1b) A terminator was predicted by webgester downstream of yaaH o

1b). A terminator was predicted by webgester downstream of yaaH or, in antisense at the same position, downstream of mog. This suggests that yaaW is most likely organized as operon yaaIWH in EHEC and transcribed from the yaaI-promoter and terminated downstream of yaaH.

Interestingly, data from genexpdb indicate that htgA and yaaW are expressed differentially in E. coli strains under certain experimental conditions (see Table 1), clearly prohibiting htgA synonymizing with yaaW, which has been performed in some databases. HtgA and YaaW were expressed in EDL933 using a plasmid that generates concomitant myc and His-tag fusions. Proteins were prepurified using the his-tag and detected on Western blots using the myc-tag. YaaW (30 kDa) was detectable, but no band for HtgA was found (Fig. 2), which is in accordance with Narra et al. Alpelisib nmr (2008). Thus, the protein might be unstable Selleck Gefitinib and difficult to discover. Missiakas et al. (1993) presented a 21-kDa gene product by 35S-labeling, which is a more sensitive approach. Previous work always used a double knockout mutant. We created strand-specific deletion mutants for the first time, in which only htgA or yaaW was interrupted (Fig. 3). The annotated htgA-start codon is CTG, which is quite rare for bacteria. The next GTG is more likely to be the start codon. Counting from there, htgA has 525 bp (or 174 amino acids); our htgA-knock out terminates either product. By

introducing a single-point mutation to create a stop in one frame, we minimized the disturbance of the other, as the mutations are synonymous in the latter (Tunca et al., 2009). For the first time, it was possible to distinguish

effects of ΔhtgA from ΔyaaW. Both mutants showed no difference in their growth compared with wild type at 37 °C or after temperature shift from 30 °C to 45 °C (Fig. 4a). As no heat shock phenotype of ΔhtgA could be confirmed (as found before, Nonaka et al., 2006), htgA should no longer be annotated as heat shock gene. In minimal medium, biofilm formation of ΔhtgA or ΔyaaW was reliably increased when incubated for 48 h at 37 °C (Fig. 4b). This is in accordance with Domka et al. (2007), who found a threefold increase in biofilm formation for E. coli K12 in a htgA/yaaW double mutant. We speculate ALOX15 that the higher increase compared with our experiments might be due to additive effects of both genes in the double mutant compared with each single one. We therefore suggest to rename htgA to mbiA (modifier of biofilm). As no difference in growth could be found, we measured the metabotypes. Metabolite changes could still be detectable even though they may not manifest in growth (Raamsdonk et al., 2001). ΔhtgA, ΔyaaW, and wild type were subjected to nontargeted metabolomics using ICR-FT/MS. Indeed, twenty-two different metabolites (putatively annotated, see Table S3) between the strains were found significantly changed (P ≤ 0.01).

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