for providing the IL-10-eGFP reporter mouse strain. The authors declare no financial or commercial conflict of interest. As a service to our authors and readers, this journal provides supporting information supplied by the authors.

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